execute against japan

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Execute Against Japan

Author : Joel Ira Holwitt
ISBN : 1603442553
Genre : History
File Size : 89. 68 MB
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“ . . . until now how the Navy managed to instantaneously move from the overt legal restrictions of the naval arms treaties that bound submarines to the cruiser rules of the eighteenth century to a declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare against Japan immediately after the attack on Pearl Harbor has never been explained. Lieutenant Holwitt has dissected this process and has created a compelling story of who did what, when, and to whom.”—The Submarine Review “Execute against Japan should be required reading for naval officers (especially in submarine wardrooms), as well as for anyone interested in history, policy, or international law.”—Adm. James P. Wisecup, President, US Naval War College (for Naval War College Review) “Although the policy of unrestricted air and submarine warfare proved critical to the Pacific war’s course, this splendid work is the first comprehensive account of its origins—illustrating that historians have by no means exhausted questions about this conflict.”—World War II Magazine “US Navy submarine officer Joel Ira Holwitt has performed an impressive feat with this book. . . . Holwitt is to be commended for not shying away from moral judgments . . . This is a superb book that fully explains how the United States came to adopt a strategy regarded by many as illegal and tantamount to ‘terror’.”—Military Review

Execute Against Japan

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ISBN : OCLC:68191736
Genre : Freedom of the seas
File Size : 75. 87 MB
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Abstract: On 7 December 1941, the U.S. Navy began unrestricted warfare against Japan, attacking "noncombatant" Japanese merchant ships. The decision violated international law and directly cost the lives of thousands of civilian Japanese sailors as well as possibly hundreds of thousands of Japanese civilians on shore. The conditions for unrestricted warfare were created during the interwar period by impractical naval treaties that did not prohibit armed merchant ships that could easily sink surfaced submarines attempting to conduct search-and-seizure operations. Many U.S. naval officers understood the importance of commerce warfare and they suggested changes like prohibiting armed merchant ships in order to permit legitimate submarine warfare. However, the U.S. Navy's fleet submarine was designed not as a commerce raider but as a warship that could operate in support of the battle fleet in the Pacific Ocean. Fortunately, the abilities required for such a difficult mission gave U.S. submarines the versatility to shift from naval warfare to commerce warfare when the time came. The decision to conduct unrestricted warfare began to coalesce with the acceptance of Plan Dog as the United States' national military strategy in December 1940. By late September 1941, Chief of Naval Operations Admiral Harold R. Stark and his Director of War Plans, Rear Admiral Richmond K. Turner, had decided to commence unrestricted warfare almost immediately upon the outbreak of hostilities. They did so with no documented approval from their civilian chain-of-command and in contravention of repeated public statements by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who urged defense of absolute freedom-of-the-seas. Stark, Turner, and other naval leaders had a number of reasons for conducting unrestricted warfare. Chief among these was a pragmatic strategic objective: to economically strangle Japan by completely cutting off the shipping lanes. The American strategy was also influenced by decades of naval training, as well as culturally inculcated Eurocentricism and racism. Although there were a number of ramifications of U.S. unrestricted warfare, the most important and lasting ramification was the end of previous paradigms of freedom-of-the-seas and the introduction of a new and more pragmatic freedom-of-the-seas that classified merchant sailors as combatants and their cargoes as legitimate military targets. This study is the story of that transition.

Air Force Officer S Guide

Author : Stephen E. Wright
ISBN : 9780811760157
Genre : Reference
File Size : 71. 51 MB
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Air Force officers of all ranks, from cadets to generals, both active duty and reserves, will find this revised edition essential reading for a successful career.

