advances in cmp polishing technologies

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Advances In Cmp Polishing Technologies For The Manufacture Of Electronic Devices

Author : Toshiro Doi
ISBN : 9781437778595
Genre : Science
File Size : 41. 56 MB
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CMP and polishing are the most precise processes used to finish the surfaces of mechanical and electronic or semiconductor components. Advances in CMP/Polishing Technologies for Manufacture of Electronic Devices presents the latest developments and technological innovations in the field - making cutting-edge R&D accessible to the wider engineering community. Most of the applications of these processes are kept as confidential as possible (proprietary information), and specific details are not seen in professional or technical journals and magazines. This book makes these processes and applications accessible to a wider industrial and academic audience. Building on the fundamentals of tribology - the science of friction, wear and lubrication - the authors explore the practical applications of CMP and polishing across various market sectors. Due to the high pace of development of the electronics and semiconductors industry, many of the presented processes and applications come from these industries. Demystifies scientific developments and technological innovations, opening them up for new applications and process improvements in the semiconductor industry and other areas of precision engineering Explores stock removal mechanisms in CMP and polishing, and the challenges involved in predicting the outcomes of abrasive processes in high-precision environments The authors bring together the latest innovations and research from the USA and Japan

Advances In Chemical Mechanical Planarization Cmp

Author : Suryadevara Babu
ISBN : 9780081002186
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 31. 16 MB
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Advances in Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) provides the latest information on a mainstream process that is critical for high-volume, high-yield semiconductor manufacturing, and even more so as device dimensions continue to shrink. The technology has grown to encompass the removal and planarization of multiple metal and dielectric materials and layers both at the device and the metallization levels, using different tools and parameters, requiring improvements in the control of topography and defects. This important book offers a systematic review of fundamentals and advances in the area. Part One covers CMP of dielectric and metal films, with chapters focusing on the use of particular techniques and processes, and on CMP of particular various materials, including ultra low-k materials and high-mobility channel materials, and ending with a chapter reviewing the environmental impacts of CMP processes. Part Two addresses consumables and process control for improved CMP, and includes chapters on the preparation and characterization of slurry, diamond disc pad conditioning, the use of FTIR spectroscopy for characterization of surface processes, and approaches for defection characterization, mitigation, and reduction. Considers techniques and processes for CMP of dielectric and metal films Includes chapters devoted to CMP for particular materials Addresses consumables and process control for improved CMP

Advances In Chemical Mechanical Polishing

Author : Duane S. Boning
ISBN : UOM:39015059125883
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 60. 32 MB
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While now in widespread use in integrated circuit fabrication, chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) is also starting to appear in a surprisingly wide range of applications, with a growing variety of processes and technologies. Applications include planarization of surface topography, "polish back" or creation of in-laid materials in other structures, and reduction of surface roughness (e.g., for 3D wafer bonding and substrate engineering). This volume, the seventh in an annual series on CMP, presents new advances in fundamental understanding, development, and applications of CMP. CMP of both conventional and nonconventional materials are discussed. Conventional materials polished using CMP include silicon, oxides and nitrides, polysilicon, and other insulating films, as well as copper, tungsten, barrier films, and other metal films. Nonconventional materials include those of increasing importance in advanced semiconductor, MEMS, and nanotechnologies, such as low-k dielectrics and polymer, nickel, and ruthenium films. CMP in IC fabrication continues to pose substantial problems-for virgin silicon wafer preparation, shallow-trench isolation (STI) structures, and poly or other deeptrench structure formation, as well as copper and low-k metal interconnect. New developments in CMP pads (grooving, fixed abrasive, ceramic coated) and slurries (SiO2, Al2O3, CeO2, coated or doped, polymer or BN as abrasive) are presented. Novel polishing methods and equipment such as controlled high-pressure atmosphere, water jet conditioning or novel polishing head designs are described. Advances in CMP process understanding and modeling are also highlighted.

Chemical Mechanical Planarization Of Semiconductor Materials

Author : M.R. Oliver
ISBN : 9783662062340
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 25. 42 MB
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This book contains a comprehensive review of CMP (Chemical-Mechanical Planarization) technology, one of the most exciting areas in the field of semiconductor technology. It contains detailed discussions of all aspects of the technology, for both dielectrics and metals. The state of polishing models and their relation to experimental results are covered. Polishing tools and consumables are also covered. The leading edge issues of damascene and new dielectrics as well as slurryless technology are discussed.

