animal eyes oxford animal biology series

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Animal Eyes

Author : Michael F. Land
ISBN : 9780199581146
Genre : Science
File Size : 21. 19 MB
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Offers an introductory, but comprehensive, account of all known types of eye, in a book whose size and style made it accessible to both undergraduate and postgraduate students, as well as established researchers in the field. This edition is updated throughout to include developments made within the last 10 years, whilst retaining the structure and scope that has made it so popular.

Animal Osmoregulation

Author : Timothy J. Bradley
ISBN : 9780198569961
Genre : Science
File Size : 81. 99 MB
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Animal Osmoregulation collates a widely dispersed literature to produce a comprehensive and authoritative synthesis of the field, providing detailed examples of osmoregulatory processes at the organismal, organ and cellular level. It incorporates clear background information on ion regulation and transport (specifically in the light of recent molecular studies) and illustrates the physical principles to which each organism must adhere, as well as thephylogenetic constraints within which it must operate.

Animal Architecture Mike Hansell 2005

Author : Oxford University Press
ISBN : 9780198507512
Genre : Young Adult Nonfiction
File Size : 67. 30 MB
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My aim in this book is to investigate and celebrate the biology of animal architecture. I believe that by writing this comprehensive overview, it can be seen that this is a coherent biological topic which gives us important insights. I last did this 20 years ago (Hansell 1984), so it is interesting for me not only to see how much the subject has developed during that time, but also how my views have changed too. Animal builders are patchily distributed through the animal kingdom, but research effort is also unevenly distributed within that. Spiders in particular have received a lot of research attention, from the level of their building material to the functional design of webs and their foraging ecology. Bird nests still remain rather under-researched, but there is a flurry of exciting research on bowerbird displays. The book reveals a need for more information in a number of areas, for example, on the composition and properties of self-secreted building materials other than silk, and the mechanical properties of nearly all structures other than spider webs. On the other hand we now have a much better understanding of how simple organisms can build large complex structures, and there have been developments in the ecological and evolutionary concepts of niche construction and ecological inheritance to which studies of animal builders have contributed. This book recognises three broad categories of structure: homes, traps and displays. Chapter 1 looks at the functional role of these: homes to protect builders from the hostile forces of the physical and biological world, foraging and feeding assisted by burrowing or by the use of nets or webs, and structures for intraspecific communication, in particular the displays of bowerbirds. Chapter 2 tests predictions relating to building materials: that self-secreted materials will tend to be more standardised and more complex than collected materials and that, because of this, they will tend to be more characteristic of dynamic structures like traps than of static ones, exemplified by houses. In Preface ix fact, collected materials prove to be quite highly standardised, while the synthesis of self-secreted materials does show some flexibility. The process of building is examined in Chapters 3 and 4. Building anatomy is shown to be generally unspecialised for delicate manipulative skills but modified for power in many burrowing species. Building behaviour is found to be simple and repetitive. These findings support predictions I have previously made (Hansell 1984, 2000). The creation of very large and complex structures is shown to be possible largely through a dialogue between the builder and the developing structure in which building actions in response to local stimuli change the stimulus situation; complex architecture is an emergent property of self-organising processes. These principles apply equally well to building by large workforces of social insects as to single individuals. Animal tools are considered in the light of these findings, because they are generally regarded as important in the context of human evolution, in spite of being small and often of simple construction. Some tool makers are found to show evidence of advanced learning and cognition, but assessment of these attributes in builders generally suffers from lack of evidence. Mechanics, growth, and design are the subjects of Chapter 5. Animal homes show how building rules can be conserved while the structures grow with the size of the individual or colony occupying them. Spiders' webs provide models for the study of engineering in tension, while display structures, in particular those of bowerbirds, provide possible models for the investigation of the evolution of an aesthetic sense. In Chapter 6, the cost of home building and its trade-offs with other life history traits is examined using examples of birds' nests and caddis cases; on trap building costs and their consequences, spider webs again supply the majority of the evidence. Buildings change the world both for builders and organisms that associate with them. These are the themes of Chapters 7 and 8. Predictions (Hansell 1987a, 1993) that builders, as ecosystem engineers, will tend to stabilise habitats, resist extinction, and promote biodiversity are examined. The last of these is clearly supported, although this is found to be largely through facultative associations by organisms with constructed habitat niches. The limitations of animal built structures as evidence of phylogeny is discussed, and the concept of a key adaptation examined with the conclusion that arthropod silk has the strongest claim to this title. Evidence that building has contributed to social evolution (Hansell 1987a) is found to be inconsistent. Finally, builders are seen to alter the course of their own evolution through ecological inheritance, the passing on to their descendents of habitats that they have altered.

Photonics In Multimedia

Author : Ari Tervonen
ISBN : UOM:39015064120028
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 46. 71 MB
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Proceedings of SPIE present the original research papers presented at SPIE conferences and other high-quality conferences in the broad-ranging fields of optics and photonics. These books provide prompt access to the latest innovations in research and technology in their respective fields. Proceedings of SPIE are among the most cited references in patent literature.

Sensors And Command Control Communications And Intelligence C3i Technologies For Homeland Defense And Law Enforcement

Author : Edward M. Carapezza
ISBN : 0819466603
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 68. 88 MB
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Journal Of Experimental Biology

Author :
ISBN : NWU:35558005630617
Genre : Biology
File Size : 73. 72 MB
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Optics And Photonics In Global Homeland Security

Author :
ISBN : UOM:39015047293330
Genre : Optoelectronic devices
File Size : 81. 64 MB
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The Eye

Author : Michael F. Land
ISBN : 9780199680306
Genre : Science
File Size : 41. 38 MB
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In this Very Short Introduction, Michael Land introduces all aspects of the eye and vision in both human and animals. He looks at the features of the human eye and retina, explores the evolution of eyes, and considers aspects of visual perception, including eye movements, vision in three dimensions, colour vision, and visual recognition.

Animal Models In Eye Research

Author :
ISBN : 0080921035
Genre : Science
File Size : 39. 88 MB
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The eye is a complex sensory organ, which enables visual perception of the world. Thus the eye has several tissues that do different tasks. One of the most basic aspects of eye function is the sensitivity of cells to light and its transduction though the optic nerve to the brain. Different organisms use different ways to achieve these tasks. In this sense, eye function becomes a very important evolutionary aspect as well. This book presents the different animal models that are commonly used for eye research and their uniqueness in evaluating different aspects of eye development, evolution, physiology and disease. * Presents information on the major animal models used in eye research including invertebrates and vertebrates * Provides researchers with information needed to choose between model organisms * Includes an introductory chapter on the different types of eyes, stressing possible common molecular machinery

The Political Animal

Author : Stephen R L Clark
ISBN : 9781134658596
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 40. 90 MB
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People, as Aristotle said, are political animals. Mainstream political philosophy, however, has largely neglected humankind's animal nature as beings who are naturally equipped, and inclined, to reason and work together, create social bonds and care for their young. Stephen Clark, grounded in biological analysis and traditional ethics, probes into areas ignored in mainstream political theory and argues for the significance of social bonds which bypass or transcend state authority. Understanding the ties that bind us reveals how enormously capable we are in achieving civil order as a species. Stephen Clark advocates that a properly informed political philosophy must take into account the role of women, children, animals, minorities and the domestic virtues at large. Living and comnducting our political lives like the animals we are is a more congenial prospect than is usually supposed.

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