antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in the environment

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Antibiotics And Antibiotic Resistance In The Environment

Author : Carlos F. Amábile-Cuevas
ISBN : 9781315679419
Genre : Medical
File Size : 21. 79 MB
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The presence of antibiotics, antibiotic resistance genes, and antibiotic resistant bacteria in the environment (i.e., outside of clinical settings, such as antibiotic-treated patients or antibiotic-impregnated locations, such as hospitals) is a cause of growing worldwide concern, as it reveals the extensive impact of antibiotic abuse and other human-related pressures upon microbes. Also, the potential clinical and environmental impact of the presence of antibiotic resistance outside the obvious clinical settings is mostly unknown, but could be unexpectedly large, as resistance in clinical conditions can be seen as a very small "tip of the iceberg". The field of detecting and measuring resistance in the environment has rapidly evolved from mostly anecdotal reports at the end of the 1990s, to a systematic search of organisms and genes in a wide variety of settings, from ancient permafrost to migratory birds. This book will review the available evidence and hypotheses on where this resistance is coming from and for how long it has been there; what are the selective and maintenance pressures involved, and how is resistance spreading; what are the known and possible traits that are being selected and spread along with antibiotic resistance ones; what are the laboratory and in-silico strategies to look into this issue, and their advantages and disadvantages.

Antimicrobial Resistance In The Environment

Author : Patricia L. Keen
ISBN : 9780470905425
Genre : Science
File Size : 29. 96 MB
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Examines effects of the environmental distribution of antimicrobial resistance genes on human health and the ecosystem Resistance genes are everywhere in nature?in pathogens, commensals, and environmental microorganisms. This contributed work shows how the environment plays a pivotal role in the development of antimicrobial resistance traits in bacteria and the distribution of resistant microbial species, resistant genetic material, and antibiotic compounds. Readers will discover the impact of the distribution in the environment of antimicrobial resistance genes and antibiotics on both the ecosystem and human and animal health. Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment is divided into four parts: Part I, Sources, including ecological and clinical consequences of antibiotic resistance by environmental microbes Part II, Fate, including strategies to assess and minimize the biological risk of antibiotic resistance in the environment Part III, Antimicrobial Substances and Resistance, including antibiotics in the aquatic environment Part IV, Effects and Risks, including the effect of antimicrobials used for non-human purposes on human health Recognizing the intricate links among overlapping complex systems, this book examines antimicrobial resistance using a comprehensive ecosystem approach. Moreover, the book's multidisciplinary framework applies principles of microbiology, environmental toxicology, and chemistry to assess the human and ecological risks associated with exposure to antibiotics or antibiotic resistance genes that are environmental contaminants. Each chapter has been written by one or more leading researchers in such fields as microbiology, environmental science, ecology, and toxicology. Comprehensive reference lists at the end of all chapters serve as a gateway to the primary research in the field. Presenting and analyzing the latest findings in a field of growing importance to human and environmental health, this text offers readers new insights into the role of the environment in antimicrobial resistance development, the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant genetic elements, and the transport of antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotics.

Antibiotic Resistance In Aquatic Systems

Author : Satoru Suzuki
ISBN : 9782889451319
Genre :
File Size : 77. 28 MB
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Rivers, lakes and the ocean receive antibiotic resistance genes from human environments. The aquatic environments are a huge reservoir and exchange stage of antibiotic resistance genes.

Antimicrobial Resistance In Bacteria

Author : Carlos F. Amábile-Cuevas
ISBN : 9781904933243
Genre : Medical
File Size : 41. 71 MB
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Presents nine comprehensive and cutting-edge reviews on the current state of antimicrobial resistance. Special emphasis is placed on state-of-the-art research and the authors focus on novel approaches and new perspectives. Topics include new antibiotics, biofilm resistance, drug efflux, plasmid-mediated resistance, extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, monitoring of resistance, predicting the evolution of new resistance, antibiotic cycling, and a review of the system for the discovery and development of novel antibiotics.

Antibiotics And Antibiotics Resistance Genes In Soils

Author : Muhammad Zaffar Hashmi
ISBN : 9783319662602
Genre : Science
File Size : 61. 97 MB
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This book summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding antibiotics and antibiotics resistance genes (ARGs) in the soil environment. It covers a wide range of topics to help readers understand antibiotics and ARGs in soils, the risks they pose for the environment, and options for effective control. In addition, it presents a range of essential tools and methodologies that can be used to address antibiotics and ARGs in a consistent, efficient, and cost-effective manner. Gathering contributions by international experts, the book addresses both theoretical aspects and practical applications.The topics discussed include antibiotics-producing microorganisms; the routes of entry and fate of antibiotics and resistance genes; biomonitoring approaches; dissemination of ARGs in soils; risk assessment; the impact of antibiotics and ARGs on the soil microbial community and other biota; bioremediation and biodegradation approaches; and soil management strategies for antibiotics and ARG-contaminated soils.As such, the book will be of interest to students, researchers and scholars in environmental science and engineering, toxicology, the medical and pharmaceutical sciences, environmental biotechnology, soil sciences, microbial ecology and plant biotechnology. Readers and Journals: 1. This new volume on antibiotics and antibiotics resistance genes (ARGs) in the soil environment will be of interest to students, researchers and scholars in environmental science and engineering, toxicology, the medical and pharmaceutical sciences, environmental biotechnology, soil sciences,microbial ecology and plant biotechnology. 2. The book will provide government authorities all over the world with effective strategies for the management of antibiotics and antibiotics resistance genes (ARG)- contaminated soil. 3. Gathering contributions by international experts,the book addresses both theoretical aspects and practical applications.