Pushing The Limits

Author : Carl P. LaVO
ISBN : 9781612513348
Genre : History
File Size : 43. 53 MB
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His family says he was a great story teller. Yet Vice Admiral Allan Rockwell McCann left no reminisces that might reveal a deeper sense of his extraordinary service to the nation. In his four-decade military career spanning two world wars, he rarely discussed for the record the many historic circumstances that enveloped him. If you were to judge the admiral by his military awards and ribbons, they would not suggest the career he led. His signature achievement was development of a workable submarine rescue chamber. Yet Allan McCann, a man born to a Scottish tailor in a remarkable town in the Berkshire Mountains of Massachusetts, seemed to be always on the scene of historic events. Among his accomplishments, he was the Navy’s liaison officer to modify the antiquated O-12 submarine into the privately-leased Nautilus that made the first attempt to sail beneath the Arctic ice shelf in 1931. He was submarine squadron commander deployed in the Pacific from Hawaii to search for survivors of the ill-fated Dole Air Race to Honolulu in 1927. He was aboard the sub tender Pelias and directed firepower to knock down Japanese aircraft attacking Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941. He was commander of the battleship USS Iowa during the Battle of Leyte Gulf. He was Chief of Staff of the mysterious Navy’s 10th Fleet that stymied a last ditch effort by Nazi Germany to attack North America via U-boats in Operation Teardrop. He was commander of a Navy task force taking President Harry S. Truman to the Pottsdam talks in 1945 and relayed the message to him that an atomic bomb had been exploded over Hiroshima. As ComSubPac, he was aboard the first submarine in 1947 to navigate under the polar ice. He also was the Navy Inspector General who assumed a pivotal role in the so-called Revolt of the Admirals in 1949. Throughout his naval career, Admiral McCann was widely revered as a very efficient, competent officer who succeeded in many endeavors but did not boast of them nor seek self-promotion. Rather, he let the record speak for him. This book is an overdue appreciation of the admiral who has all but been ignored in naval history.

Historical Dictionary Of World War Ii

Author : Anne Sharp Wells
ISBN : 9780810879447
Genre : History
File Size : 32. 62 MB
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This dictionary covers the complex and costly conflict that began when Germany, ruled by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party, invaded neighboring Poland on 1 September 1939; and concluded when Germany surrendered on 7–9 May 1945, leaving much of the European continent in ruins and its population devastated. The war against Germany, Italy, and the other European Axis members was fought primarily in Europe, the Mediterranean, the Middle East, East and North Africa, and the Atlantic Ocean. The Axis powers were defeated by the Allies, led by the “Grand Alliance” of Great Britain, the United States, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The Historical Dictionary of World War II: The War against Germany and Italy relates the history of this war through a chronology, an introductory essay, maps and photos, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has more than 300 cross-referenced entries on the countries and geographical areas involved in the war, as well as the nations remaining neutral; wartime alliances and conferences; significant civilian and military leaders; and major ground, naval, and air operations. This book is an excellent access point for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about World War II.

The Directory Chronicle For China Japan Corea Indo China Straits Settlements Malay States Sian Netherlands India Borneo The Philippines C

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ISBN : CORNELL:31924067324495
Genre : Asia
File Size : 68. 56 MB
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Air Commandos Against Japan

Author : William T. Y'Blood
ISBN : 9781612515793
Genre : History
File Size : 90. 77 MB
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In 1943 the U.S. Army Air Forces created what would become the Air Commandos, a unit that marked a milestone in tactical operations in support of British ground forces invading Burma. William T. Y'Blood tells the story of how these daring American aviators trained and went into combat using unconventional hit-and-run tactics to confuse the enemy and destroy their lines of communication and supply. The force comprised light planes to evacuate wounded, transports to move heavy cargo, fighters, gliders, helicopters, and more than five hundred men. The book describes how this top-secret force successfully attacked the enemy from the air, resupplied British commandos on the ground, and airlifted the wounded out of the battle area--eventually driving the Japanese out of Burma.

The Lusitania Disaster

Author : Thomas Andrew Bailey
ISBN : UOM:39015027233454
Genre : Transportation
File Size : 72. 13 MB
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A detailed account of the sensational U-boat sinking of the British passenger liner in 1915, exploring background causes and contexts, questions of cargo, conspiracy, and controversy, and the subsequent legends and stories

International Law Studies

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ISBN : UOM:39015051398603
Genre : International law
File Size : 39. 3 MB
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Studies In The Law Of Naval Warfare

Author : William Thomas Mallison
ISBN : STANFORD:36105043623318
Genre : Naval art and science
File Size : 55. 95 MB
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