# a theory of branched minimal surfaces springer monographs in mathematics

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## A Theory Of Branched Minimal Surfaces

**Author :**Anthony Tromba

**ISBN :**9783642256202

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**29. 90 MB

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One of the most elementary questions in mathematics is whether an area minimizing surface spanning a contour in three space is immersed or not; i.e. does its derivative have maximal rank everywhere. The purpose of this monograph is to present an elementary proof of this very fundamental and beautiful mathematical result. The exposition follows the original line of attack initiated by Jesse Douglas in his Fields medal work in 1931, namely use Dirichlet's energy as opposed to area. Remarkably, the author shows how to calculate arbitrarily high orders of derivatives of Dirichlet's energy defined on the infinite dimensional manifold of all surfaces spanning a contour, breaking new ground in the Calculus of Variations, where normally only the second derivative or variation is calculated. The monograph begins with easy examples leading to a proof in a large number of cases that can be presented in a graduate course in either manifolds or complex analysis. Thus this monograph requires only the most basic knowledge of analysis, complex analysis and topology and can therefore be read by almost anyone with a basic graduate education.

## Global Analysis Of Minimal Surfaces

**Author :**Ulrich Dierkes

**ISBN :**9783642117060

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**21. 29 MB

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Many properties of minimal surfaces are of a global nature, and this is already true for the results treated in the first two volumes of the treatise. Part I of the present book can be viewed as an extension of these results. For instance, the first two chapters deal with existence, regularity and uniqueness theorems for minimal surfaces with partially free boundaries. Here one of the main features is the possibility of "edge-crawling" along free parts of the boundary. The third chapter deals with a priori estimates for minimal surfaces in higher dimensions and for minimizers of singular integrals related to the area functional. In particular, far reaching Bernstein theorems are derived. The second part of the book contains what one might justly call a "global theory of minimal surfaces" as envisioned by Smale. First, the Douglas problem is treated anew by using Teichmüller theory. Secondly, various index theorems for minimal theorems are derived, and their consequences for the space of solutions to Plateau ́s problem are discussed. Finally, a topological approach to minimal surfaces via Fredholm vector fields in the spirit of Smale is presented.

## Regularity Of Minimal Surfaces

**Author :**Ulrich Dierkes

**ISBN :**3642117007

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**64. 46 MB

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Regularity of Minimal Surfaces begins with a survey of minimal surfaces with free boundaries. Following this, the basic results concerning the boundary behaviour of minimal surfaces and H-surfaces with fixed or free boundaries are studied. In particular, the asymptotic expansions at interior and boundary branch points are derived, leading to general Gauss-Bonnet formulas. Furthermore, gradient estimates and asymptotic expansions for minimal surfaces with only piecewise smooth boundaries are obtained. One of the main features of free boundary value problems for minimal surfaces is that, for principal reasons, it is impossible to derive a priori estimates. Therefore regularity proofs for non-minimizers have to be based on indirect reasoning using monotonicity formulas. This is followed by a long chapter discussing geometric properties of minimal and H-surfaces such as enclosure theorems and isoperimetric inequalities, leading to the discussion of obstacle problems and of Plateau ́s problem for H-surfaces in a Riemannian manifold. A natural generalization of the isoperimetric problem is the so-called thread problem, dealing with minimal surfaces whose boundary consists of a fixed arc of given length. Existence and regularity of solutions are discussed. The final chapter on branch points presents a new approach to the theorem that area minimizing solutions of Plateau ́s problem have no interior branch points.

## Variational Methods

**Author :**Michael Struwe

**ISBN :**9783662026243

**Genre :**Science

**File Size :**32. 39 MB

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It would be hopeless to attempt to give a complete account of the history of the calculus of variations. The interest of Greek philosophers in isoperimetric problems underscores the importance of "optimal form" in ancient cultures, see Hildebrandt-Tromba [1] for a beautiful treatise of this subject. While variatio nal problems thus are part of our classical cultural heritage, the first modern treatment of a variational problem is attributed to Fermat (see Goldstine [1; p.l]). Postulating that light follows a path of least possible time, in 1662 Fer mat was able to derive the laws of refraction, thereby using methods which may already be termed analytic. With the development of the Calculus by Newton and Leibniz, the basis was laid for a more systematic development of the calculus of variations. The brothers Johann and Jakob Bernoulli and Johann's student Leonhard Euler, all from the city of Basel in Switzerland, were to become the "founding fathers" (Hildebrandt-Tromba [1; p.21]) of this new discipline. In 1743 Euler [1] sub mitted "A method for finding curves enjoying certain maximum or minimum properties", published 1744, the first textbook on the calculus of variations.