Demystifying Chipmaking

Author : Richard F. Yanda
ISBN : 0080477097
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 52. 14 MB
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This book takes the reader through the actual manufacturing process of making a typical chip, from start to finish, including a detailed discussion of each step, in plain language. The evolution of today's technology is added to the story, as seen through the eyes of the engineers who solved some of the problems. The authors are well suited to that discussion since they are three of those same engineers. They have a broad exposure to the industry and its technology that extends all the way back to Shockley Laboratories, the first semiconductor manufacturer in Silicon Valley. The CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor) process flow is the focus of the discussion and is covered in ten chapters. The vast majority of chips made today are fabricated using this general method. In order to ensure that all readers are comfortable with the vocabulary, the first chapter carefully and clearly introduces the science concepts found in later chapters. A chapter is devoted to pointing out the differences in other manufacturing methods, such as the gallium arsenide technology that produces chips for cell phones. In addition, a chapter describing the nature of the semiconductor industry from a business perspective is included. "The entire process of making a chip is surprisingly easy to understand. The part of the story that defies belief is the tiny dimensions: the conducting wires and other structures on a chip are more than a hundred times thinner than a hair - and getting thinner with every new chip design." Authors are actual engineers who have a broad range of exposure and experience with chip technology Contains a unique chapter describing the nature of the semiconductor industry from a business perspective

Chemical Mechanical Polishing 2001 Advances And Future Challenges

Author : Suryadevara V. Babu
ISBN : 1558996079
Genre : Science
File Size : 35. 73 MB
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With copper and barrier-layer integration firmly in place, several other exciting developments are occurring in the practice of chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP), and many of the recent advances are described in this book. Discussions on CMP for shallow-trench isolation, abrasive-free slurries, improvements in pad and tool configurations including fixed abrasive pads, 'engineered' particles, effects of nanotopography, end-point studies, defect characterization and novel post-CMP cleaning methods are highlighted. Considerable progress has also been reported in modeling the complicated interactions that occur between the wafer surface and the pad and the slurry, whether containing abrasives or abrasive-free, and their influence on dishing and erosion and nonuniformity. These studies offer valuable insights for process improvements and yet many challenges remain and will provide a high level of interest for future books. Topics include: recent developments - pads and related issues; CMP abrasives; copper CMP/STI and planarization; STI and planarization - wear-rate models; low-k and integration issues - particle and process effects in CMP and issues in CMP cleaning.

Chemical Mechanical Planarization Of Microelectronic Materials

Author : Joseph M. Steigerwald
ISBN : 9783527617753
Genre : Science
File Size : 65. 71 MB
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Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) plays an important role in today's microelectronics industry. With its ability to achieve global planarization, its universality (material insensitivity), its applicability to multimaterial surfaces, and its relative cost-effectiveness, CMP is the ideal planarizing medium for the interlayered dielectrics and metal films used in silicon integrated circuit fabrication. But although the past decade has seen unprecedented research and development into CMP, there has been no single-source reference to this rapidly emerging technology-until now. Chemical Mechanical Planarization of Microelectronic Materials provides engineers and scientists working in the microelectronics industry with unified coverage of both the fundamental mechanisms and engineering applications of CMP. Authors Steigerwald, Murarka, and Gutmann-all leading CMP pioneers-provide a historical overview of CMP, explain the various chemical and mechanical concepts involved, describe CMP materials and processes, review the latest scientific data on CMP worldwide, and offer examples of its uses in the microelectronics industry. They provide detailed coverage of the CMP of various materials used in the making of microcircuitry: tungsten, aluminum, copper, polysilicon, and various dielectric materials, including polymers. The concluding chapter describes post-CMP cleaning techniques, and most chapters feature problem sets to assist readers in developing a more practical understanding of CMP. The only comprehensive reference to one of the fastest growing integrated circuit manufacturing technologies, Chemical Mechanical Planarization of Microelectronic Materials is an important resource for research scientists and engineers working in the microelectronics industry. An indispensable resource for scientists and engineers working in the microelectronics industry Chemical Mechanical Planarization of Microelectronic Materials is the only comprehensive single-source reference to one of the fastest growing integrated circuit manufacturing technologies. It provides engineers and scientists who work in the microelectronics industry with unified coverage of both the fundamental mechanisms and engineering applications of CMP, including: * The history of CMP * Chemical and mechanical underpinnings of CMP * CMP materials and processes * Applications of CMP in the microelectronics industry * The CMP of tungsten, aluminum, copper, polysilicon, and various dielectrics, including polymers used in integrated circuit fabrication * Post-CMP cleaning techniques * Chapter-end problem sets are also included to assist readers in developing a practical understanding of CMP.

