advancing methods for biomolecular crystallography nato science for peace and security series a chemistry and biology

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Advancing Methods For Biomolecular Crystallography

Author : Randy Read
ISBN : 9789400762329
Genre : Science
File Size : 30. 97 MB
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This work presents a snapshot of the state of the art of modern biomolecular crystallography, from crystallisation through structure determination and even interactive presentation on the web. Methods driving the latest automated structure determination pipelines are explained, as well as how to deal with problems such as crystal pathologies that still demand expert analysis. These methods are illustrated through their application to problems of great biological interest, such as the molecular machinery underlying the complement pathway, the mechanism of action of monoamine oxidase inhibitors, and the structure of the eukaryotic ribosome. Complementary approaches, such as neutron diffraction, small angle X-ray scattering, coherent diffraction and computational modelling, are also explored.

Macromolecular Crystallography

Author : Maria Armenia Carrondo
ISBN : 9789400725294
Genre : Science
File Size : 43. 68 MB
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This volume is a collection of the contributions presented at the 42nd Erice Crystallographic Course whose main objective was to train the younger generation on advanced methods and techniques for examining structural and dynamic aspects of biological macromolecules. The papers review the techniques used to study protein assemblies and their dynamics, including X-ray diffraction and scattering, electron cryo-electron microscopy, electro nanospray mass spectrometry, NMR, protein docking and molecular dynamics. A key theme throughout the book is the dependence of modern structural science on multiple experimental and computational techniques, and it is the development of these techniques and their integration that will take us forward in the future.

Advanced Sensors For Safety And Security

Author : Ashok Vaseashta
ISBN : 9789400770034
Genre : Science
File Size : 63. 96 MB
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This book results from a NATO Advanced Research Workshop titled “Technological Innovations in CBRNE Sensing and Detection for Safety, Security, and Sustainability” held in Yerevan, Armenia in 2012. The objective was to discuss and exchange views as to how fusion of advanced technologies can lead to improved sensors/detectors in support of defense, security, and situational awareness. The chapters range from policy and implementation, advanced sensor platforms using stand-off (THz and optical) and point-contact methods for detection of chemical, nuclear, biological, nuclear and explosive agents and contaminants in water, to synthesis methods for several materials used for sensors. In view of asymmetric, kinetic, and distributed nature of threat vectors, an emphasis is placed to examine new generation of sensors/detectors that utilize an ecosystems of innovation and advanced sciences convergence in support of effective counter-measures against CBRNE threats. The book will be of considerable interest and value to those already pursuing or considering careers in the field of nanostructured materials, and sensing/detection of CBRNE agents and water-borne contaminants. For policy implementation and compliance standpoint, the book serves as a resource of several informative contributions. In general, it serves as a valuable source of information for those interested in how nanomaterials and nanotechnologies are advancing the field of sensing and detection using nexus of advanced technologies for scientists, technologists, policy makers, and soldiers and commanders.

Engineering Crystallography From Molecule To Crystal To Functional Form

Author : Kevin J. Roberts
ISBN : 9789402411171
Genre : Science
File Size : 37. 97 MB
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This book highlights the current state-of-the-art regarding the application of applied crystallographic methodologies for understanding, predicting and controlling the transformation from the molecular to crystalline state with the latter exhibiting pre-defined properties. This philosophy is built around the fundamental principles underpinning the three inter-connected themes of Form (what), Formation (how) and Function (why). Topics covered include: molecular and crystal structure, chirality and ferromagnetism, supramolecular assembly, defects and reactivity, morphology and surface energetics. Approaches for preparing crystals and nano-crystals with novel physical, chemical and mechanical properties include: crystallisation, seeding, phase diagrams, polymorphic control, chiral separation, ultrasonic techniques and mechano-chemistry. The vision is realised through examination of a range of advanced analytical characterisation techniques including in-situ studies. The work is underpinned through an unprecedented structural perspective of molecular features, solid-state packing arrangements and surface energetics as well as in-situ studies. This work will be of interest to researchers, industrialists, intellectual property specialists and policy makers interested in the latest developments in the design and supply of advanced high added-value organic solid-form materials and product composites.

Uniting Electron Crystallography And Powder Diffraction

Author : Ute Kolb
ISBN : 9789400755802
Genre : Science
File Size : 57. 55 MB
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The polycrystalline and nanocrystalline states play an increasingly important role in exploiting the properties of materials, encompassing applications as diverse as pharmaceuticals, catalysts, solar cells and energy storage. A knowledge of the three-dimensional atomic and molecular structure of materials is essential for understanding and controlling their properties, yet traditional single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods lose their power when only polycrystalline and nanocrystalline samples are available. It is here that powder diffraction and single-crystal electron diffraction techniques take over, substantially extending the range of applicability of the crystallographic principles of structure determination. This volume, a collection of teaching contributions presented at the Crystallographic Course in Erice in 2011, clearly describes the fundamentals and the state-of-the-art of powder diffraction and electron diffraction methods in materials characterisation, encompassing a diverse range of disciplines and materials stretching from archeometry to zeolites. As such, it is a comprehensive and valuable resource for those wishing to gain an understanding of the broad applicability of these two rapidly developing fields.

