agrobiodiversity and the law regulating genetic resources food security and cultural diversity

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Agrobiodiversity And The Law

Author : Juliana Santilli
ISBN : 9781136580024
Genre : Science
File Size : 37. 6 MB
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A wide range of crop genetic resources is vital for future food security. Loss of agricultural biodiversity increases the risk of relying on a limited number of staple food crops. However, many laws, such as seed laws, plant varieties protection and access and benefit-sharing laws, have direct impacts on agrobiodiversity, and their effects have been severely underestimated by policy-makers. This is of concern not only to lawyers, but also to agronomists, biologists, and social scientists, all of whom need clear guidance as to the relevance of the law to their work. This book analyzes the impact of the legal system on agrobiodiversity (or agricultural biodiversity) – the diversity of agricultural species, varieties, and ecosystems. Using an interdisciplinary approach, it takes up the emerging concept of agrobiodiversity and its relationship with food security, nutrition, health, environmental sustainability, and climate change. It assesses the impacts on agrobiodiversity of key legal instruments, including seeds laws, the International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants, plant breeders’ rights, the Convention on Biological Diversity (regarding specifically its impact on agrobiodiversity), and the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. It also reviews the options for the implementation of these instruments at the national level in several countries. It discusses the interfaces between the free software movement, the ‘commons’ movement, and seeds, as well as the legal instruments to protect cultural heritage and their application to safeguard agrobiodiversity-rich systems. Finally, it analyzes the role of protected areas and the possibility of using geographical indications to enhance the value of agrobiodiversity products and processes.

Governing Digitally Integrated Genetic Resources Data And Literature

Author : Jerome H. Reichman
ISBN : 9781107021747
Genre : Law
File Size : 89. 6 MB
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This book examines the current legal status of the international genetic information commons and proposes alternative management strategies.

Crop Genetic Diversity In The Field And On The Farm

Author : Devra I. Jarvis
ISBN : 9780300220827
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 22. 35 MB
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Based on twenty years of global research, this is the first comprehensive reference on crop genetic diversity as it is maintained on farmland around the world. Showcasing the findings of seven experts representing the fields of ecology, crop breeding, genetics, anthropology, economics, and policy, this invaluable resource places farmer-managed crop biodiversity squarely in the center of the science needed to feed the world and restore health to our productive landscapes. It will prove to be an essential tool in the training of agricultural and environmental scientists seeking the solutions necessary to ensure healthy, resilient ecosystems for future generations.

The Commons Plant Breeding And Agricultural Research

Author : Fabien Girard
ISBN : 9781351615891
Genre : Law
File Size : 82. 53 MB
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The joint challenges of population increase, food security and conservation of agrobiodiversity demand a rethink of plant breeding and agricultural research from a different perspective. While more food is undeniably needed, the key question is rather about how to produce it in a way that sustains biological diversity and mitigates climate change. This book shows how social sciences, and more especially law, can contribute towards reconfiguring current legal frameworks in order to achieving a better balance between the necessary requirements of agricultural innovation and the need for protection of agrobiodiversity. On the assumption that the concept of property can be rethought against the background of the 'right to include', so as to endow others with a common 'right to access' genetic resources, several international instruments and contractual arrangements drawn from the plant-breeding field (including the Convention on Biological Diversity, technology exchange clearing houses and open sources licenses) receive special consideration. In addition, the authors explore the tension between ownership and the free circulation and exchange of germplasm and issues such as genetic resources managed by local and indigenous communities, the ITPGRFA and participatory plant-breeding programmes. As a whole, the book demonstrates the relevance of the 'Commons' for plant breeding and agricultural innovation.

The State Of The World S Animal Genetic Resources For Food And Agriculture In Brief

Author : Barbara Rischkowsky
ISBN : 925105763X
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 73. 42 MB
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This "in brief" version, intended for use by decision-makers and the wider public, presents a summary of the key findings of the main report (see above). Part 1 outlines the state of agricultural biodiversity in the livestock sector. Part 2 considers the livestock production systems of which animal genetic resources form a part. Part 3 - largely based on the 148 Country reports - is an assessment of institutional and human capacity in the field of animal genetic resources management. Part 4 presents the state of the art in terms of the methods available for the management of animal genetic resources. As well as providing a technical reference document, the country-based preparation of The State of the World" has led to a process of policy development and a Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources, which once adopted, will provide an agenda for action by the international community.

