an archaeological study of human decapitation burials

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An Archaeological Study Of Human Decapitation Burials

Author : Katie Tucker
ISBN : 1473825512
Genre : Beheading
File Size : 84. 15 MB
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This is an in depth yet accessible study of human decapitation burials in Roman Britain. Dr Katie Tucker studied this subject for her doctorate and so is a leading expert in the area. Her findings go against conventional views of human decapitation burials of this period, which traditionally favor the view of a post-mortem removal of the head. Instead, Katie found the majority of the evidence did not support this theory and so concluded that most decapitations were likely to have been performed prior to death, potentially as a result of execution or human sacrifice. In order to gain a full insight into the ways in which these burials were formed and the reasoning behind these practices, Katie compares the decapitation burials to the burials of the wider Romano-British cemetery population. In doing this, Katie is able to better understand the differences between decapitated individuals and the rest of the population in terms of burial practice, demographics and ante-mortem health status.Decapitation burials are not only confined to the Roman period and so Katie also discusses the context of them in the Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, Early Medieval, Medieval and Post Medieval periods in order to assess whether there is continuity between periods.REVIEWS Of the many different burial practices, decapitation burials are one of the most intriguing. These unusual cases - with the skull placed elsewhere in the grave, removed from the grave entirely, or where cut-marks clearly indicate its separation from the body - are widely believed to be some form of burial ritual after death. Not so, Tucker argues. Drawing on her doctoral research, she re-examines the evidence and, focusing on skeletal trauma, comes to a different conclusion - that the majority of these decapitations were performed prior to death. The subject of decapitation is approached chronologically from prehistory to the medieval period with a particular focus on the decapitation elsewhere within the Roman Empire, and also its presence in ancient European art and literature, broadens the scope.The technical language used will most benefit those familiar with skeletal anatomy, but the inclusion of color photographs of a number of examples, as well as some unusual reconstruction drawings, certainly aids understanding. Current Archaeology

Care In The Past

Author : Lindsay Powell
ISBN : 9781785703362
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 60. 94 MB
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Care-giving is an activity that has been practiced by all human societies. From the earliest societies through to the present, all humans have faced choices regarding how people in positions of dependency are to be treated. As such, care-giving, and the form it takes, is a central experience of being a human and one that is culturally mediated. Archaeology has tended to marginalise the study of care, and debates surrounding our ability to recognise it within the archaeological record have often remained implicit rather than a focus of discussion. These 12 papers examine the topic of care in past societies and specifically how we might recognise the provision of care in archaeological contexts and to open up an inter-disciplinary conversation, including historical, bioarchaeological, faunal and philosophical perspectives. The topic of ‘care’ is examined through three different strands: the provision of care throughout the life course, namely that provided to the youngest and oldest members of a society; care-giving and attitudes towards impairment and disability in prehistoric and historic contexts, and the role of animals as both recipients of care and as tools for its provision.

Anglo Saxon Deviant Burial Customs

Author : Andrew Reynolds
ISBN : 9780191567650
Genre : History
File Size : 72. 7 MB
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Anglo-Saxon Deviant Burial Customs is the first detailed consideration of the ways in which Anglo-Saxon society dealt with social outcasts. Beginning with the period following Roman rule and ending in the century following the Norman Conquest, it surveys a period of fundamental social change, which included the conversion to Christianity, the emergence of the late Saxon state, and the development of the landscape of the Domesday Book. While an impressive body of written evidence for the period survives in the form of charters and law-codes, archaeology is uniquely placed to investigate the earliest period of post-Roman society - the fifth to seventh centuries - for which documents are lacking. For later centuries, archaeological evidence can provide us with an independent assessment of the realities of capital punishment and the status of outcasts. Andrew Reynolds argues that outcast burials show a clear pattern of development in this period. In the pre-Christian centuries, 'deviant' burial remains are found only in community cemeteries, but the growth of kingship and the consolidation of territories during the seventh century witnessed the emergence of capital punishment and places of execution in the English landscape. Locally determined rites, such as crossroads burial, now existed alongside more formal execution cemeteries. Gallows were located on major boundaries, often next to highways, always in highly visible places. The findings of this pioneering national study thus have important consequences on our understanding of Anglo-Saxon society. Overall, Reynolds concludes, organized judicial behaviour was a feature of the earliest Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, rather than just the two centuries prior to the Norman Conquest.

Deviant Burial In The Archaeological Record

Author : Eileen M. Murphy
ISBN : 9781782975359
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 84. 97 MB
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This edited volume contains twelve papers that present evidence on non-normative burial practices from the Neolithic through to Post-Medieval periods and includes case studies from some ten countries. It has long been recognised by archaeologists that certain individuals in a variety of archaeological cultures from diverse periods and locations have been accorded differential treatment in burial relative to other members of their society. These individuals can include criminals, women who died during childbirth, unbaptised infants, people with disabilities, and supposed revenants, to name but a few. Such burials can be identifiable in the archaeological record from an examination of the location and external characteristics of the grave site. Furthermore, the position of the body in addition to its association with unusual grave goods can be a further feature of atypical burials. The motivation behind such non-normative burial practices is also diverse and can be related to a wide variety of social and religious beliefs. It is envisaged that the volume will make a significant contribution towards our understanding of the complexities involved when dealing with non-normative burials in the archaeological record.

