alternative pathways in science and industry

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Alternative Pathways In Science And Industry

Author : David J. Hess
ISBN : 9780262263146
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 90. 69 MB
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In Alternative Pathways in Science and Industry, David Hess examines how social movements and other forms of activism affect innovation in science, technology, and industry. Synthesizing and extending work in social studies of science and technology, social movements, and globalization, Hess explores the interaction of grassroots environmental action and mainstream industry and offers a conceptual framework for understanding it.Hess proposes a theory of scientific and technological change that considers the roles that both industry and grassroots consumers play in setting the research agenda in science and technology, and he identifies "alternative pathways" by which social movements can influence scientific and technological innovation. He analyzes four of these pathways: industrial opposition movements, organized against targeted technologies (as in the campaign against nuclear energy); technology- and product-oriented movements, which press for alternatives (as does the organic food movement); localism, which promotes local ownership (as in "buy-local" campaigns); and access pathways, which support a more equitable distribution of resources. Within each pathway, Hess examines reforms in five different areas: agriculture, energy, waste and manufacturing, infrastructure, and finance. The book's theoretical argument and empirical evidence demonstrate the complex pattern of incorporation (of grassroots innovations) and transformation (of alternative ownership structures and the alternative products themselves) that has characterized the relationship of industry and activism. Hess's analysis of alternative pathways to change suggests ways economic organizations could shift to a more just and sustainable course in the twenty-first century.

Grassroots Innovation Movements

Author : Adrian Smith
ISBN : 9781317451181
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 43. 95 MB
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Innovation is increasingly invoked by policy elites and business leaders as vital for tackling global challenges like sustainable development. Often overlooked, however, is the fact that networks of community groups, activists, and researchers have been innovating grassroots solutions for social justice and environmental sustainability for decades. Unencumbered by disciplinary boundaries, policy silos, or institutional logics, these ‘grassroots innovation movements’ identify issues and questions neglected by formal science, technology and innovation organizations. Grassroots solutions arise in unconventional settings through unusual combinations of people, ideas and tools. This book examines six diverse grassroots innovation movements in India, South America and Europe, situating them in their particular dynamic historical contexts. Analysis explains why each movement frames innovation and development differently, resulting in a variety of strategies. The book explores the spaces where each of these movements have grown, or attempted to do so. It critically examines the pathways they have developed for grassroots innovation and the challenges and limitations confronting their approaches. With mounting pressure for social justice in an increasingly unequal world, policy makers are exploring how to foster more inclusive innovation. In this context grassroots experiences take on added significance. This book provides timely and relevant ideas, analysis and recommendations for activists, policy-makers, students and scholars interested in encounters between innovation, development and social movements.

Undone Science

Author : David J. Hess
ISBN : 9780262035132
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 80. 76 MB
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A theoretical integration of science and technology studies and social movement studies that finds both common ground and "undone" research.

Objectivity And Diversity

Author : Sandra Harding
ISBN : 9780226241531
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 79. 1 MB
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Worries about scientific objectivity seem never-ending. Social critics and philosophers of science have argued that invocations of objectivity are often little more than attempts to boost the status of a claim, while calls for value neutrality may be used to suppress otherwise valid dissenting positions. Objectivity is used sometimes to advance democratic agendas, at other times to block them; sometimes for increasing the growth of knowledge, at others to resist it. Sandra Harding is not ready to throw out objectivity quite yet. For all of its problems, she contends that objectivity is too powerful a concept simply to abandon. In Objectivity and Diversity, Harding calls for a science that is both more epistemically adequate and socially just, a science that would ask: How are the lives of the most economically and politically vulnerable groups affected by a particular piece of research? Do they have a say in whether and how the research is done? Should empirically reliable systems of indigenous knowledge count as "real science"? Ultimately, Harding argues for a shift from the ideal of a neutral, disinterested science to one that prizes fairness and responsibility.

Ignorance And Surprise

Author : Matthias Gross
ISBN : 9780262265614
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 89. 71 MB
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Ignorance and surprise belong together: surprises can make people aware of their own ignorance. And yet, perhaps paradoxically, a surprising event in scientific research -- one that defies prediction or risk assessment -- is often a window to new and unexpected knowledge. In this book, Matthias Gross examines the relationship between ignorance and surprise, proposing a conceptual framework for handling the unexpected and offering case studies of ecological design that demonstrate the advantages of allowing for surprises and including ignorance in the design and negotiation processes. Gross draws on classical and contemporary sociological accounts of ignorance and surprise in science and ecology and integrates these with the idea of experiment in society. He develops a notion of how unexpected occurrences can be incorporated into a model of scientific and technological development that includes the experimental handling of surprises. Gross discusses different projects in ecological design, including Chicago's restoration of the shoreline of Lake Michigan and Germany's revitalization of brownfields near Leipzig. These cases show how ignorance and surprise can successfully play out in ecological design projects, and how the acknowledgment of the unknown can become a part of decision making. The appropriation of surprises can lead to robust design strategies. Ecological design, Gross argues, is neither a linear process of master planning nor a process of trial and error but a carefully coordinated process of dealing with unexpected turns by means of experimental practice.

