american hegemony and the postwar reconstruction of science in europe transformations studies in the history of science and technology

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American Hegemony And The Postwar Reconstruction Of Science In Europe

Author : Krige
ISBN : 9780262263412
Genre : Science
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In 1945, the United States was not only the strongest economic and military power in the world; it was also the world's leader in science and technology. In American Hegemony and the Postwar Reconstruction of Science in Europe, John Krige describes the efforts of influential figures in the United States to model postwar scientific practices and institutions in Western Europe on those in America. They mobilized political and financial support to promote not just America's scientific and technological agendas in Western Europe but its Cold War political and ideological agendas as well.Drawing on the work of diplomatic and cultural historians, Krige argues that this attempt at scientific dominance by the United States can be seen as a form of "consensual hegemony," involving the collaboration of influential local elites who shared American values. He uses this notion to analyze a series of case studies that describe how the U.S. administration, senior officers in the Rockefeller and Ford Foundations, the NATO Science Committee, and influential members of the scientific establishment -- notably Isidor I. Rabi of Columbia University and Vannevar Bush of MIT -- tried to Americanize scientific practices in such fields as physics, molecular biology, and operations research. He details U.S. support for institutions including CERN, the Niels Bohr Institute, the French CNRS and its laboratories at Gif near Paris, and the never-established "European MIT." Krige's study shows how consensual hegemony in science not only served the interests of postwar European reconstruction but became another way of maintaining American leadership and "making the world safe for democracy."

Science And Technology In The Global Cold War

Author : Naomi Oreskes
ISBN : 9780262526531
Genre : Science
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The Cold War period saw a dramatic expansion of state-funded science and technology research. Government and military patronage shaped Cold War technoscientific practices, imposing methods that were project oriented, team based, and subject to national-security restrictions. These changes affected not just the arms race and the space race but also research in agriculture, biomedicine, computer science, ecology, meteorology, and other fields. This volume examines science and technology in the context of the Cold War, considering whether the new institutions and institutional arrangements that emerged globally constrained technoscientific inquiry or offered greater opportunities for it. The contributors find that whatever the particular science, and whatever the political system in which that science was operating, the knowledge that was produced bore some relation to the goals of the nation-state. These goals varied from nation to nation; weapons research was emphasized in the United States and the Soviet Union, for example, but in France and China scientific independence and self-reliance dominated. The contributors also consider to what extent the changes to science and technology practices in this era were produced by the specific politics, anxieties, and aspirations of the Cold War.ContributorsElena Aronova, Erik M. Conway, Angela N. H. Creager, David Kaiser, John Krige, Naomi Oreskes, George Reisch, Sigrid Schmalzer, Sonja D. Schmid, Matthew Shindell, Asif A. Siddiqi, Zuoyue Wang, Benjamin Wilson

The Psychophysical Ear

Author : Alexandra Hui
ISBN : 9780262018388
Genre : Music
File Size : 57. 27 MB
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An examination of how the scientific study of sound sensation became increasingly intertwined with musical aesthetics in nineteenth-century Germany and Austria. In the middle of the nineteenth century, German and Austrian concertgoers began to hear new rhythms and harmonies as non-Western musical ensembles began to make their way to European cities and classical music introduced new compositional trends. At the same time, leading physicists, physiologists, and psychologists were preoccupied with understanding the sensory perception of sound from a psychophysical perspective, seeking a direct and measurable relationship between physical stimulation and physical sensation. These scientists incorporated specific sounds into their experiments--the musical sounds listened to by upper middle class, liberal Germans and Austrians. In The Psychophysical Ear, Alexandra Hui examines this formative historical moment, when the worlds of natural science and music coalesced around the psychophysics of sound sensation, and new musical aesthetics were interwoven with new conceptions of sound and hearing. Hui, a historian and a classically trained musician, describes the network of scientists, musicians, music critics, musicologists, and composers involved in this redefinition of listening. She identifies a source of tension for the psychophysicists: the seeming irreconcilability between the idealist, universalizing goals of their science and the increasingly undeniable historical and cultural contingency of musical aesthetics. The convergence of the respective projects of the psychophysical study of sound sensation and the aesthetics of music was, however, fleeting. By the beginning of the twentieth century, with the professionalization of such fields as experimental psychology and ethnomusicology and the proliferation of new and different kinds of music, the aesthetic dimension of psychophysics began to disappear.

International Bibliography Of Historical Sciences 2006

Author : Massimo Mastrogregori
ISBN : 9783110231403
Genre : History
File Size : 25. 92 MB
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Die IBOHS verzeichnet jahrlich die bedeutendsten Neuerscheinungen geschichtswissenschaftlicher Monographien und Zeitschriftenartikel weltweit, die inhaltlich von der Vor- und Fruhgeschichte bis zur jungsten Vergangenheit reichen. Sie ist damit die derzeit einzige laufende Bibliographie dieser Art, die thematisch, zeitlich und geographisch ein derart breites Spektrum abdeckt. Innerhalb der systematischen Gliederung nach Zeitalter, Region oder historischer Disziplin sind die Werke nach Autorennamen oder charakteristischem Titelhauptwort aufgelistet."

Wissenschaft Und Politik Im Leben Von Max Steenbeck 1904 1981

Author : Bernd Helmbold
ISBN : 9783658181130
Genre : Science
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Der Autor analysiert detailliert sowohl die nachhaltigen Auswirkungen der tiefgreifenden gesellschaftspolitischen Veränderungen zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts auf das System Wissenschaft, als auch das wissenschaftliche Werk von Max Steenbeck. Mit dem methodischen Zugang über den Ressourcenbegriff in Kombination mit dem der Forschungstechnologien eröffnet die Studie neue Perspektiven auf Zusammenhänge von Forschungsstrukturen/Forschungspraxis und dem Wirken eines Naturwissenschaftlers in grundverschiedenen Forschungssettings nach den großen Umwälzungen im Weltbild der Physik.

Sharing Knowledge Shaping Europe

Author : John Krige
ISBN : 9780262034777
Genre : Science
File Size : 87. 49 MB
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How America used its technological leadership in the 1950s and the 1960s to foster European collaboration and curb nuclear proliferation, with varying degrees of success.

H G Bronn Ernst Haeckel And The Origins Of German Darwinism

Author : Sander Gliboff
ISBN : UOM:39015077108036
Genre : Science
File Size : 23. 28 MB
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Gliboff traces Bronn's influence on German Darwinism through the early career of Ernst Haeckel, Darwin's most famous nineteenth-century proponent and popularizer in Germany, who learned his Darwinism from the Bronn translation."--BOOK JACKET.

The Tropics Of Empire

Author : Nicolás Wey Gómez
ISBN : UOM:39015077677931
Genre : History
File Size : 56. 46 MB
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A radical revision of the geographical history of the discovery of the Americas that links Columbus's southbound route with colonialism, slavery, and today’s divide between the industrialized North and the developing South.

Ships And Science

Author : Larrie D. Ferreiro
ISBN : UOM:39015063211984
Genre : Science
File Size : 68. 52 MB
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The first book to portray the birth of naval architecture as an integral part of theScientific Revolution, examining its development and application across the major shipbuildingnations of Europe.

Science

Author : John Michels
ISBN : UIUC:30112083908514
Genre : Science
File Size : 33. 80 MB
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