air power as a coercive instrument

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Air Power As A Coercive Instrument

Author : Daniel Byman
ISBN : 9780833048288
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 60. 21 MB
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Coercion--the use of threatened force to induce an adversary to change its behavior--is a critical function of the U.S. military. U.S. forces have recently fought in the Balkans, the Persian Gulf, and the Horn of Africa to compel recalcitrant regimes and warlords to stop repression, abandon weapons programs, permit humanitarian relief, and otherwise modify their actions. Yet despite its overwhelming military might, the United States often fails to coerce successfully. This report examines the phenomenon of coercion and how air power can contribute to its success. Three factors increase the likelihood of successful coercion: (1) the coercer's ability to raise the costs it imposes while denying the adversary the chance to respond (escalation dominance); (2) an ability to block an adversary's military strategy for victory; and (3) an ability to magnify third-party threats, such as internal instability or the danger posed by another enemy. Domestic political concerns (such as casualty sensitivity) and coalition dynamics often constrain coercive operations and impair the achievement of these conditions. Air power can deliver potent and credible threats that foster the above factors while neutralizing adversary countercoercive moves. When the favorable factors are absent, however, air power--or any other military instrument--will probably fail to coerce. Policymakers' use of coercive air power under inauspicious conditions diminishes the chances of using it elsewhere when the prospects of success would be greater.

The Dynamics Of Coercion

Author : Daniel Byman
ISBN : 0521007801
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 61. 71 MB
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This book examines why some attempts to strong-arm an adversary work while others do not.

Immaculate Warfare

Author : Stephen D. Wrage
ISBN : 0275976432
Genre : History
File Size : 70. 75 MB
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This volume of essays-written by military officers who analyzed the intelligence, planned the missions, and flew the planes over Iraq, Kosovo, and Afghanistan-offers the most penetrating look to date at the realities of American precision air power. When the gun-camera footage from air strikes during the Gulf War reached America's television screens, people awoke to the astonishing accuracy and power of smart weapons. Yet ten years' experience has taught what these remarkable weapons can and cannot do, and now, as American policy makers look to them to win the global war on terrorism, it is essential to understand the promise and the limits of immaculate warfare. This volume of essays-written by military officers who analyzed the intelligence, planned the missions, and flew the planes over Iraq, Kosovo, and Afghanistan-offers the most penetrating look to date at the realities of American precision air power. Topics include: * The political context of using force from the air * The theoretical considerations involved in the use of air power to coerce an enemy * An insider's view from General Clark's headquarters as he commanded the Kosovo war effort * The tensions between civilian and military leaderships during the Kosovo war * Precision weapons and the paradoxes their use involves * The debate surrounding when precision weapons ought to be employed

Nationalism And Ethnic Conflict

Author : Michael Edward Brown
ISBN : 0262523159
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 71. 60 MB
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Understanding the roots and causes of ethnic animosity; analyses of recent events in Bosnia, Kosovo, Rwanda, Somalia, and the former Soviet Union.

Learning Large Lessons

Author : David E. Johnson
ISBN : 9780833038760
Genre : History
File Size : 68. 76 MB
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The relative roles of U.S. ground and air power in major operations and campaigns have shifted since the end of the Cold War. To assess this shift (i.e., between the Army and Air Force, respectively), the author of this report analyzed post-Cold War conflicts in Iraq (1991), Bosnia (1995), Kosovo (1999), Afghanistan (2001), and Iraq (2003). This revised edition includes updates and an index.

Bombing To Win

Author : Robert A. Pape
ISBN : 9780801471506
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 71. 19 MB
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From Iraq to Bosnia to North Korea, the first question in American foreign policy debates is increasingly: Can air power alone do the job? Robert A. Pape provides a systematic answer. Analyzing the results of over thirty air campaigns, including a detailed reconstruction of the Gulf War, he argues that the key to success is attacking the enemy's military strategy, not its economy, people, or leaders. Coercive air power can succeed, but not as cheaply as air enthusiasts would like to believe. Pape examines the air raids on Germany, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, and Iraq as well as those of Israel versus Egypt, providing details of bombing and governmental decision making. His detailed narratives of the strategic effectiveness of bombing range from the classical cases of World War II to an extraordinary reconstruction of airpower use in the Gulf War, based on recently declassified documents. In this now-classic work of the theory and practice of airpower and its political effects, Robert A. Pape helps military strategists and policy makers judge the purpose of various air strategies, and helps general readers understand the policy debates.

