animal locomotion oxford animal biology series

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Animal Locomotion

Author : Andrew Biewener
ISBN : 9780191060854
Genre : Science
File Size : 57. 90 MB
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Animals have evolved remarkable biomechanical and physiological systems that enable their rich repertoire of motion. Animal Locomotion offers a fundamental understanding of animal movement through a broad comparative and integrative approach, including basic mathematics and physics, examination of new and enduring literature, consideration of classic and cutting-edge methods, and a strong emphasis on the core concepts that consistently ground the dizzying array of animal movements. Across scales and environments, this book integrates the biomechanics of animal movement with the physiology of animal energetics and the neural control of locomotion. This second edition has been thoroughly revised, incorporating new content on non-vertebrate animal locomotor systems, studies of animal locomotion that have inspired robotic designs, and a new chapter on the use of evolutionary approaches to locomotor mechanisms and performance.

Animal Locomotion

Author : Andrew A. Biewener
ISBN : 019850022X
Genre : Science
File Size : 30. 2 MB
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This work provides a clear foundation for understanding the underlying mechanisms by which animals have evolved to move in their physical environment. It integrates the biomechanics of animal movement with the physiology of animal energetics and the neural control of locomotion.

Animal Osmoregulation

Author : Timothy J. Bradley
ISBN : 9780198569961
Genre : Science
File Size : 25. 99 MB
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Animal Osmoregulation collates a widely dispersed literature to produce a comprehensive and authoritative synthesis of the field, providing detailed examples of osmoregulatory processes at the organismal, organ and cellular level. It incorporates clear background information on ion regulation and transport (specifically in the light of recent molecular studies) and illustrates the physical principles to which each organism must adhere, as well as thephylogenetic constraints within which it must operate.

Animal Eyes

Author : Michael F. Land
ISBN : 9780191625367
Genre : Science
File Size : 84. 49 MB
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Animal Eyes provides a comparative account of all known types of eye in the animal kingdom, outlining their structure and function with an emphasis on the nature of the optical systems and the physical principles involved in image formation. A universal theme throughout the book is the evolution and taxonomic distribution of each type of eye, and the roles of different eye types in the behaviour and ecology of the animals that possess them. In comparing the specific capabilities of eyes, it considers the factors that lead to good resolution of detail and the ability to function under a wide range of light conditions. This new edition is fully updated throughout, incorporating more than a decade of new discoveries and research.

Animal Architecture Mike Hansell 2005

Author : Oxford University Press
ISBN : 9780198507512
Genre : Young Adult Nonfiction
File Size : 71. 89 MB
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My aim in this book is to investigate and celebrate the biology of animal architecture. I believe that by writing this comprehensive overview, it can be seen that this is a coherent biological topic which gives us important insights. I last did this 20 years ago (Hansell 1984), so it is interesting for me not only to see how much the subject has developed during that time, but also how my views have changed too. Animal builders are patchily distributed through the animal kingdom, but research effort is also unevenly distributed within that. Spiders in particular have received a lot of research attention, from the level of their building material to the functional design of webs and their foraging ecology. Bird nests still remain rather under-researched, but there is a flurry of exciting research on bowerbird displays. The book reveals a need for more information in a number of areas, for example, on the composition and properties of self-secreted building materials other than silk, and the mechanical properties of nearly all structures other than spider webs. On the other hand we now have a much better understanding of how simple organisms can build large complex structures, and there have been developments in the ecological and evolutionary concepts of niche construction and ecological inheritance to which studies of animal builders have contributed. This book recognises three broad categories of structure: homes, traps and displays. Chapter 1 looks at the functional role of these: homes to protect builders from the hostile forces of the physical and biological world, foraging and feeding assisted by burrowing or by the use of nets or webs, and structures for intraspecific communication, in particular the displays of bowerbirds. Chapter 2 tests predictions relating to building materials: that self-secreted materials will tend to be more standardised and more complex than collected materials and that, because of this, they will tend to be more characteristic of dynamic structures like traps than of static ones, exemplified by houses. In Preface ix fact, collected materials prove to be quite highly standardised, while the synthesis of self-secreted materials does show some flexibility. The process of building is examined in Chapters 3 and 4. Building anatomy is shown to be generally unspecialised for delicate manipulative skills but modified for power in many burrowing species. Building behaviour is found to be simple and repetitive. These findings support predictions I have previously made (Hansell 1984, 2000). The creation of very large and complex structures is shown to be possible largely through a dialogue between the builder and the developing structure in which building actions in response to local stimuli change the stimulus situation; complex architecture is an emergent property of self-organising processes. These principles apply equally well to building by large workforces of social insects as to single individuals. Animal tools are considered in the light of these findings, because they are generally regarded as important in the context of human evolution, in spite of being small and often of simple construction. Some tool makers are found to show evidence of advanced learning and cognition, but assessment of these attributes in builders generally suffers from lack of evidence. Mechanics, growth, and design are the subjects of Chapter 5. Animal homes show how building rules can be conserved while the structures grow with the size of the individual or colony occupying them. Spiders' webs provide models for the study of engineering in tension, while display structures, in particular those of bowerbirds, provide possible models for the investigation of the evolution of an aesthetic sense. In Chapter 6, the cost of home building and its trade-offs with other life history traits is examined using examples of birds' nests and caddis cases; on trap building costs and their consequences, spider webs again supply the majority of the evidence. Buildings change the world both for builders and organisms that associate with them. These are the themes of Chapters 7 and 8. Predictions (Hansell 1987a, 1993) that builders, as ecosystem engineers, will tend to stabilise habitats, resist extinction, and promote biodiversity are examined. The last of these is clearly supported, although this is found to be largely through facultative associations by organisms with constructed habitat niches. The limitations of animal built structures as evidence of phylogeny is discussed, and the concept of a key adaptation examined with the conclusion that arthropod silk has the strongest claim to this title. Evidence that building has contributed to social evolution (Hansell 1987a) is found to be inconsistent. Finally, builders are seen to alter the course of their own evolution through ecological inheritance, the passing on to their descendents of habitats that they have altered.