## Counting Surfaces

**Author :**Bertrand Eynard

**ISBN :**9783764387976

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**77. 23 MB

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The problem of enumerating maps (a map is a set of polygonal "countries" on a world of a certain topology, not necessarily the plane or the sphere) is an important problem in mathematics and physics, and it has many applications ranging from statistical physics, geometry, particle physics, telecommunications, biology, ... etc. This problem has been studied by many communities of researchers, mostly combinatorists, probabilists, and physicists. Since 1978, physicists have invented a method called "matrix models" to address that problem, and many results have been obtained. Besides, another important problem in mathematics and physics (in particular string theory), is to count Riemann surfaces. Riemann surfaces of a given topology are parametrized by a finite number of real parameters (called moduli), and the moduli space is a finite dimensional compact manifold or orbifold of complicated topology. The number of Riemann surfaces is the volume of that moduli space. More generally, an important problem in algebraic geometry is to characterize the moduli spaces, by computing not only their volumes, but also other characteristic numbers called intersection numbers. Witten's conjecture (which was first proved by Kontsevich), was the assertion that Riemann surfaces can be obtained as limits of polygonal surfaces (maps), made of a very large number of very small polygons. In other words, the number of maps in a certain limit, should give the intersection numbers of moduli spaces. In this book, we show how that limit takes place. The goal of this book is to explain the "matrix model" method, to show the main results obtained with it, and to compare it with methods used in combinatorics (bijective proofs, Tutte's equations), or algebraic geometry (Mirzakhani's recursions). The book intends to be self-contained and accessible to graduate students, and provides comprehensive proofs, several examples, and gives the general formula for the enumeration of maps on surfaces of any topology. In the end, the link with more general topics such as algebraic geometry, string theory, is discussed, and in particular a proof of the Witten-Kontsevich conjecture is provided.

## Minimal Surfaces

**Author :**Ulrich Dierkes

**ISBN :**3642116981

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**41. 83 MB

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Minimal Surfaces is the first volume of a three volume treatise on minimal surfaces (Grundlehren Nr. 339-341). Each volume can be read and studied independently of the others. The central theme is boundary value problems for minimal surfaces. The treatise is a substantially revised and extended version of the monograph Minimal Surfaces I, II (Grundlehren Nr. 295 & 296). The first volume begins with an exposition of basic ideas of the theory of surfaces in three-dimensional Euclidean space, followed by an introduction of minimal surfaces as stationary points of area, or equivalently, as surfaces of zero mean curvature. The final definition of a minimal surface is that of a nonconstant harmonic mapping X: \Omega\to\R^3 which is conformally parametrized on \Omega\subset\R^2 and may have branch points. Thereafter the classical theory of minimal surfaces is surveyed, comprising many examples, a treatment of Björling ́s initial value problem, reflection principles, a formula of the second variation of area, the theorems of Bernstein, Heinz, Osserman, and Fujimoto. The second part of this volume begins with a survey of Plateau ́s problem and of some of its modifications. One of the main features is a new, completely elementary proof of the fact that area A and Dirichlet integral D have the same infimum in the class C(G) of admissible surfaces spanning a prescribed contour G. This leads to a new, simplified solution of the simultaneous problem of minimizing A and D in C(G), as well as to new proofs of the mapping theorems of Riemann and Korn-Lichtenstein, and to a new solution of the simultaneous Douglas problem for A and D where G consists of several closed components. Then basic facts of stable minimal surfaces are derived; this is done in the context of stable H-surfaces (i.e. of stable surfaces of prescribed mean curvature H), especially of cmc-surfaces (H = const), and leads to curvature estimates for stable, immersed cmc-surfaces and to Nitsche ́s uniqueness theorem and Tomi ́s finiteness result. In addition, a theory of unstable solutions of Plateau ́s problems is developed which is based on Courant ́s mountain pass lemma. Furthermore, Dirichlet ́s problem for nonparametric H-surfaces is solved, using the solution of Plateau ́s problem for H-surfaces and the pertinent estimates.

