a history of the arctic nature exploration and exploitation

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A History Of The Arctic

Author : John McCannon
ISBN : 9781780230764
Genre : History
File Size : 86. 89 MB
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Bitter cold and constant snow. Polar bears, seals, and killer whales. Victor Frankenstein chasing his monstrous creation across icy terrain in a dogsled. The arctic calls to mind a myriad different images. Consisting of the Arctic Ocean and parts of Canada, the United States, Russia, Greenland, Finland, Norway and Sweden, the arctic possesses a unique ecosystem—temperatures average negative 29 degrees Fahrenheit in winter and rarely rise above freezing in summer—and the indigenous peoples and cultures that live in the region have had to adapt to the harsh weather conditions. As global temperatures rise, the arctic is facing an environmental crisis, with melting glaciers causing grave concern around the world. But for all the renown of this frozen region, the arctic remains far from perfectly understood. In A History of the Arctic, award-winning polar historian John McCannon provides an engaging overview of the region that spans from the Stone Age to the present. McCannon discusses polar exploration and science, nation-building, diplomacy, environmental issues, and climate change, and the role indigenous populations have played in the arctic’s story. Chronicling the history of each arctic nation, he details the many failed searches for a Northwest Passage and the territorial claims that hamper use of these waterways. He also explores the resources found in the arctic—oil, natural gas, minerals, fresh water, and fish—and describes the importance they hold as these resources are depleted elsewhere, as well as the challenges we face in extracting them. A timely assessment of current diplomatic and environmental realities, as well as the dire risks the region now faces, A History of the Arctic is a thoroughly engrossing book on the past—and future—of the top of the world.

North Pole

Author : Michael Bravo
ISBN : 9781789140309
Genre : Science
File Size : 51. 97 MB
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The North Pole has long held surprising importance for many of the world’s cultures. Interweaving science and history, this book offers the first unified vision of how the North Pole has shaped everything from literature to the goals of political leaders—from Alexander the Great to neo-Hindu nationalists. Tracing the intersecting notions of poles, polarity, and the sacred from our most ancient civilizations to the present day, Michael Bravo explores how the idea of a North Pole has given rise to utopias, satires, fantasies, paradoxes, and nationalist ideologies across every era, from the Renaissance to the Third Reich. The Victorian conceit of the polar regions as a vast empty wilderness—a bastion of adventurous white males battling against the elements—is far from the only polar vision. Bravo paints a variety of alternative pictures: of a habitable Arctic crisscrossed by densely connected networks of Inuit trade and travel routes, a world rich in indigenous cultural meanings; of a sacred paradise or lost Eden among both Western and Eastern cultures, a vision that curiously (and conveniently) dovetailed with the imperial aspirations of Europe and the United States; and as the setting for tales not only of conquest and redemption, but also of failure and catastrophe. And as we face warming temperatures, melting ice, and rising seas, Bravo argues, only an understanding of the North Pole’s deeper history, of our conception of it as both a sacred and living place, can help humanity face its twenty-first-century predicament.

Competing Arctic Futures

Author : Nina Wormbs
ISBN : 9783319916170
Genre :
File Size : 72. 74 MB
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The Sea In World History Exploration Travel And Trade 2 Volumes

Author : Stephen K. Stein
ISBN : 9781440835513
Genre : History
File Size : 32. 9 MB
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This two-volume set documents the essential role of the sea and maritime activity across history, from travel and food production to commerce and conquest. • Provides a broad survey of the importance of the oceans for all of human culture and civilization, including coverage of diverse cultures such as the Polynesians, Vikings, Minoans, and many others • Describes the voyages of the great explorers and places them in a broad multinational and multicultural perspective • Traces the human use of the sea over time, noting activities and historic events such as piracy, the slave trade, fishing, and whaling, as well as describing commerce in ancient and modern contexts

The Nature Of Soviet Power

Author : Andy Bruno
ISBN : 9781107144712
Genre : History
File Size : 59. 93 MB
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This in-depth exploration of five industries in the Kola Peninsula examines Soviet power and its interaction with the natural world.