Energy For Animal Life

Author : R. McNeill Alexander
ISBN : 019850053X
Genre : Science
File Size : 69. 28 MB
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Energy for Animal Life, the first book in the innovative new Oxford Animal Biology Series, is about how animals get energy, and how they use it. It explores all aspects of animal energetics, from the different levels of the food chain, the relative merits of different digestive systems or of different strategies for finding and choosing food, and the importance of temperature regulation, to the energy costs of motion, growth and reproduction. The book is truly comparative, drawing on examples from across the animal kingdom, and looking for parallels that transcend taxonomy. Lots of practical information on relevant experiments is included. Accessibly written, the book is suitable as supplementary reading for undergraduates taking a degree course in biological sciences.

Animal Behavior Das Original Mit Bersetzungshilfen Easy Reading Edition

Author : John Alcock
ISBN : 382741783X
Genre : Science
File Size : 79. 79 MB
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John Alcocks Standardwerk Animal Behavior - jetzt in Form eines völlig neuen Lehrbuchtyps, der speziell für die Studiensituation im deutschsprachigen Raum konzipiert wurde.* Das erfolgreiche Lehrbuch Animal Behavior stellt die verschiedenen Aspekte tierischen Verhaltens in einen evolutionsbiologischen Rahmen. Es behandelt die grundlegenden Mechanismen des Verhaltens ebenso wie seine stammesgeschichtlichen Ursachen und betont die Bedeutung der Evolutionstheorie als einigendes Element der unterschiedlichen Teildisziplinen der Verhaltensbiologie. Wichtige Konzepte werden sowohl an Wirbellosen wie an Wirbeltieren verdeutlicht. Alcocks klarer und engagierter Schreibstil macht es auch Anfängern trotz der stark konzeptionellen Ausrichtung des Werkes leicht, den Stoff zu verstehen. Die nun vorliegende achte Auflage des Standardwerkes wurde völlig neu geschrieben. Zahlreiche Erkenntnisse aus jüngster Zeit haben darin Eingang gefunden. Verständnisfragen direkt an den entsprechenden Textstellen regen dazu an, sich mit dem gerade gelesenen Stoff auseinanderzusetzen. Die beiden Kapitel über die Einflüsse von Vererbung und Umwelt auf die Entwicklung wurden vereint, um zu verdeutlichen, dass Entwicklungsprozesse sowohl von genetischen als auch von Umweltfaktoren abhängen. Der Autor führt dem Leser immer wieder vor Augen, welche Rolle der Überprüfung von Theorien und Hypothesen zukommt und dass wissenschaftliche Schlussfolgerungen immer nur vorübergehend gültig sind. So werden in diesem Buch auch kontrovers diskutierte und bisher ungelöste Probleme angesprochen. * Von Studierenden der Biowissenschaften wird heute erwartet, dass sie im Laufe ihres Studiums englische Literatur problemlos lesen und verstehen und schließlich auch Forschungsergebnisse auf Englisch kommunizieren können. Den Weg dorthin bereitet der neu entwickelte Lehrbuchtyp Easy Reading - Das Original mit Übersetzungshilfen. So bietet die vorliegende Ausgabe von Animal Behavior in einem zusammen: den englischen Originaltext deutsche Übersetzungshilfen in der Randspalte deutschsprachige Verständnisfragen / Übungsaufgaben ein englisch-deutsches Glossar deutsch- und englischsprachige Kapitelzusammenfassungen und auf der Website eine Übersicht über die im Buch erwähnten Arten (deutsch, englisch, lateinisch) Internetlinks für Deutschland, Österreich und die Schweiz Wesentlicher Zusatznutzen der "Easy Reading"-Ausgabe ist, das Lesen des englischen Grundtextes zu erleichtern und in die spezielle wissenschaftliche Terminologie einzuführen. Wer dieses Buch durcharbeitet, steigert somit seine fachliche und seine sprachliche Kompetenz zugleich. This new edition of Animal Behavior has been completely rewritten with coverage of much recent work in animal behavior, resulting in a thoroughly up-to-date text. Notable is the inclusion, for the first time, of discussion questions embedded in the text itself, rather than appended to the end of each chapter. This format is designed to encourage students to reflect on the material they have just digested while also making it easier for instructors to promote a problem-solving approach to the subject in their classes. Another key organizational improvement is the consolidation of what had been two separate chapters on the genetic and environmental influences on development. By combining this material, the new Chapter 3 makes a stronger, more tightly argued case for the view that development is a truly interactive process codependent on both genetic and environmental factors. Like previous editions, the book shows how evolutionary biologists analyze all aspects of behavior. It is distinguished by its balanced treatment of both the underlying mechanisms and evolutionary causes of behavior, and stresses the utility of evolutionary theory in unifying the different behavio