Biodefence

Author : Sergey Mikhalovsky
ISBN : 9789400702172
Genre : Medical
File Size : 20. 41 MB
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This book focuses on defence against biological warfare with an emphasis on applications of modern technologies and advanced materials in detection, health protection and medical treatment of the population. Specific topics include high-throughput sensitive detection methods, advanced nanostructured materials and techniques for external and internal protection of human health, as well as extracorporeal methods, adsorptive materials and bacteriophages decontaminating the human organism, and neutralising incorporated CBRN agents. The contributions describe recent developments in the field of biodefence aimed at protecting population against terrorism and terror related events. Broader approaches to reducing the impact of environmental pollution on human health and improving efficiency of medical treatment of patients with viral infections, poisoning and organ failure are also discussed.

Nanomaterials For Application In Medicine And Biology

Author : Michael Giersig
ISBN : 9781402068294
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 65. 16 MB
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This book unites the multi-faceted work of international scientists from various domains as they cooperate to present the role of nanomaterials in modern medicine with particular emphasis on cell growth, manipulation, and modification. Not only does this book provide the reader with the necessary theoretical background information, it also gives valuable experimental data, allowing for an exact comprehension and observation of the relevance of this modern technology.

Advanced Materials And Technologies For Micro Nano Devices Sensors And Actuators

Author : Evgeni Gusev
ISBN : 9789048138074
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 59. 78 MB
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A NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) entitled “Advanced Materials and Technologies for Micro/Nano Devices, Sensors and Actuators” was held in St. Petersburg, Russia, from June 29 to July 2, 2009. The main goal of the Workshop was to examine (at a fundamental level) the very complex scientific issues that pertain to the use of micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS), devices and technologies in next generation commercial and defen- related applications. Micro- and nano-electromechanical systems represent rather broad and diverse technological areas, such as optical systems (micromirrors, waveguides, optical sensors, integrated subsystems), life sciences and lab equipment (micropumps, membranes, lab-on-chip, membranes, microfluidics), sensors (bio-sensors, chemical sensors, gas-phase sensors, sensors integrated with electronics) and RF applications for signal transmission (variable capacitors, tunable filters and antennas, switches, resonators). From a scientific viewpoint, this is a very multi-disciplinary field, including micro- and nano-mechanics (such as stresses in structural materials), electronic effects (e. g. charge transfer), general electrostatics, materials science, surface chemistry, interface science, (nano)tribology, and optics. It is obvious that in order to overcome the problems surrounding next-generation MEMS/NEMS devices and applications it is necessary to tackle them from different angles: theoreticians need to speak with mechanical engineers, and device engineers and modelers to listen to surface physicists. It was therefore one of the main objectives of the workshop to bring together a multidisciplinary team of distinguished researchers.

Nano Optics Principles Enabling Basic Research And Applications

Author : Baldassare Di Bartolo
ISBN : 9789402408508
Genre : Science
File Size : 81. 40 MB
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This book provides a comprehensive overview of nano-optics, including basic theory, experiment and applications, particularly in nanofabrication and optical characterization. The contributions clearly demonstrate how advances in nano-optics and photonics have stimulated progress in nanoscience and -fabrication, and vice versa. Their expert authors address topics such as three-dimensional optical lithography and microscopy beyond the Abbe diffraction limit, optical diagnostics and sensing, optical data- and telecommunications, energy-efficient lighting, and efficient solar energy conversion. Nano-optics emerges as a key enabling technology of the 21st century. This work will appeal to a wide readership, from physics through chemistry, to biology and engineering. The contributions that appear in this volume were presented at a NATO Advanced Study Institute held in Erice, 4-19 July, 2015.

Microfluidics Based Microsystems

Author : S. Kakaç
ISBN : 9789048190294
Genre : Science
File Size : 57. 18 MB
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This volume contains an archival record of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Microfluidics Based Microsystems – Fundamentals and App- cations held in Çe ?me-Izmir, Turkey, August 23–September 4, 2009. ASIs are intended to be high-level teaching activity in scientific and technical areas of current concern. In this volume, the reader may find interesting chapters and various microsystems fundamentals and applications. As the world becomes increasingly concerned with terrorism, early - spot detection of terrorist’s weapons, particularly bio-weapons agents such as bacteria and viruses are extremely important. NATO Public Diplomacy division, Science for Peace and Security section support research, Advanced Study Institutes and workshops related to security. Keeping this policy of NATO in mind, we made such a proposal on Microsystems for security. We are very happy that leading experts agreed to come and lecture in this important NATO ASI. We will see many examples that will show us Microfluidics usefulness for rapid diagnostics following a bioterrorism attack. For the applications in national security and anti-terrorism, microfluidic system technology must meet the challenges. To develop microsystems for security and to provide a comprehensive state-of-the-art assessment of the existing research and applications by treating the subject in considerable depth through lectures from eminent professionals in the field, through discussions and panel sessions are very beneficial for young scientists in the field.

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