abrupt climate change mechanisms patterns and impacts geophysical monograph series

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Abrupt Climate Change

Author : Harunur Rashid
ISBN : 9781118671528
Genre : Science
File Size : 84. 63 MB
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Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 193. Abrupt Climate Change: Mechanisms, Patterns, and Impacts brings together a diverse group of paleoproxy records such as ice cores, marine sediments, terrestrial (lakes and speleothems) archives, and coupled ocean-atmosphere climate models to document recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of abrupt climate changes. Since the discovery of the Dansgaard-Oeschger events in Greenland ice cores and the subsequent discovery of their contemporary events in the marine sediments of the North Atlantic, the search for these abrupt, millennial-scale events across the globe has intensified, and as a result, the number of paleoclimatic records chronicling such events has increased. The volume highlights include discussions of records of past climate variability, meridional overturning circulation, land-ocean-atmosphere interactions, feedbacks in the climate system, and global temperature anomalies. Abrupt Climate Change will be of interest to students, researchers, academics, and policy makers who are concerned about abrupt climate change and its potential impact on society.

Quaternary Glaciation In The Mediterranean Mountains

Author : P.D. Hughes
ISBN : 9781862397477
Genre : Science
File Size : 77. 66 MB
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The mountains of the Mediterranean world are now largely ice free, but many were repeatedly glaciated during the Quaternary ice age. This created spectacular glaciated landscapes with a rich array of glacial deposits and landforms. The glacial and glacio-fluvial records are often very well preserved and our understanding of the timing of Quaternary glaciation has very recently been transformed through the application of dating methods utilizing uranium-series and cosmogenic isotopes. Glacial records from the Mediterranean now boast some of the most robust chronologies for mountain glaciation anywhere in the world – they represent a unique archive of Quaternary environmental change of global significance. The southerly latitude and relatively small size of Mediterranean glaciers rendered them especially sensitive to Pleistocene and Holocene climate changes. This volume brings together the leading researchers and the latest research on Mediterranean glaciation. Several papers also explore glacier behaviour in the Holocene – including those glaciers of southernmost Europe at risk of disappearing this century.

Ocean Circulation

Author : Andreas Schmittner
ISBN : 9781118671887
Genre : Science
File Size : 40. 20 MB
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Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 173. The ocean's meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is a key factor in climate change. The Atlantic MOC, in particular, is believed to play an active role in the regional and global climate variability. It is associated with the recent debate on rapid climate change, the Atlantic Multi-Decadal Oscillation (AMO), global warming, and Atlantic hurricanes. This is the first book to deal with all aspects of the ocean's large-scale meridional overturning circulation, and is a coherent presentation, from a mechanistic point of view, of our current understanding of paleo, present-day, and future variability and change. It presents the current state of the science by bringing together the world's leading experts in physical, chemical, and biological oceanography, marine geology, geochemistry, paleoceanography, and climate modeling. A mix of overview and research papers makes this volume suitable not only for experts in the field, but also for students and anyone interested in climate change and the oceans.

Climate Extremes Patterns And Mechanisms

Author : S.-Y. Simon Wang
ISBN : 9781119068037
Genre : Science
File Size : 66. 49 MB
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Although we are seeing more weather and climate extremes, individual extreme events are very diverse and generalization of trends is difficult. For example, mid-latitude and subtropical climate extremes such as heat waves, hurricanes and droughts have increased, and could have been caused by processes including arctic amplification, jet stream meandering, and tropical expansion. This volume documents various climate extreme events and associated changes that have been analyzed through diagnostics, modeling, and statistical approaches. The identification of patterns and mechanisms can aid the prediction of future extreme events. Volume highlights include: Compilation of processes and mechanisms unique to individual weather and climate extreme events Discussion of climate model performance in terms of simulating high-impact weather and climate extremes Summary of various existing theories, including controversial ones, on how climate extremes will continue to become stronger and more frequent Climate Extremes: Patterns and Mechanisms is a valuable resource for scientists and graduate students in the fields of geophysics, climate physics, natural hazards, and environmental science.