## Proofs From The Book

**Author :**Martin Aigner

**ISBN :**9783662442050

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**29. 56 MB

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This revised and enlarged fifth edition features four new chapters, which contain highly original and delightful proofs for classics such as the spectral theorem from linear algebra, some more recent jewels like the non-existence of the Borromean rings and other surprises. From the Reviews "... Inside PFTB (Proofs from The Book) is indeed a glimpse of mathematical heaven, where clever insights and beautiful ideas combine in astonishing and glorious ways. There is vast wealth within its pages, one gem after another. ... Aigner and Ziegler... write: "... all we offer is the examples that we have selected, hoping that our readers will share our enthusiasm about brilliant ideas, clever insights and wonderful observations." I do. ... " Notices of the AMS, August 1999 "... This book is a pleasure to hold and to look at: ample margins, nice photos, instructive pictures and beautiful drawings ... It is a pleasure to read as well: the style is clear and entertaining, the level is close to elementary, the necessary background is given separately and the proofs are brilliant. ..." LMS Newsletter, January 1999 "Martin Aigner and Günter Ziegler succeeded admirably in putting together a broad collection of theorems and their proofs that would undoubtedly be in the Book of Erdös. The theorems are so fundamental, their proofs so elegant and the remaining open questio ns so intriguing that every mathematician, regardless of speciality, can benefit from reading this book. ... " SIGACT News, December 2011.

## Implicit Curves And Surfaces Mathematics Data Structures And Algorithms

**Author :**Abel Gomes

**ISBN :**1848824068

**Genre :**Computers

**File Size :**43. 8 MB

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Implicit objects have gained increasing importance in geometric modeling, visualisation, animation, and computer graphics, because their geometric properties provide a good alternative to traditional parametric objects. This book presents the mathematics, computational methods and data structures, as well as the algorithms needed to render implicit curves and surfaces, and shows how implicit objects can easily describe smooth, intricate, and articulatable shapes, and hence why they are being increasingly used in graphical applications. Divided into two parts, the first introduces the mathematics of implicit curves and surfaces, as well as the data structures suited to store their sampled or discrete approximations, and the second deals with different computational methods for sampling implicit curves and surfaces, with particular reference to how these are applied to functions in 2D and 3D spaces.

## Convexity And Its Applications

**Author :**GRUBER

**ISBN :**9783034858588

**Genre :**Science

**File Size :**71. 82 MB

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This collection of surveys consists in part of extensions of papers presented at the conferences on convexity at the Technische Universitat Wien (July 1981) and at the Universitat Siegen (July 1982) and in part of articles written at the invitation of the editors. This volume together with the earlier volume «Contributions to Geometry» edited by Tolke and Wills and published by Birkhauser in 1979 should give a fairly good account of many of the more important facets of convexity and its applications. Besides being an up to date reference work this volume can be used as an advanced treatise on convexity and related fields. We sincerely hope that it will inspire future research. Fenchel, in his paper, gives an historical account of convexity showing many important but not so well known facets. The articles of Papini and Phelps relate convexity to problems of functional analysis on nearest points, nonexpansive maps and the extremal structure of convex sets. A bridge to mathematical physics in the sense of Polya and Szego is provided by the survey of Bandle on isoperimetric inequalities, and Bachem's paper illustrates the importance of convexity for optimization. The contribution of Coxeter deals with a classical topic in geometry, the lines on the cubic surface whereas Leichtweiss shows the close connections between convexity and differential geometry. The exhaustive survey of Chalk on point lattices is related to algebraic number theory. A topic important for applications in biology, geology etc.

## Gr Bner Deformations Of Hypergeometric Differential Equations

**Author :**Mutsumi Saito

**ISBN :**9783662041123

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**83. 55 MB

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The theory of Gröbner bases is a main tool for dealing with rings of differential operators. This book reexamines the concept of Gröbner bases from the point of view of geometric deformations. The algorithmic methods introduced in this book are particularly useful for studying the systems of multidimensional hypergeometric PDE's introduced by Gelfand, Kapranov, and Zelevinsky. A number of original research results are contained in the book, and many open problems are raised for future research in this rapidly growing area of computational mathematics.