Antimicrobial Resistance And Food Safety

Author : Chin-Yi Chen
ISBN : 9780128013373
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 65. 33 MB
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Antimicrobial Resistance and Food Safety: Methods and Techniques introduces antimicrobial resistant food-borne pathogens, their surveillance and epidemiology, emerging resistance and resistant pathogens. This analysis is followed by a systematic presentation of currently applied methodology and technology, including advanced technologies for detection, intervention, and information technologies. This reference can be used as a practical guide for scientists, food engineers, and regulatory personnel as well as students in food safety, food microbiology, or food science. Includes analysis of all major pathogens of concern Provides many case studies and examples of fundamental research findings Presents recent advances in methodologies and analytical software Demonstrates risk assessment using information technologies in foodborne pathogens

Antimicrobial Resistance In Wastewater Treatment Processes

Author : Patricia L. Keen
ISBN : 9781119192442
Genre : Science
File Size : 25. 80 MB
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Antimicrobial resistance is arguably the greatest threat to worldwide human health. This book evaluates the roles of human water use, treatment and conservation in the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Designed as a companion volume to Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment (Wiley-Blackwell, 2012), this book is a multi-disciplinary synthesis of topics related to antimicrobial resistance and wastewater treatment processes. Antimicrobial Resistance in Wastewater Treatment Processes assembles detailed discussions written by many of the world's best-known experts in microbiology, civil engineering, chemistry, environmental science, public health and related fields. The book presents a collection of subjects that includes: Current knowledge of the role of the environment in development and spread of antimicrobial resistance Chemical analysis of antibiotics in environmental samples Molecular methods for analysis of antimicrobial resistance genes Advanced wastewater treatment processes and antimicrobial resistance effects Public perception of risk related to health consequences of antimicrobial resistance Public health implications of antimicrobial resistance with focus on wastewater treatment processes Antimicrobial resistance has gained a foothold in the global consciousness as a serious public health threat. There is a much greater appreciation for the role of the environment in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance and the effects of pollutants that can potentially promote development of resistance in bacteria. Contaminants released from wastewater treatment plants are a concern. In Antimicrobial Resistance in Wastewater Treatment Processes, readers will be guided through examinations of the current science related to this important health issue.

One Health And The Politics Of Antimicrobial Resistance

Author : Laura H. Kahn
ISBN : 9781421420059
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 48. 50 MB
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Zoonoses—infectious diseases, such as SARS and mad cow, that originate in animals and spread to humans—reveal how intimately animal and human health are linked. Complicating this relationship further, when livestock are given antibiotics to increase growth, it can lead to resistant bacteria. Unfortunately, there are few formal channels for practitioners of human medicine and veterinary medicine to communicate about threats to public health. To address this problem, Dr. Laura H. Kahn and her colleagues are promoting the One Health concept, which seeks to increase communication and collaboration between professionals in human, animal, and environmental health. In One Health and the Politics of Antimicrobial Resistance, Dr. Kahn investigates the use of antibiotics and the surge in antimicrobial resistance in food animals and humans from a One Health perspective. Although the medical community has blamed the problem on agricultural practices, the agricultural community insists that antibiotic resistance is the result of indiscriminate use of antibiotics in human medicine. Dr. Kahn argues that this blame game has fueled the politics of antibiotic resistance and hindered the development of effective policies to address the worsening crisis. Combining painstaking research with unprecedented access to international data, the book analyzes the surprising outcomes of differing policy approaches to antibiotic resistance around the globe. By integrating the perspectives of both medicine and agriculture and exploring the history and science behind the widespread use of growth-promoting antibiotics, One Health and the Politics of Antimicrobial Resistance examines the controversy in a unique way while offering policy recommendations that all sides can accept.

Tackling Antibiotic Resistance From A Food Safety Perspective In Europe

Author :
ISBN : 9289014210
Genre : Medical
File Size : 58. 70 MB
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Antibiotics have revolutionized the treatment of infectious diseases. But their use and misuse have resulted in the development and spread of antibiotic resistance. This is now a significant health problem: each year in the European Union alone, over 25 000 people die from infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Antibiotic resistance is also a food safety problem: antibiotic use in food animals -for treatment, disease prevention or growth promotion - allows resistant bacteria and resistance genes to spread from food animals to humans through the food-chain. This publication explores the options for prevention and containment of antibiotic resistance in the food-chain through national coordination and international cooperation, including the regulation and reduction of antibiotic use in food animals, training and capacity building, surveillance of resistance trends and antibiotic usage, promotion of knowledge and research, and advocacy and communication to raise awareness of the issues. This publication is primarily intended for policy-makers and authorities working in the public health, agriculture, food production and veterinary sectors, and offers them ways to take a holistic, intersectoral, multifaceted approach to this growing problem.

Antibiotic Resistance

Author : Karl S. Drlica
ISBN : 0132117320
Genre : Medical
File Size : 66. 80 MB
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Authored by two leading investigators, this book presents a thorough and authoritative overview of this multifaceted field of science. Pathogenic bacteria have been evolving and spreading resistance to diverse classes of antibiotics. As a result, we risk losing our ability to control and treat infectious diseases. Understanding antibiotic resistance, therefore, is becoming increasingly essential for a broad audience of healthcare professionals, biomedical and public health researchers, students, and policymakers. The authors answer questions such as: What is resistance? How does it emerge? How do common human activities contribute to resistance? What can we do about it? How can we strengthen our “first lines of defense” against resistance? Are there better ways to discover new antibiotics? What unique issues are associated with MRSA and viral influenza? In addition to defining and evaluating one of the most important emerging threats to public health, the authors explain what can be done to minimize risks to public health, and to preserve and extend the effectiveness of existing and new antibiotics.

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