Wearable Robots

Author : José L. Pons
ISBN : STANFORD:36105124042875
Genre : Science
File Size : 66. 40 MB
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"Logical in structure and original in its global orientation, this volume gives a full overview of wearable robotics, providing the reader with a complete understanding of the key applications and technologies suitable for its development. The main topics are demonstrated through two detailed case studies; one on a lower limb active orthosis for a human leg, and one on a wearable robot that suppresses upper limb tremor. These examples highlight the difficulties and potentialities in this area of technology, illustrating how design decisions should be made based on these."--BOOK JACKET.

Diagnosis And Management Of Lameness In The Horse E Book

Author : Michael W. Ross
ISBN : 9781437711769
Genre : Medical
File Size : 30. 46 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
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Covering many different diagnostic tools, this essential resource explores both traditional treatments and alternative therapies for conditions that can cause gait abnormalities in horses. Broader in scope than any other book of its kind, this edition describes equine sporting activities and specific lameness conditions in major sport horse types, and includes up-to-date information on all imaging modalities. This title includes additional digital media when purchased in print format. For this digital book edition, media content may not be included. Cutting-edge information on diagnostic application for computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging includes the most comprehensive section available on MRI in the live horse. Coverage of traditional treatment modalities also includes many aspects of alternative therapy, with a practical and realistic perspective on prognosis. An examination of the various types of horses used in sports describes the lameness conditions to which each horse type is particularly prone, as well as differences in prognosis. Guidelines on how to proceed when a diagnosis cannot easily be reached help you manage conditions when faced with the limitations of current diagnostic capabilities. Clinical examination and diagnostic analgesia are given a special emphasis. Practical, hands-on information covers a wide range of horse types from around the world. A global perspective is provided by a team of international authors, editors, and contributors. A full-color insert shows thermography images. Updated chapters include the most current information on topics such as MRI, foot pain, stem cell therapy, and shock wave treatment. Two new chapters include The Biomechanics of the Equine Limb and its Effect on Lameness and Clinical Use of Stem Cells, Marrow Components, and Other Growth Factors. The chapter on the hock has been expanded substantially, and the section on lameness associated with the foot has been completely rewritten to include state-of-the-art information based on what has been learned from MRI. Many new figures appear throughout the book.

Animal Movement Across Scales

Author : Lars-Anders Hansson
ISBN : 9780199677191
Genre : Science
File Size : 24. 3 MB
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Adopts a broad, cross-taxonomic approach to animal movement across both temporal and spatial scales; addresses how and why animals move, and in what ways they differ in their locomotion and navigation performance; synthesizes our current knowledge of the genetics of movement/migration, including gene flow and local adaptations; provides a future perspective on how patterns of animal migration may change over time, together with the potential evolutionary consequences.--Provided by publisher

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