Undone Science

Author : David J. Hess
ISBN : 9780262336437
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 25. 33 MB
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As the fields of social movement studies (SMS) and science and technology studies (STS) have diversified in topical focus, they have moved closer to each other. SMS has turned toward the study of nonstate targets and institutionalized repertoires of action, just as STS has turned to expertise and publics. In Undone Science, David Hess argues that a theoretical integration of core concepts in the two fields is now possible, and he presents just such a synthesis. Hess focuses on industrial transition movements -- mobilized counterpublics of activists, advocates, entrepreneurs, and other agents of change -- and examines several areas of common ground between the two fields relevant to these movements. His account reveals the problem of "undone science" -- areas of research potentially valuable to the goals of industrial transition movements that have been systematically ignored. Each chapter begins with a problem in SMS, discusses the relevant STS literature, describes new concepts and findings that have emerged, and offers applications to examples that range from nanotechnology and climate science denialism to conflicts based on race, class, and gender. Topics include the epistemic dimension of the political opportunity structure, networks of counterpublic knowledge, and regime resistance in industrial transition.

Alternative And Replacement Foods

Author : Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu
ISBN : 9780128114988
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 37. 14 MB
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Alternative and Replacement Foods, Volume 17, a volume in the Handbook of Food Bioengineering series, presents the most up-to-date research on synthetic and replacement food components for scientists and researchers. The book helps them understand the significant impact of these foods on the length and quality of life of consumers. It presents a solid resource that brings together multidisciplinary research and its relationship to various disciplines. Readers will find a broad range of potential outcomes discussed, such as food safety, human and animal health benefits, and the development of new and novel foods through the bio-fortification of nutrients in foods. Discusses how specialty food products improve diet and heath Summarizes advances in dietary supplements, probiotics and nutraceuticals Includes research advances on snacks, vegan diets, gluten-free foods and more Provides identification and research studies on anti-obesity foods Presents information on alternative protein sources

Seeds Science And Struggle

Author : Abby J. Kinchy
ISBN : 9780262017817
Genre : Science
File Size : 28. 17 MB
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An examination of how advocates for alternative agriculture confront "science-based" regulation of genetically engineered crops.

Competency Based Education In Aviation

Author : Suzanne K. Kearns
ISBN : 9781134801879
Genre : Transportation
File Size : 52. 53 MB
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Whether a trainee is studying air traffic control, piloting, maintenance engineering, or cabin crew, they must complete a set number of training 'hours' before being licensed or certified. The aviation industry is moving away from an hours-based to a competency-based training system. Within this approach, training is complete when a learner can demonstrate competent performance. Training based on competency is an increasingly popular approach in aviation. It allows for an alternate means of compliance with international regulations - which can result in shorter and more efficient training programs. However there are also challenges with a competency-based approach. The definition of competency-based education can be confusing, training can be reductionist and artificially simplistic, professional interpretation of written competencies can vary between individuals, and this approach can have a high administrative and regulatory burden. Competency-Based Education in Aviation: Exploring Alternate Training Pathways explores this approach to training in great detail, considering the four aviation professional groups of air traffic control, pilots, maintenance engineers, and cabin crew. Aviation training experts were interviewed and have contributed professional insights along with personal stories and anecdotes associated with competency-based approaches in their fields. Research-based and practical strategies for the effective creation, delivery, and assessment of competency-based education are described in detail.

Molecular Microbial Diagnostic Methods

Author : Nigel Cook
ISBN : 9780124171701
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 78. 25 MB
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Molecular Microbial Diagnostic Methods: Pathways to Implementation for the Food and Water Industry was developed by recognized and experienced highlevel scientists. It’s a comprehensive and detailed reference that uncovers industry needs for the use of molecular methods by providing a brief history of water and food analysis for the pathogens of concern. It also describes the potential impact of current and cutting-edge molecular methods. This book discusses the advantages of the implementation of molecular methods, describes information on when and how to use specific methods, and presents why one should utilize them for pathogen detection in the routine laboratory. The content is also pertinent for anyone carrying out microbiological analysis at the research level, and for scientists developing methods, as it focuses on the requirements of end-users. Includes information on how to introduce and implement molecular methods for routine monitoring in food and water laboratories Discusses the importance of robust validation of molecular methods as alternatives to existing standard methods to help ensure the production of defendable results Highlights potential issues with respect to successful implementation of these methods

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