The Routledge Handbook Of The Bioarchaeology Of Human Conflict

Author : Christopher Knüsel
ISBN : 9781134677979
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 48. 93 MB
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If human burials were our only window onto the past, what story would they tell? Skeletal injuries constitute the most direct and unambiguous evidence for violence in the past. Whereas weapons or defenses may simply be statements of prestige or status and written sources are characteristically biased and incomplete, human remains offer clear and unequivocal evidence of physical aggression reaching as far back as we have burials to examine. Warfare is often described as ‘senseless’ and as having no place in society. Consequently, its place in social relations and societal change remains obscure. The studies in The Routledge Handbook of the Bioarchaeology of Human Conflict present an overview of the nature and development of human conflict from prehistory to recent times as evidenced by the remains of past people themselves in order to explore the social contexts in which such injuries were inflicted. A broadly chronological approach is taken from prehistory through to recent conflicts, however this book is not simply a catalogue of injuries illustrating weapon development or a narrative detailing ‘progress’ in warfare but rather provides a framework in which to explore both continuity and change based on a range of important themes which hold continuing relevance throughout human development.

The Oxford Handbook Of Roman Britain

Author : Laurence Professor of Classical Archaeology Martin Millett
ISBN : 9780199697731
Genre : Great Britain
File Size : 38. 90 MB
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Roman Britain is a critical area of research within the provinces of the Roman empire. It has formed the context for many of the seminal publications on the nature of imperialism and cultural change. Roman rule had a profound impact culture of Iron Age Britain, with new forms of material culture, and new forms of knowledge. On the other hand, there is evidence that such impacts were not uniform, leading to questions of resistance and continuity of pre-existing cultural forms. Within the last 15-20 years, the study of Roman Britain has been transformed through an enormous amount of new and interesting work which is not reflected in the main stream literature. The new archaeological work by a young generation has moved away from the narrative historical approach towards one much more closely focused on the interpretation of material. It has produced new interpretations of the material and a new light on the archaeology of the province, grounded in a close reading of the material evidence as collected by previous scholars and exploiting the rich library of publications on Romano-British studies. For the first time, this volume draws together the various scholars working on new approaches to Roman Britain to produce a comprehensive study of the present state and future trajectory of the subject. Arranged thematically and focussed primarily on the archaeological evidence, the volume challenges more traditional narrative approaches and explores new theoretical perspectives in order to better understand the archaeology of the province and its place within the wider context of the Roman Empire.

The Archaeology Of Human Bones

Author : Simon Mays
ISBN : 9781136971778
Genre : Science
File Size : 89. 20 MB
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The Archaeology of Human Bones provides an up to date account of the scientific analysis of human skeletal remains from archaeological sites. This completely revised edition reflects the latest developments in scientific techniques for studying human skeletons and the latest applications of those techniques in archaeology. In particular, the sections on ancient DNA and bone stable isotopes have been comprehensively updated, and two completely new chapters have been introduced, covering metric study of the postcranial skeleton and ethical dimensions of the study of human remains. The Archaeology of Human Bones introduces students to the anatomy of bones and teeth, utilising a large number of images. It analyzes the biasing effects of decay and incomplete recovery on burial data from archaeological sites, and discusses what we may learn about burial rites from human remains. Subsequent chapters focus on demographic analysis of earlier populations, normal skeletal variation, disease and injury, isotopic and DNA analysis of bone, the study of cremated bone and ethical aspects of working with ancient human remains. Current scientific methods are explained, alongside a critical discussion of their strengths and weaknesses. The ways in which scientific analyses of human skeletal remains can contribute to tackling major archaeological or historical issues is illustrated by means of examples drawn from studies from around the world. Technical jargon is kept to a minimum, and each chapter contains a summary of the main points that a student should grasp and a list of further reading targeted to enable students to follow up major issues covered in the book. Featuring case studies from around the world and with copious illustrations, The Archaeology of Human Bones continues to be a crucial work for students of archaeology.

An Introduction To The Archaeology Of Ancient Egypt

Author : Kathryn A. Bard
ISBN : 9781118896112
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 23. 5 MB
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This student-friendly introduction to the archaeology of ancient Egypt guides readers from the Paleolithic to the Greco-Roman periods, and has now been updated to include recent discoveries and new illustrations. • Superbly illustrated with photographs, maps, and site plans, with additional illustrations in this new edition • Organized into 11 chapters, covering: the history of Egyptology and Egyptian archaeology; prehistoric and pharaonic chronology and the ancient Egyptian language; geography, resources, and environment; and seven chapters organized chronologically and devoted to specific archaeological sites and evidence • Includes sections on salient topics such as the constructing the Great Pyramid at Giza and the process of mummification

Vampires Burial And Death

Author : Paul Barber
ISBN : 0300048599
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 63. 99 MB
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Surveys centuries of folklore about vampires and offers a scientific explanation for the origins of the legends.

Human Remains In Archaeology

Author : Charlotte A. Roberts
ISBN : 1902771753
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 24. 50 MB
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With reburial and repatriation very much a current focus of debate, this new handbook presents a hugely useful and stimulating overview of just how much we can learn from the study of human remains. The book kicks off with a balanced summary of the legal framework and ethical concerns regarding the excavation and display of human remains, which emphasises public interest in skeletal remains, as well as the need for their respectful treatment. Sections follow on the context of skeletal remains and their excavation - past funerary beliefs and traditions, and best practice in excavating recording and conserving remains. The bulk of the book however is given over to analysis - the techniques for identifying age and sex, dating, the examination of health diet and disease, and the compilation of data to analyse past populations and create demographic surveys. A concluding section on the future of bioarchaeology calls for greater dialogue with archaeologists on reburial issues, but remains overwhelmingly upbeat - "[Bioarchaeology] has emerged phoenix-like from the ashes over the last twenty years and looks set to become a major part of both academic and contract archaeology".

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