america in the great war the rise of the war welfare state

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America In The Great War

Author : Ronald Schaffer
ISBN : 9780199923311
Genre : History
File Size : 45. 7 MB
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After such conflicts as World War II, Vietnam, and now the Persian Gulf, the First World War seems a distant, almost ancient event. It conjures up images of trenches, horse-drawn wagons, and old-fashioned wide-brimmed helmets--a conflict closer to the Civil War than to our own time. It hardly seems an American war at all, considering we fought for scarcely over a year in a primarily European struggle. But, as Ronald Schaffer recounts in this fascinating new book, the Great War wrought a dramatic revolution in America, wrenching a diverse, unregulated, nineteenth-century society into the modern age. Ranging from the Oval Office to corporate boardroom, from the farmyard to the battlefield, America in the Great War details a nation reshaped by the demands of total war. Schaffer shows how the Wilson Administration used persuasion, manipulation, direct control, and the cooperation of private industries and organizations to mobilize a freewheeling, individualist country. The result was a war-welfare state, imposing the federal government on almost every aspect of American life. He describes how it spread propaganda, enforced censorship, and stifled dissent. Political radicals, religious pacifists, German-Americans, even average people who voiced honest doubts about the war suffered arrest and imprisonment. The government extended its control over most of the nation's economic life through a series of new agencies--largely filled with managers from private business, who used their new positions to eliminate competition and secure other personal and corporate gains. Schaffer also details the efforts of scholars, scientists, workers, women, African- Americans, and of social, medical, and moral reformers, to use the war to advance their own agendas even as they contributed to the drive for victory. And not the least important is his account of how soldiers reacted to the reality of war--both at the front lines and at the rear--revealing what brought the doughboys to the battlefield, and how they went through not only horror and disillusionment but felt a fervent patriotism as well. Some of the upheavals Schaffer describes were fleeting--as seen in the thousands of women who had to leave their wartime jobs when the boys came home--but others meant permanent change and set precedents for such future programs as the New Deal. By showing how American life would never be the same again after the Armistice, America in the Great War lays a new foundation for understanding both the First World War and twentieth-century America.

Daily Lives Of Civilians In Wartime Modern America

Author : David Stephen Heidler
ISBN : 0313335346
Genre : History
File Size : 53. 19 MB
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Michael Neiberg's piece on World War I highlights how America's entry into the war on the Allied side was far from universally popular or supported because of large German and Irish immigrant communities, and how this tepid support led to the creation of some of the harshest censorship and curtailment of civil rights in U.S. history. Judy Litoff's chapter on the home front during World War II focuses on the exceptional changes brought on by total mobilization for the war effort, African-Americans' push for expanded civil rights, to women entering the workforce in large numbers, to the public's acceptance, even expectation, of centralized planning and government intervention in economic and social matters

War And The Rise Of The State

Author : Bruce D. Porter
ISBN : 9781439105481
Genre : History
File Size : 57. 93 MB
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States make war, but war also makes states. As Publishers Weekly notes, “Porter, a political scientist at Brigham Young University, demonstrates that wars have been catalysts for increasing the size and power of Western governments since the Renaissance. The state’s monopoly of effective violence has diminished not only individual rights and liberties, but also the ability of local communities and private associates to challenge the centralization of authority. Porter’s originality lies in his thesis that war, breaking down barriers of class, gender, ethnicity, and ideology, also contributes to meritocracy, mobility, and, above all, democratization. Porter also posits the emergence of the “Scientific Warfare State,” a political system in which advanced technology would render obsolete mass participation in war. This provocative study merits wide circulation and serious discussion.”

World War I

Author : Spencer Tucker
ISBN : 9781851094202
Genre : History
File Size : 80. 6 MB
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Featuring a wealth of new information and the work of acclaimed scholars from around the world, this monumental resource is the new standard reference on the 20th century's most influential conflict. * 1,219 A–Z entries covering military culture and tactics for all engaged armies in unprecedented depth, describing important events (the sinking of the Lusitania, the Arab revolt), cultural and political figures (Ferdinand Foch, Wilfred Owen), geopolitical agreements (the covenant of the League of Nations), social issues (the role of religions), and much more * 175 contributors, including scholars from the United States, Britain, China, Japan, Australia, France, Germany, Austria, and Scandinavia, giving this encyclopedia an unprecedented global perspective * A separate primary source volume with 195 official documents, diary entries, and letters from all types of people involved in the war, with introductory information to place the documents in historical context * An opening section of 35 battle and locational maps providing the geographic context necessary to understand how the conflict moved and where and why the battlefield stalled * Insightful introductory essays that discuss the root causes of the war, the catalyzing events that lead to the outbreak of war, an overview of the war itself, and a discussion of the long-term impact of the war, providing context for the A–Z entries that follow * A list of comparative military ranks, glossary, historiography, and general bibliography, plus a comprehensive chronology providing researchers and readers with a sense of time and relationship between the major events of the conflict

The Rise Of The Military Welfare State

Author : Jennifer Mittelstadt
ISBN : 9780674915398
Genre : History
File Size : 54. 61 MB
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After Vietnam the army promised its all-volunteer force a safety net long reserved for career soldiers: medical and dental care, education, child care, financial counseling, housing assistance, legal services. Jennifer Mittelstadt shows how this unprecedented military welfare system expanded at a time when civilian programs were being dismantled.