Abrupt Impacts Of Climate Change

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 9780309287760
Genre : Science
File Size : 65. 2 MB
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Climate is changing, forced out of the range of the past million years by levels of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases not seen in the Earth's atmosphere for a very, very long time. Lacking action by the world's nations, it is clear that the planet will be warmer, sea level will rise, and patterns of rainfall will change. But the future is also partly uncertain -- there is considerable uncertainty about how we will arrive at that different climate. Will the changes be gradual, allowing natural systems and societal infrastructure to adjust in a timely fashion? Or will some of the changes be more abrupt, crossing some threshold or "tipping point" to change so fast that the time between when a problem is recognized and when action is required shrinks to the point where orderly adaptation is not possible? Abrupt Impacts of Climate Change is an updated look at the issue of abrupt climate change and its potential impacts. This study differs from previous treatments of abrupt changes by focusing on abrupt climate changes and also abrupt climate impacts that have the potential to severely affect the physical climate system, natural systems, or human systems, often affecting multiple interconnected areas of concern. The primary timescale of concern is years to decades. A key characteristic of these changes is that they can come faster than expected, planned, or budgeted for, forcing more reactive, rather than proactive, modes of behavior. Abrupt Impacts of Climate Change summarizes the state of our knowledge about potential abrupt changes and abrupt climate impacts and categorizes changes that are already occurring, have a high probability of occurrence, or are unlikely to occur. Because of the substantial risks to society and nature posed by abrupt changes, this report recommends the development of an Abrupt Change Early Warning System that would allow for the prediction and possible mitigation of such changes before their societal impacts are severe. Identifying key vulnerabilities can help guide efforts to increase resiliency and avoid large damages from abrupt change in the climate system, or in abrupt impacts of gradual changes in the climate system, and facilitate more informed decisions on the proper balance between mitigation and adaptation. Although there is still much to learn about abrupt climate change and abrupt climate impacts, to willfully ignore the threat of abrupt change could lead to more costs, loss of life, suffering, and environmental degradation. Abrupt Impacts of Climate Change makes the case that the time is here to be serious about the threat of tipping points so as to better anticipate and prepare ourselves for the inevitable surprises.

Terrestrial Water Cycle And Climate Change

Author : Qiuhong Tang
ISBN : 9781118971796
Genre : Science
File Size : 32. 67 MB
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The Terrestrial Water Cycle: Natural and Human-Induced Changes is a comprehensive volume that investigates the changes in the terrestrial water cycle and the natural and anthropogenic factors that cause these changes. This volume brings together recent progress and achievements in large-scale hydrological observations and numerical simulations, specifically in areas such as in situ measurement network, satellite remote sensing and hydrological modeling. Our goal is to extend and deepen our understanding of the changes in the terrestrial water cycle and to shed light on the mechanisms of the changes and their consequences in water resources and human well-being in the context of global change. Volume highlights include: Overview of the changes in the terrestrial water cycle Human alterations of the terrestrial water cycle Recent advances in hydrological measurement and observation Integrated modeling of the terrestrial water cycle The Terrestrial Water Cycle: Natural and Human-Induced Changes will be a valuable resource for students and professionals in the fields of hydrology, water resources, climate change, ecology, geophysics, and geographic sciences. The book will also be attractive to those who have general interests in the terrestrial water cycle, including how and why the cycle changes.

Evidence Based Climate Science

Author : Don Easterbrook
ISBN : 9780128045893
Genre : Science
File Size : 47. 34 MB
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Evidence-Based Climate Science: Data Opposing CO2 Emissions as the Primary Source of Global Warming, Second Edition, includes updated data related to the causes of global climate change from experts in meteorology, geology, atmospheric physics, solar physics, geophysics, climatology, and computer modeling. This book objectively gathers and analyzes scientific data concerning patterns of past climate changes, influences of changes in ocean temperatures, the effect of solar variation on global climate, and the effect of CO2 on global climate. This analysis is then presented as counter-evidence to the theory that CO2 is the primary cause behind global warming. Increasingly, scientists are pointing to data which suggests that climate changes are a result of natural cycles, which have been occurring for thousands of years. Unfortunately, global warming has moved into the political realm without enough peer-reviewed research to fully validate and exclude other, more natural, causes of climate change. For example, there is an absence of any physical evidence that CO2 causes global warming, so the only argument for CO2 as the cause of warming rests entirely in computer modeling. Thus, the question becomes, how accurate are the computer models in predicting climate? What other variables could be missing from the models? In order to understand modern climate changes, we need to look at the past history of climate changes. Vast amounts of physical evidence of climate change over the past centuries and millennia have been gathered by scientists. Significant climate changes have clearly been going on for many thousands of years, long before the recent rise in atmospheric CO2 Evidence-Based Climate Science, Data Opposing CO2 Emissions as the Primary Source of Global Warming, Second Edition, documents past climate changes and presents physical evidence for possible causes. Provides scientific evidence for issues related to global climate change that is not readily available elsewhere Offers detailed analysis of temperature measurements with the goal of helping readers to understand conflicting claims about global warming heard every day in the news media Presents real-time data on polar ice Presents the real-time effect of CO2 on global warming, rather than forecasts based on computer models