Asmz

Author : Switzerland. Bundesamt für Landestopographie
ISBN : UOM:39015078410522
Genre : Military art and science
File Size : 56. 45 MB
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When Presidents Lie

Author : Eric Alterman
ISBN : 1101158875
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 31. 39 MB
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“I’ve never read a better explanation of why presidents lie.”—John W. Dean, former counsel to President Nixon, The Washington Monthly By the end of the twentieth century, after decades of demoralizing revelations about the mendacity of their elected officials, most Americans had come to accept the fact that deception was not only an accepted practice in government but also pervasive. Whatever the reasons proposed to justify falsehoods—practicality, expediency, extraordinary conditions of wartime—the ability to lie convincingly had come to be regarded as almost being a qualification for holding public office. Although such behavior has come to be tolerated, little accounting has been taken of the effects of this institutionalized dishonesty in our political culture. When Presidents Lie: A History of Official Deception and Its Consequences addresses its subject not from a moral perspective, but from a pragmatic one, and discovers that in the end, honesty in government is, in fact, the best policy. Journalist and historian Eric Alterman’s meticulous research is drawn from primary-source materials, both government documents and the media reactions to the unfolding dramas, and demonstrates how these lies returned to haunt their tellers, or their successors, destroying the very policy the lie had been intended to support. Without exception, each of the presidents paid a high price for deception. So, too, did the nation. This is history at its most compelling, a balanced, eloquent, and revelatory chronicle of presidential dishonesty and its incalculable costs. In the fundamental questions it raises about leadership, accountability, and democracy, it is required reading for anyone who is concerned about America’s past—or her future.

Nato S Gamble

Author : Dag Henriksen
ISBN : 9781612515557
Genre : History
File Size : 87. 49 MB
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In this revealing work, Dag Henriksen discloses the origins and content of NATO's strategic and conceptual thinking on how the use of force was to succeed politically in altering the behavior of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY). The air campaign, known as Operation Allied Force, was the first war against any sovereign nation in the history of NATO and the first major combat operation conducted for humanitarian purposes against a state committing atrocities within its own borders. This book examines the key political, diplomatic, and military processes that shaped NATO and U.S. management of the Kosovo crisis and shows how air power became the main instrument in their strategy to coerce the FRY to accede to NATO's demands. The book further shows that the military leaders set to execute the campaign had no clear strategic guidance on what the operation was to achieve and that the level of uncertainty was so high that the officers selecting the bombing targets watched NATO's military spokesman on CNN for guidance in choosing their targets. Henriksen argues that structures preceding the Kosovo crisis shaped the management to a much greater degree than events taking place in Kosovo and that the air power community's largely institutionalized focus on high-intensity conflicts, like the 1991 Gulf War, hampered them from developing strategies to fit the political complexities of crises. Because fighting and wars in the lower end of the intensity spectrum are likely to surface again, study of the Kosovo crisis offers lessons for future international conflicts in which the combination of force and diplomacy will play a very significant role.

Defence Policy Of Nigeria Capability And Context

Author : Celestine Oyom Bassey and Charles Quarker Dokubo
ISBN : 9781456731557
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 57. 77 MB
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This Reader provides a structurally coherent explanation and review of the magnified role conception and organizational task expansion for the Nigerian military establishment in foreign policy. It argues essentially that one of the most problematic and intractable areas of public policy in Nigeria since the Civil War concerns the development of a professional defence establishment adequate to meet the challenges arising from the altered parameters of iour security environment. The correction of this condition is the primary motivation of the Armed Forces modernization and augmentation program that touches upon all elements of Nigeria's military power. This Reader is at once a review and a critique of the major facets of this modernization and augmentation process of the Nigerian armed forces within the operative context of the changing dimension of threat perception and the strategic parameters that have guided Nigerian military planning since the Civil War in 1970.

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