alternative pathways in science and industry

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Alternative Pathways In Science And Industry

Author : David J. Hess
ISBN : 9780262263146
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 79. 78 MB
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In Alternative Pathways in Science and Industry, David Hess examines how social movements and other forms of activism affect innovation in science, technology, and industry. Synthesizing and extending work in social studies of science and technology, social movements, and globalization, Hess explores the interaction of grassroots environmental action and mainstream industry and offers a conceptual framework for understanding it.Hess proposes a theory of scientific and technological change that considers the roles that both industry and grassroots consumers play in setting the research agenda in science and technology, and he identifies "alternative pathways" by which social movements can influence scientific and technological innovation. He analyzes four of these pathways: industrial opposition movements, organized against targeted technologies (as in the campaign against nuclear energy); technology- and product-oriented movements, which press for alternatives (as does the organic food movement); localism, which promotes local ownership (as in "buy-local" campaigns); and access pathways, which support a more equitable distribution of resources. Within each pathway, Hess examines reforms in five different areas: agriculture, energy, waste and manufacturing, infrastructure, and finance. The book's theoretical argument and empirical evidence demonstrate the complex pattern of incorporation (of grassroots innovations) and transformation (of alternative ownership structures and the alternative products themselves) that has characterized the relationship of industry and activism. Hess's analysis of alternative pathways to change suggests ways economic organizations could shift to a more just and sustainable course in the twenty-first century.

Grassroots Innovation Movements

Author : Adrian Smith
ISBN : 9781317451181
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 63. 50 MB
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Innovation is increasingly invoked by policy elites and business leaders as vital for tackling global challenges like sustainable development. Often overlooked, however, is the fact that networks of community groups, activists, and researchers have been innovating grassroots solutions for social justice and environmental sustainability for decades. Unencumbered by disciplinary boundaries, policy silos, or institutional logics, these ‘grassroots innovation movements’ identify issues and questions neglected by formal science, technology and innovation organizations. Grassroots solutions arise in unconventional settings through unusual combinations of people, ideas and tools. This book examines six diverse grassroots innovation movements in India, South America and Europe, situating them in their particular dynamic historical contexts. Analysis explains why each movement frames innovation and development differently, resulting in a variety of strategies. The book explores the spaces where each of these movements have grown, or attempted to do so. It critically examines the pathways they have developed for grassroots innovation and the challenges and limitations confronting their approaches. With mounting pressure for social justice in an increasingly unequal world, policy makers are exploring how to foster more inclusive innovation. In this context grassroots experiences take on added significance. This book provides timely and relevant ideas, analysis and recommendations for activists, policy-makers, students and scholars interested in encounters between innovation, development and social movements.

Ignorance And Surprise

Author : Matthias Gross
ISBN : 9780262265614
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 46. 75 MB
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Ignorance and surprise belong together: surprises can make people aware of their own ignorance. And yet, perhaps paradoxically, a surprising event in scientific research -- one that defies prediction or risk assessment -- is often a window to new and unexpected knowledge. In this book, Matthias Gross examines the relationship between ignorance and surprise, proposing a conceptual framework for handling the unexpected and offering case studies of ecological design that demonstrate the advantages of allowing for surprises and including ignorance in the design and negotiation processes. Gross draws on classical and contemporary sociological accounts of ignorance and surprise in science and ecology and integrates these with the idea of experiment in society. He develops a notion of how unexpected occurrences can be incorporated into a model of scientific and technological development that includes the experimental handling of surprises. Gross discusses different projects in ecological design, including Chicago's restoration of the shoreline of Lake Michigan and Germany's revitalization of brownfields near Leipzig. These cases show how ignorance and surprise can successfully play out in ecological design projects, and how the acknowledgment of the unknown can become a part of decision making. The appropriation of surprises can lead to robust design strategies. Ecological design, Gross argues, is neither a linear process of master planning nor a process of trial and error but a carefully coordinated process of dealing with unexpected turns by means of experimental practice.

Undone Science

Author : David J. Hess
ISBN : 9780262035132
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 71. 44 MB
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A theoretical integration of science and technology studies and social movement studies that finds both common ground and "undone" research.

Career Development In Bioengineering And Biotechnology

Author : Guruprasad Madhavan
ISBN : 038776495X
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 30. 85 MB
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This indispensable guide provides a roadmap to the broad and varied career development opportunities in bioengineering, biotechnology, and related fields. Eminent practitioners lay out career paths related to academia, industry, government and regulatory affairs, healthcare, law, marketing, entrepreneurship, and more. Lifetimes of experience and wisdom are shared, including "war stories," strategies for success, and discussions of the authors’ personal views and motivations.