Farmers Crop Varieties And Farmers Rights

Author : Michael Halewood
ISBN : 9781136537530
Genre : Science
File Size : 28. 12 MB
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Crop plant varieties developed by local farmers, commonly referred to as ‘farmers' varieties’, are problematic because there are no fixed taxonomic or legal definitions of them. As a result, policies to increase the share of benefits farmers receive from the use of such varieties struggle to have an effect. Aiming to clarifying these issues, this volume explores the nature of farmers’ varieties in the context of their biological, social and legal significance. The book addresses the complexities of defining what farmers’ varieties are and how they differ from one another and from generic varieties. It then charts the evolution of the concept of ‘farmers’ rights’, from the dawn of ‘genetic resources’ as a subject worthy of international attention, to the first legal recognition of the concept, through to current efforts to develop national level policies and laws. Further, the book examines outstanding policy-making challenges linked to the absence of fixed taxonomic or legal definitions of farmers’ varieties. Case studies are included from Africa, Asia, Europe and South America in which farmers, researchers and policy advocates have been confronted with the issues raised in this book. Various solutions are considered based on revised or new definitions of farmers’ varieties that reflect the biological and cultural realities in which they are produced, and the relative costs and benefits of attempting to implement each of the policies discussed.

Plant Genetic Resources And Traditional Knowledge For Food Security

Author : Romesh Kumar Salgotra
ISBN : 9789811000607
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 66. 47 MB
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With exponentially increasing population across the globe and shrinking resources, the concern of food security is looming large over the world community. To catch up with the fierce pace of growth in all the sectors of development, ensuring uninhibited availability of food resources is a prime agenda. The growing global demand for food, feed, fiber and bio-based renewable materials, such as bio-fuels, is changing the conditions for genetic resources development and bio-resource production worldwide. The crucial role in ensuring food security is played by the agro-based industries and enterprises. Advances in plant genetic resources coupled with traditional knowledge of the local tribes and native practices facilitate achievement of food security.

Protected Landscapes And Agrobiodiversity Values

Author : Thora Amend
ISBN : 9783925064487
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 61. 9 MB
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Presents twelve case studies from different parts of the world illustrating the role Protected Landscapes are playing in conserving agrobiodiversity and related knowledge and practices. This title includes a synthesis that focuses on the key lessons to be learned from these case studies

Community Seed Banks

Author : Ronnie Vernooy
ISBN : 9781134608607
Genre : Nature
File Size : 54. 7 MB
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Community seed banks first appeared towards the end of the 1980s, established with the support of international and national non-governmental organizations. This book is the first to provide a global review of their development and includes a wide range of case studies. Countries that pioneered various types of community seed banks include Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nicaragua, the Philippines and Zimbabwe. In the North, a particular type of community seed bank emerged known as a seed-savers network. Such networks were first established in Australia, Canada, the UK and the USA before spreading to other countries. Over time, the number and diversity of seed banks has grown. In Nepal, for example, there are now more than 100 self-described community seed banks whose functions range from pure conservation to commercial seed production. In Brazil, community seed banks operate in various regions of the country. Surprisingly, despite 25 years of history and the rapid growth in number, organizational diversity and geographical coverage of community seed banks, recognition of their roles and contributions has remained scanty. The book reviews their history, evolution, experiences, successes and failures (and reasons why), challenges and prospects. It fills a significant gap in the literature on agricultural biodiversity and conservation, and their contribution to food sovereignty and security.

Accessing Biodiversity And Sharing The Benefits

Author : Santiago Carrizosa
ISBN : 9782831708164
Genre : Law
File Size : 29. 75 MB
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The book aims to address the lack of information on the experiences of others by providing a comparative analysis of national access and benefit-sharing laws and policies in the 41 Pacific Rim countries that signed the CBD. It provides key insights on the main characteristics of selected access and benefit-sharing (ABS) policies and laws, their development, and implementation process. It contains a detailed comparative analysis of existing laws and policies. It presents four case studies of countries with regulations in place and contrasts them with four case studies of countries that are struggling to develop their regulations. It ends by discussing options of an international regime on ABS and a summary analysis of the main lessons and recommendations from the study.

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