Arctic

Author : Mark Nuttall
ISBN : 9058230872
Genre : Science
File Size : 44. 93 MB
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By demonstrating the importance of communication among social scientists, scientists in the natural sciences and stakeholders living in the Arctic, this book provides a comprehensive overview of the region's rapidly changing physical and human dimensions. In response to the tremendous challenges and opportunities facing the Arctic it is an essential resource for all Arctic researchers and those developing multidisciplinary projects. Representing a state-of-the-art overview of key areas of Arctic research by renowned specialists in the field, each chapter forms a detailed, varied and accessible account of current knowledge. Each author introduces the subject to a non-specialist readership, while retaining intellectual integrity and relevance for specialists. Overall, the richness of the material presented in this volume reflects the ecological and cultural diversity of this vast and environmentally critical part of the globe.

The Arctic Seas

Author : Yvonne Herman
ISBN : 9781461306771
Genre : Science
File Size : 52. 34 MB
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The Arctic region has long held a fascination for explorers and scientists of many countries. Despite the numerous voyages of exploration, the na ture of the central Arctic was unknown only 90 years ago; it was believed to be a shallow sea dotted with islands. During Nansen's historic voyage on the polarship Fram, which commenced in 1893, the great depth of the central basin was discovered. In the Soviet Union, investigation of the Arctic Ocean became national policy after 1917. Today research at several scientific institutions there is devoted primarily to the study of the North Polar Ocean and seas. The systematic exploration of the Arctic by the United States com menced in 1951. Research has been conducted year-round from drifting ice islands, which are tabular fragments of glacier ice that break away from ice shelves. Most frequently, ice islands originate off the northern coast of Ellesmere Island. These research platforms are occupied as weather sta tions, as well as for oceanographic and geophysical studies. Several inter national projects, conducted by Canadian, European, and U. S. groups, have been underway during the last three decades. Although much new data have accumulated since the publication of the Marine Geology and Oceanography of the Arctic Seas volume in 1974 (Yvonne Herman, ed. ), in various fields of polar research-including present-day ice cover, hydrogra phy, fauna, flora, and geology-many questions remain to be answered.

The 21st Century Turning Point For The Northern Sea Route

Author : Claes Lykke Ragner
ISBN : 0792363655
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 67. 98 MB
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The Northern Sea Route - the ice infested sea lanes running north of Siberia - can potentially cut sailing distances between Northwest Europe and Northeast Asia by as much as 50% compared with present routes. Further, the route passes some of the world's largest deposits of oil and gas. Several recent multimillion dollar research programmes have investigated the route's commercial, technological and commercial feasibility. The results of this research were presented to the Northern Sea Route User Conference in Oslo, November 1999. The Conference was also told about new Russian policies on the route. The research results and Russian policy statements were assessed and commented on by representatives of international shipping organisations, who also proposed the shipping industry's own view of the commercial feasibility of the NSR. The present book, derived from the Conference, discusses the question of international shipping on the NSR more comprehensively than has ever been witnessed before, not only as a matter of theoretical research but also as a practical matter, assessed in commercial, political and maritime terms. Readership: All those interested in the NSR, whether as a business opportunity or an object of research or environmental concern.

Barron S Ap World History

Author : John McCannon
ISBN : 1438002726
Genre : History
File Size : 41. 68 MB
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Provides basic strategies for taking the exam, questions and explanations about world history from prehistoric to modern times, and two full-length practice tests.

Islands Of The Arctic

Author : Julian Dowdeswell
ISBN : 9780521813334
Genre : Nature
File Size : 89. 70 MB
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A visually stunning exploration of the Arctic islands, which includes Greenland, Svalbard, and the Russian Arctic, traces the various processes that have formed these frozen landscapes; examines the impact of wildlife and human involvement on these environments; and discusses the future of the islands. (Ecology & Environment)

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