Climate And Social Stress

Author : Committee on Assessing the Impact of Climate Change on Social and Political Stresses
ISBN : 9780309278560
Genre : Science
File Size : 86. 52 MB
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Climate change can reasonably be expected to increase the frequency and intensity of a variety of potentially disruptive environmental events--slowly at first, but then more quickly. It is prudent to expect to be surprised by the way in which these events may cascade, or have far-reaching effects. During the coming decade, certain climate-related events will produce consequences that exceed the capacity of the affected societies or global systems to manage; these may have global security implications. Although focused on events outside the United States, Climate and Social Stress: Implications for Security Analysis recommends a range of research and policy actions to create a whole-of-government approach to increasing understanding of complex and contingent connections between climate and security, and to inform choices about adapting to and reducing vulnerability to climate change.

Remote Sensing Of The Terrestrial Water Cycle

Author : Venkataraman Lakshmi
ISBN : 9781118872260
Genre : Science
File Size : 22. 91 MB
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Remote Sensing of the Terrestrial Water Cycle is an outcome of the AGU Chapman Conference held in February 2012. This is a comprehensive volume that examines the use of available remote sensing satellite data as well as data from future missions that can be used to expand our knowledge in quantifying the spatial and temporal variations in the terrestrial water cycle. Volume highlights include: - An in-depth discussion of the global water cycle - Approaches to various problems in climate, weather, hydrology, and agriculture - Applications of satellite remote sensing in measuring precipitation, surface water, snow, soil moisture, groundwater, modeling, and data assimilation - A description of the use of satellite data for accurately estimating and monitoring the components of the hydrological cycle - Discussion of the measurement of multiple geophysical variables and properties over different landscapes on a temporal and a regional scale Remote Sensing of the Terrestrial Water Cycle is a valuable resource for students and research professionals in the hydrology, ecology, atmospheric sciences, geography, and geological sciences communities.

Magnetotails In The Solar System

Author : Andreas Keiling
ISBN : 9781118842294
Genre : Science
File Size : 82. 10 MB
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All magnetized planets in our solar system (Mercury, Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) interact strongly with the solar wind and possess well developed magnetotails. It is not only the strongly magnetized planets that have magnetotails. Mars and Venus have no global intrinsic magnetic field, yet they possess induced magnetotails. Comets have magnetotails that are formed by the draping of the interplanetary magnetic field. In the case of planetary satellites (moons), the magnetotail refers to the wake region behind the satellite in the flow of either the solar wind or the magnetosphere of its parent planet. The largest magnetotail of all in our solar system is the heliotail, the “magnetotail” of the heliosphere. The variety of solar wind conditions, planetary rotation rates, ionospheric conductivity, and physical dimensions provide an outstanding opportunity to extend our understanding of the influence of these factors on magnetotail processes and structures. Volume highlights include: Discussion on why a magnetotail is a fundamental problem of magnetospheric physics Unique collection of tutorials on a large range of magnetotails in our solar system In-depth reviews comparing magnetotail processes at Earth with other magnetotail structures found throughout the heliosphere Collectively, Magnetotails in the Solar System brings together for the first time in one book a collection of tutorials and current developments addressing different types of magnetotails. As a result, this book should appeal to a broad community of space scientists, and it should also be of interest to astronomers who are looking at tail-like structures beyond our solar system.

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