America S Great War

Author : Robert H. Zieger
ISBN : 0847696456
Genre : History
File Size : 70. 58 MB
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A detailed account of America's role in World War I follows the foot soldiers across Europe and discusses the political and social impact on the home front.

Discontented America

Author : David Joseph Goldberg
ISBN : 0801860040
Genre : History
File Size : 61. 53 MB
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"In a class by itself. Goldberg provides an engaging, nicely written narrative and draws upon a variety of secondary and primary sources to create an outstanding historical synthesis." -- Ohio Historian

Warfare State

Author : James T. Sparrow
ISBN : 9780199791071
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 46. 57 MB
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Although common wisdom and much scholarship assume that "big government" gained its foothold in the United States under the auspices of the New Deal during the Great Depression, in fact it was the Second World War that accomplished this feat. Indeed, as the federal government mobilized for war it grew tenfold, quickly dwarfing the New Deal's welfare programs. Warfare State shows how the federal government vastly expanded its influence over American society during World War II. Equally important, it looks at how and why Americans adapted to this expansion of authority. Through mass participation in military service, war work, rationing, price control, income taxation, and the war bond program, ordinary Americans learned to live with the warfare state. They accepted these new obligations because the government encouraged all citizens to think of themselves as personally connected to the battle front, linking their every action to the fate of the combat soldier. As they worked for the American Soldier, Americans habituated themselves to the authority of the government. Citizens made their own counter-claims on the state-particularly in the case of industrial workers, women, African Americans, and most of all, the soldiers. Their demands for fuller citizenship offer important insights into the relationship between citizen morale, the uses of patriotism, and the legitimacy of the state in wartime. World War II forged a new bond between citizens, nation, and government. Warfare State tells the story of this dramatic transformation in American life.

Eisenhower Republicanism

Author : Steven T. Wagner
ISBN : 0875803628
Genre : History
File Size : 77. 26 MB
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Dwight D. Eisenhower's election to the presidency in 1952 brought an end to two decades of Democratic rule in the White House. His landslide victory, however, masked intense factionalism within the Republican Party. Whereas conservatives were eager to reverse the domestic and foreign policies of past administrations, liberal Republicans favored active federal involvement in Americans' lives and an internationalist approach to affairs abroad. As political historian Steven Wagner demonstrates, Eisenhower sought a “middle way” between Democrats to his left and conservatives to his right. In American political culture, those who describe themselves as “middle of the road” are often portrayed as unwilling to take a stand or lacking in political sophistication. This was not the case with Eisenhower, whose “middle way” was the result of careful consideration. Despite his party's commitment to limited government, free enterprise, and individual initiative, Eisenhower believed that, in some cases, the federal government needed to intervene. Eisenhower's enormous popularity with the American people assured him reelection and high approval ratings throughout his two terms of office. This popularity did not, however, translate into legislative success; his proposals were often defeated by an unlikely coalition of liberals and conservatives. Nor did Eisenhower's popularity carry over to his party, a fact driven home by the defeat of his vice president, Richard Nixon, in the 1960 presidential election. In the resulting battle for control of the party, conservatives prevailed. Wagner concludes with a candid discussion of the legacy of “Eisenhower Republicanism” and the ways in which the subsequent conservative victory has continued to shape the party to this day.

The Oxford Illustrated History Of The First World War

Author : Hew Strachan
ISBN : 9780191640414
Genre : History
File Size : 58. 93 MB
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The First World War, now a century ago, still shapes the world in which we live, and its legacy lives on, in poetry, in prose, in collective memory and political culture. By the time the war ended in 1918, millions lay dead. Three major empires lay shattered by defeat, those of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottomans. A fourth, Russia, was in the throes of a revolution that helped define the rest of the twentieth century. The Oxford History of the First World War brings together in one volume many of the most distinguished historians of the conflict, in an account that matches the scale of the events. From its causes to its consequences, from the Western Front to the Eastern, from the strategy of the politicians to the tactics of the generals, they chart the course of the war and assess its profound political and human consequences. Chapters on economic mobilization, the impact on women, the role of propaganda, and the rise of socialism establish the wider context of the fighting at sea and in the air, and which ranged on land from the trenches of Flanders to the mountains of the Balkans and the deserts of the Middle East. First published for the 90th anniversary of the 1918 Armistice, this highly illustrated revised edition contains significant new material to mark the 100th anniversary of the war's outbreak.

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