affirmative action policies and judicial review worldwide ius gentium comparative perspectives on law and justice

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Affirmative Action Policies And Judicial Review Worldwide

Author : George Gerapetritis
ISBN : 9783319223957
Genre : Law
File Size : 21. 59 MB
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This book discusses affirmative action or positive discrimination, defined as measures awarding privileges to certain groups that have historically suffered discrimination or have been underrepresented in specific social sectors. The book’s underlying rationale is that one cannot place at the same starting point people who have been treated differently in the past because in this way one merely perpetuates a state of difference and, in turn, social gaps are exaggerated and social cohesion is endangered. Starting out with an introduction on the meaning and typology of affirmative action policies, the book goes on to emphasise the interaction of affirmative action with traditional values of liberal state, such as equality, meritocracy, democracy, justice, liberalism and socialism. It reveals the affirmative action goals from a legal and sociological point of view, examining the remedial, cultural, societal, pedagogical and economy purposes of such action. After applying an institutional narrative of the implementation of affirmative action worldwide, the book explains the jurisprudence on the issue through syntheses and antitheses of structural and material variables, such as the institutional recognition of the policies, the domains of their implementation and their beneficiaries. The book eventually makes an analytical impact assessment following the implementation of affirmative action plans and the judicial response, especially in relation to the conventional human rights doctrine, by establishing a liaison between affirmative action and social and group rights.. The book applies a multi-disciplinary and comparative methodology in order to assess the ethical standing of affirmative action policies, the public interests involved and their effectiveness towards actual equality. In the light of the above analysis, the monograph explains the arguments considering affirmative action as a theology for substantive equality and the arguments treating this policy as anathema for liberalism. A universal discussion currently at its peak.

Gender And Sexuality In Latin America Cases And Decisions

Author : Cristina Motta
ISBN : 9789400761995
Genre : Law
File Size : 44. 4 MB
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Translated and updated from the seminal Spanish text on legal decisions affecting gender and sexuality in Latin America, this English edition is the only law text to focus specifically on the rights of lesbians, gays, bisexuals and the transgender population in addition to women’s rights more broadly. The volume provides close analysis of some of the most important decisions made by Latin American national courts, as well as those made by international legal bodies, that affect the rights and interests of these groups. Specially selected for their depth of argument and value as exemplars, the studies of good legal practice chart the path of the region’s normative values of justice as they have evolved away from a partial, and patriarchal, exercise of the law. They show how cases with vastly differing contexts such as, property rights and domestic violence have resulted in a mixed body of Latin American law. Some decisions are protective of women’s and minority rights. Some assess the wider social impacts of case law in which recognition of the discrete legal identities within households challenges established precepts, including religious ones. Other cases have been chosen as cautionary examples of bad decision-making and for the poverty of their legal debate. Updated to include the latest relevant jurisprudence from across the continent, this book is an informed, cohesive and comprehensive guide to understanding women’s and gender-based rights in Latin America.​

The Convergence Of The Fundamental Rights Protection In Europe

Author : Rainer Arnold
ISBN : 9789401774659
Genre : Law
File Size : 46. 82 MB
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The book gives insight into the structures and developments of the fundamental rights protection in Europe which is effective at the levels of the national Constitutions, the European Convention of Human Rights and, for the EU member States of the EU Fundamental Rights Charter. The contributions of renowned academics from various European countries demonstrate the functional interconnection of these protection systems which result in an increasing convergence. Basic questions are reflected, such as human dignity as foundation of fundamental rights or positive action as a specific form of equality as well as the concept of rights convergence. In this latter contribution the forms of direct reception of a different legal order and of the functional transfer of principles and concepts are analyzed. Particular reference is made to the EU Charter, the United Kingdom Human Rights Act as well as to France and Germany. It becomes obvious how important interpretation is for the harmonization of national and conventional fundamental rights protection. Traditional institutional approaches like the dualist transformation concept in Germany are functionally set aside in the harmonization process through constitutional interpretation. Specific studies are dedicated to the field of the EU Fundamental Rights Charter and to the European impacts on the national fundamental rights protection in selected countries such as the “new democracies” Poland, Romania and Kosovo as well as more traditional systems such as Spain, Italy, the Nordic countries or Turkey.

Same Sex Couples Comparative Insights On Marriage And Cohabitation

Author : Macarena Sáez
ISBN : 9789401797740
Genre : Law
File Size : 69. 60 MB
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This book shows six different realities of same-sex families. They range from full recognition of same-sex marriage to full invisibility of gay and lesbian individuals and their families. The broad spectrum of experiences presented in this book share some commonalities: in all of them legal scholars and civil society are moving legal boundaries or thinking of spaces within rigid legal systems for same-sex families to function. In all of them there have been legal claims to recognize the existence of same-sex families. The difference between them lies in the response of courts. Regardless of the type of legal system, when courts have viewed claims of same-sex couples and their families as problems of individual rights, they have responded with a constitutional narrative protecting same-sex couples and their families. When courts respond to these claims with rigid concepts of what a family is and what marriage is as if legal concepts where unmodifiable, same-sex couples have remained outside the protection of the law. Until forty years ago marriage was the only union considered legitimate to form a family. Today more than 30 countries have granted rights to same sex couples, including several that have opened up marriage to couples of the same sex. Every day there is a new bill being discussed or a new claim being brought to courts seeking formal recognition of same sex couples. Not all countries are open to changing their legal structures to accommodate same-sex couples, but even those with no visible changes are witnessing new voices in their communities challenging the status quo and envisioning more flexible legal systems.