Microelectronic Applications Of Chemical Mechanical Planarization

Author : Yuzhuo Li
ISBN : 0470180897
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 70. 19 MB
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An authoritative, systematic, and comprehensive description of current CMP technology Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) provides the greatest degree of planarization of any known technique. The current standard for integrated circuit (IC) planarization, CMP is playing an increasingly important role in other related applications such as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and computer hard drive manufacturing. This reference focuses on the chemical aspects of the technology and includes contributions from the foremost experts on specific applications. After a detailed overview of the fundamentals and basic science of CMP, Microelectronic Applications of Chemical Mechanical Planarization: * Provides in-depth coverage of a wide range of state-of-the-art technologies and applications * Presents information on new designs, capabilities, and emerging technologies, including topics like CMP with nanomaterials and 3D chips * Discusses different types of CMP tools, pads for IC CMP, modeling, and the applicability of tribometrology to various aspects of CMP * Covers nanotopography, CMP performance and defect profiles, CMP waste treatment, and the chemistry and colloidal properties of the slurries used in CMP * Provides a perspective on the opportunities and challenges of the next fifteen years Complete with case studies, this is a valuable, hands-on resource for professionals, including process engineers, equipment engineers, formulation chemists, IC manufacturers, and others. With systematic organization and questions at the end of each chapter to facilitate learning, it is an ideal introduction to CMP and an excellent text for students in advanced graduate courses that cover CMP or related semiconductor manufacturing processes.

Chemical Mechanical Polishing In Silicon Processing

Author :
ISBN : 0080864619
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 57. 63 MB
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Since its inception in 1966, the series of numbered volumes known as Semiconductors and Semimetals has distinguished itself through the careful selection of well-known authors, editors, and contributors. The Willardson and Beer series, as it is widely known, has succeeded in producing numerous landmark volumes and chapters. Not only did many of these volumes make an impact at the time of their publication, but they continue to be well-cited years after their original release. Recently, Professor Eicke R. Weber of the University of California at Berkeley joined as a co-editor of the series. Professor Weber, a well-known expert in the field of semiconductor materials, will further contribute to continuing the series' tradition of publishing timely, highly relevant, and long-impacting volumes. Some of the recent volumes, such as Hydrogen in Semiconductors, Imperfections in III/V Materials, Epitaxial Microstructures, High-Speed Heterostructure Devices, Oxygen in Silicon, and others promise that this tradition will be maintained and even expanded. Reflecting the truly interdisciplinary nature of the field that the series covers, the volumes in Semiconductors and Semimetals have been and will continue to be of great interest to physicists, chemists, materials scientists, and device engineers in modern industry.

Handbook Of Silicon Based Mems Materials And Technologies

Author : Markku Tilli
ISBN : 9780323312233
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 31. 94 MB
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The Handbook of Silicon Based MEMS Materials and Technologies, Second Edition, is a comprehensive guide to MEMS materials, technologies, and manufacturing that examines the state-of-the-art with a particular emphasis on silicon as the most important starting material used in MEMS. The book explains the fundamentals, properties (mechanical, electrostatic, optical, etc.), materials selection, preparation, manufacturing, processing, system integration, measurement, and materials characterization techniques, sensors, and multi-scale modeling methods of MEMS structures, silicon crystals, and wafers, also covering micromachining technologies in MEMS and encapsulation of MEMS components. Furthermore, it provides vital packaging technologies and process knowledge for silicon direct bonding, anodic bonding, glass frit bonding, and related techniques, shows how to protect devices from the environment, and provides tactics to decrease package size for a dramatic reduction in costs. Provides vital packaging technologies and process knowledge for silicon direct bonding, anodic bonding, glass frit bonding, and related techniques Shows how to protect devices from the environment and decrease package size for a dramatic reduction in packaging costs Discusses properties, preparation, and growth of silicon crystals and wafers Explains the many properties (mechanical, electrostatic, optical, etc.), manufacturing, processing, measuring (including focused beam techniques), and multiscale modeling methods of MEMS structures Geared towards practical applications rather than theory

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