abduction reason and science

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Abduction Reason And Science

Author : L. Magnani
ISBN : 9781441985620
Genre : Science
File Size : 37. 18 MB
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This book ties together the concerns of philosophers of science and AI researchers, showing for example the connections between scientific thinking and medical expert systems. It lays out a useful general framework for discussion of a variety of kinds of abduction. It develops important ideas about aspects of abductive reasoning that have been relatively neglected in cognitive science, including the use of visual and temporal representations and the role of abduction in the withdrawal of hypotheses.

Model Based Reasoning In Science And Technology

Author : Lorenzo Magnani
ISBN : 9783642374289
Genre : Science
File Size : 58. 78 MB
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This book contains contributions presented during the international conference on Model-Based Reasoning (MBR ́012), held on June 21-23 in Sestri Levante, Italy. Interdisciplinary researchers discuss in this volume how scientific cognition and other kinds of cognition make use of models, abduction, and explanatory reasoning in order to produce important or creative changes in theories and concepts. Some of the contributions analyzed the problem of model-based reasoning in technology and stressed the issues of scientific and technological innovation. The book is divided in three main parts: models, mental models, representations; abduction, problem solving and practical reasoning; historical, epistemological and technological issues. The volume is based on the papers that were presented at the international

Model Based Reasoning In Science Technology And Medicine

Author : Lorenzo Magnani
ISBN : 9783540719861
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 70. 8 MB
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The volume is based on papers presented at the international conference on Model-Based Reasoning in Science and Medicine held in China in 2006. The presentations explore how scientific thinking uses models and explanatory reasoning to produce creative changes in theories and concepts. The contributions to the book are written by researchers active in the area of creative reasoning in science and technology. They include the subject area’s most recent results and achievements.

Abductive Cognition

Author : Lorenzo Magnani
ISBN : 9783642036316
Genre : Computers
File Size : 83. 92 MB
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This volume explores abductive cognition, an important but, at least until the third quarter of the last century, neglected topic in cognition. It aims at increasing knowledge about creative and expert inferences.

Chance Discoveries In Real World Decision Making

Author : Yukio Ohsawa
ISBN : 9783540343523
Genre : Computers
File Size : 49. 94 MB
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For this book, the editors invited and called for contributions from indispensable research areas relevant to "chance discovery," which has been defined as the discovery of events significant for making a decision, and studied since 2000. From respective research areas as artificial intelligence, mathematics, cognitive science, medical science, risk management, methodologies for design and communication, the invited and selected authors in this book present their particular approaches to chance discovery. The chapters here show contributions to identifying rare or hidden events and explaining their significance, predicting future trends, communications for scenario development in marketing and design, identification effects and side-effects of medicines, etc. The methods presented in this book are based on the interaction of human, machine, and human's living environment, rather than based purely automated predictions of the future. This is a promising direction of computer-supported decision of human in a radically changing environment.

Du Kennst Meine Methode

Author : Thomas Albert Sebeok
ISBN : 3518111213
Genre : Semiotics
File Size : 69. 53 MB
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Inference To The Best Explanation

Author : Peter Lipton
ISBN : 0415242029
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 44. 57 MB
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This publication is an unrivalled exposition of a theory of particular interest to students both of epistemology and the philosophy of science.

Erfahrung Und Prognose

Author : Hans Reichenbach
ISBN : 9783663121374
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 35. 91 MB
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Dieses Buch ist Reichenbachs Erkenntnistheorie, entstanden im Exil und 1938 in Englisch veröffentlicht.Es liegt hier erstmals in deutscher Sprache vor. Es enthält den Schlüssel zum Verständnis der Reichenbachschen Philosophie und besticht durch die sehr geschlossene Darstellung der Gedanken über den logischen Empirismus.

Philosophy And Cognitive Science

Author : Lorenzo Magnani
ISBN : 9783642299285
Genre : Science
File Size : 68. 25 MB
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The book addresses a number of recent topics at the crossroad of philosophy and cognitive science, taking advantage of both the western and the eastern perspectives and conceptions that emerged and were discussed at the PCS2011 Conference recently held in Guangzhou. The ever growing cultural exchange between academics and intellectual belonging to different cultures is reverberated by the juxtaposition of papers, which aim at investigating new facets of crucial problems in philosophy: the role of models in science and the fictional approach; chance seeking dynamics and how affordances work; abductive cognition; visualization in science; the cognitive structure of scientific theories; scientific representation; mathematical representation in science; model-based reasoning; analogical reasoning; moral cognition; cognitive niches and evolution.

Der Aufstieg Der Wissenschaftlichen Philosophie

Author : Hans Reichenbach
ISBN : 9783322987709
Genre : Science
File Size : 61. 91 MB
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ZUR 2. AUFLAGE DER DEUTSCHEN AUSGABE Warum eröffnen wir eine Buchreihe über Wissenschafts theorie verschiedener Hauptdisziplinen mit einer Neu auflage von Hans Reichenbachs Buch "Aufstieg der wissen schaftlichen Philosophie", dessen 1. Auflage 1951 in den USA erschien? Weil es sich mit seiner präzisen und ver ständlichen Sprache nach siebzehn Jahren immer noch so frisch wie damals liest, weil seine Problematik zwischen Rationalismus und Empirismus, seine Opposition gegen Metaphysik und Ontologie als philosophische Grund legung der Naturwissenschaft immer noch in Mittel europa aktuell ist. Reichenbach spielt aber trotzdem keinen physikalischen Positivismus gegen Philosophie überhaupt aus, sondern tritt für eine autonome, philoso phische Analyse der Physik ein, weil z. B. die Frage, wor aus die Materie besteht, "mit Hilfe von physikalischen Experimenten allein nicht beantwortet werden kann, sondern eine solche Analyse erfordert" (S. 199). Ihm genügt auch nicht der "gesunde Menschenverstand", wenn es sich um schwierige wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen handelt (S. 201). Noch ein Beispiel für den Umschlag von Wissenschaft zu Philosophie: Man kann die Geschichte des Weltalls etwa 2 Milliarden Jahre zurückverfolgen. Wenn man nun danach fragt, wie der Urgasball selbst noch ent standen ist, wird der Wissenschaftler mit einer solchen Frage zum Philosophen (S. 233). Reichenbach unterschei det hier aber Philosophen von spekulativem Typ, die eine Kosmogonie erfanden, welche an die Stelle der Wissen schaft ein Märchen setzte oder einen Schöpfungsakt aus dem Nichts annahm, und solche von modernem Typ.

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