Economic And Social Rights Under The Eu Charter Of Fundamental Rights

Author : Tamara Hervey
ISBN : 9781847311610
Genre : Law
File Size : 90. 7 MB
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The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union includes,in addition to the traditional 'civil and political rights', a large number of rights of an economic or social nature. This collection of essays by leading scholars in this field considers the significance of the inclusion of such rights within the EU Charter, in terms of protection of individual and collective social and economic interests within and between the EU and its Member States. What differences might it make to EU law and policy (both in terms of its substance, and in terms of the processes by which it is formed), that certain economic and social rights are proclaimed in the EU Charter?

The Internationalization Of Law And Legal Education

Author : Jan Klabbers
ISBN : 9781402094941
Genre : Law
File Size : 23. 91 MB
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The internationalization of commerce and contemporary life has led to a globalization of legal standards and practices. The essays in this text explore this new reality and suggest ways in which the new legal order can be made more just and effective.

Failures Of American Methods Of Lawmaking In Historical And Comparative Perspectives

Author : James R. Maxeiner
ISBN : 9781107198159
Genre : Law
File Size : 48. 80 MB
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Challenges the myths of common law's superiority over statute law using newly available historical sources and a comparative law analysis.

Aristotle And The Philosophy Of Law Theory Practice And Justice

Author : Liesbeth Huppes-Cluysenaer
ISBN : 9789400760318
Genre : Law
File Size : 73. 67 MB
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The book presents a new focus on the legal philosophical texts of Aristotle, which offers a much richer frame for the understanding of practical thought, legal reasoning and political experience. It allows understanding how human beings interact in a complex world, and how extensive the complexity is which results from humans’ own power of self-construction and autonomy. The Aristotelian approach recognizes the limits of rationality and the inevitable and constitutive contingency in Law. All this offers a helpful instrument to understand the changes globalisation imposes to legal experience today. The contributions in this collection do not merely pay attention to private virtues, but focus primarily on public virtues. They deal with the fact that law is dependent on political power and that a person can never be sure about the facts of a case or about the right way to act. They explore the assumption that a detailed knowledge of Aristotle's epistemology is necessary, because of the direct connection between Enlightened reasoning and legal positivism. They pay attention to the concept of proportionality, which can be seen as a precondition to discuss liberalism.

The Oxford Handbook Of Comparative Constitutional Law

Author : Michel Rosenfeld
ISBN : 9780191640179
Genre : Law
File Size : 21. 28 MB
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The field of comparative constitutional law has grown immensely over the past couple of decades. Once a minor and obscure adjunct to the field of domestic constitutional law, comparative constitutional law has now moved front and centre. Driven by the global spread of democratic government and the expansion of international human rights law, the prominence and visibility of the field, among judges, politicians, and scholars has grown exponentially. Even in the United States, where domestic constitutional exclusivism has traditionally held a firm grip, use of comparative constitutional materials has become the subject of a lively and much publicized controversy among various justices of the U.S. Supreme Court. The trend towards harmonization and international borrowing has been controversial. Whereas it seems fair to assume that there ought to be great convergence among industrialized democracies over the uses and functions of commercial contracts, that seems far from the case in constitutional law. Can a parliamentary democracy be compared to a presidential one? A federal republic to a unitary one? Moreover, what about differences in ideology or national identity? Can constitutional rights deployed in a libertarian context be profitably compared to those at work in a social welfare context? Is it perilous to compare minority rights in a multi-ethnic state to those in its ethnically homogeneous counterparts? These controversies form the background to the field of comparative constitutional law, challenging not only legal scholars, but also those in other fields, such as philosophy and political theory. Providing the first single-volume, comprehensive reference resource, the Oxford Handbook of Comparative Constitutional Law will be an essential road map to the field for all those working within it, or encountering it for the first time. Leading experts in the field examine the history and methodology of the discipline, the central concepts of constitutional law, constitutional processes, and institutions - from legislative reform to judicial interpretation, rights, and emerging trends.

Competition Law Compliance Programmes

Author : Johannes Paha
ISBN : 9783319446332
Genre : Law
File Size : 61. 53 MB
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This book reviews and presents antitrust law compliance programmes from different angles. These programmes have been increasingly implemented and refined by firms over recent years, and various aspects of this topic have been researched. The contributions in this book extend beyond the treatment of legal issues and show how lawyers, economists, psychologists, and business scholars can help design antitrust law compliance programmes more effectively and run them more efficiently.

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