Career Opportunities In Biotechnology And Drug Development

Author : Toby Freedman
ISBN : 9780879697259
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 50. 13 MB
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Offers detailed information on over one hundred careers in such areas as regulatory affairs, product development, information management, and sales.

Good Green Jobs In A Global Economy

Author : David J. Hess
ISBN : 9780262304986
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 23. 29 MB
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Good Green Jobs in a Global Economy is the first book to explore the broad implications of the convergence of industrial and environnmental policy in the United States. Under the banner of "green jobs," clean energy industries and labor, environmental, and antipoverty organizations have forged "blue-green" alliances and achieved some policy victories, most notably at the state and local levels. In this book, David Hess explores the politics of green energy and green jobs, linking the prospect of a green transition to tectonic shifts in the global economy. He argues that the relative decline in U.S. economic power sets the stage for an ideological shift, away from neoliberalism and toward "developmentalism," an ideology characterized by a more defensive posture with respect to trade and a more active industrial policy. After describing federal green energy initiatives in the first two years of the Obama administration, Hess turns his attention to the state and local levels, examining demand-side and supply-side support for green industry and local small business. He analyzes the successes and failures of green coalitions and the partisan patterns of support for green energy reform. This new piecemeal green industrial policy, Hess argues, signals a fundamental challenge to anti-interventionist beliefs about the relationship between the government and the economy.

Competency Based Education In Aviation

Author : Suzanne K. Kearns
ISBN : 9781134801879
Genre : Transportation
File Size : 66. 80 MB
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Whether a trainee is studying air traffic control, piloting, maintenance engineering, or cabin crew, they must complete a set number of training 'hours' before being licensed or certified. The aviation industry is moving away from an hours-based to a competency-based training system. Within this approach, training is complete when a learner can demonstrate competent performance. Training based on competency is an increasingly popular approach in aviation. It allows for an alternate means of compliance with international regulations - which can result in shorter and more efficient training programs. However there are also challenges with a competency-based approach. The definition of competency-based education can be confusing, training can be reductionist and artificially simplistic, professional interpretation of written competencies can vary between individuals, and this approach can have a high administrative and regulatory burden. Competency-Based Education in Aviation: Exploring Alternate Training Pathways explores this approach to training in great detail, considering the four aviation professional groups of air traffic control, pilots, maintenance engineers, and cabin crew. Aviation training experts were interviewed and have contributed professional insights along with personal stories and anecdotes associated with competency-based approaches in their fields. Research-based and practical strategies for the effective creation, delivery, and assessment of competency-based education are described in detail.

Molecular Microbial Diagnostic Methods

Author : Nigel Cook
ISBN : 9780124171701
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 32. 68 MB
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Molecular Microbial Diagnostic Methods: Pathways to Implementation for the Food and Water Industry was developed by recognized and experienced highlevel scientists. It’s a comprehensive and detailed reference that uncovers industry needs for the use of molecular methods by providing a brief history of water and food analysis for the pathogens of concern. It also describes the potential impact of current and cutting-edge molecular methods. This book discusses the advantages of the implementation of molecular methods, describes information on when and how to use specific methods, and presents why one should utilize them for pathogen detection in the routine laboratory. The content is also pertinent for anyone carrying out microbiological analysis at the research level, and for scientists developing methods, as it focuses on the requirements of end-users. Includes information on how to introduce and implement molecular methods for routine monitoring in food and water laboratories Discusses the importance of robust validation of molecular methods as alternatives to existing standard methods to help ensure the production of defendable results Highlights potential issues with respect to successful implementation of these methods

Territorial Policy And Governance

Author : Iain Deas
ISBN : 9781317561583
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 37. 9 MB
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In response to both policy and conceptual debates, alternative narratives have begun to emerge about territorial governance and policymaking. As local and regional policy actors strive to respond to the geographically uneven effects of the economic crises of the early twenty-first century, a crucial question emerges: what are the opportunities and challenges presented by alternative forms of territorially based governance and policy? The aim of this edited volume, therefore, is critically to explore the opportunities and challenges presented by different forms of territorial policy and governance. Drawing on conceptual debates and empirical research from the United Kingdom and other international contexts, the contributors engage with issues around the politics and governance of territorial development, economic development, planning and regeneration and the environment. Territorial Policy and Governance addresses the question of how alternative forms of territorial governance and policy can help to shape patterns of urban and regional development, highlighting the related opportunities, constraints and challenges that confront their operationalisation. This book will be essential reading for international audiences with an interest in territorial development, governance, politics, human geography and planning and regeneration.

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