bayesian methods for measures of agreement chapman hall crc biostatistics series

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Bayesian Methods For Measures Of Agreement

Author : Lyle D. Broemeling
ISBN : 1420083430
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 51. 8 MB
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Using WinBUGS to implement Bayesian inferences of estimation and testing hypotheses, Bayesian Methods for Measures of Agreement presents useful methods for the design and analysis of agreement studies. It focuses on agreement among the various players in the diagnostic process. The author employs a Bayesian approach to provide statistical inferences based on various models of intra- and interrater agreement. He presents many examples that illustrate the Bayesian mode of reasoning and explains elements of a Bayesian application, including prior information, experimental information, the likelihood function, posterior distribution, and predictive distribution. The appendices provide the necessary theoretical foundation to understand Bayesian methods as well as introduce the fundamentals of programming and executing the WinBUGS software. Taking a Bayesian approach to inference, this hands-on book explores numerous measures of agreement, including the Kappa coefficient, the G coefficient, and intraclass correlation. With examples throughout and end-of-chapter exercises, it discusses how to successfully design and analyze an agreement study.

Bayesian Methods For Repeated Measures

Author : Lyle D. Broemeling
ISBN : 9781482248203
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 44. 46 MB
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Analyze Repeated Measures Studies Using Bayesian Techniques Going beyond standard non-Bayesian books, Bayesian Methods for Repeated Measures presents the main ideas for the analysis of repeated measures and associated designs from a Bayesian viewpoint. It describes many inferential methods for analyzing repeated measures in various scientific areas, especially biostatistics. The author takes a practical approach to the analysis of repeated measures. He bases all the computing and analysis on the WinBUGS package, which provides readers with a platform that efficiently uses prior information. The book includes the WinBUGS code needed to implement posterior analysis and offers the code for download online. Accessible to both graduate students in statistics and consulting statisticians, the book introduces Bayesian regression techniques, preliminary concepts and techniques fundamental to the analysis of repeated measures, and the most important topic for repeated measures studies: linear models. It presents an in-depth explanation of estimating the mean profile for repeated measures studies, discusses choosing and estimating the covariance structure of the response, and expands the representation of a repeated measure to general mixed linear models. The author also explains the Bayesian analysis of categorical response data in a repeated measures study, Bayesian analysis for repeated measures when the mean profile is nonlinear, and a Bayesian approach to missing values in the response variable.

Advanced Bayesian Methods For Medical Test Accuracy

Author : Lyle D. Broemeling
ISBN : 9781439838792
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 34. 61 MB
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Useful in many areas of medicine and biology, Bayesian methods are particularly attractive tools for the design of clinical trials and diagnostic tests, which are based on established information, usually from related previous studies. Advanced Bayesian Methods for Medical Test Accuracy begins with a review of the usual measures such as specificity, sensitivity, positive and negative predictive value, and the area under the ROC curve. Then the scope expands to cover the more advanced topics of verification bias, diagnostic tests with imperfect gold standards, and those for which no gold standard is available. Promoting accuracy and efficiency of clinical trials, tests, and the diagnostic process, this book: Enables the user to efficiently apply prior information via a WinBUGS package Presents many ideas for the first time and goes far beyond the two standard references Integrates reader agreement with different modalities—X-ray, CT Scanners, and more—to study their effect on medical test accuracy Provides practical chapter-end problems Useful for graduate students and consulting statisticians working in the various areas of diagnostic medicine and study design, this practical resource introduces the fundamentals of programming and executing BUGS, giving readers the tools and experience to successfully analyze studies for medical test accuracy.

Randomized Phase Ii Cancer Clinical Trials

Author : Sin-Ho Jung
ISBN : 9781439871850
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 87. 24 MB
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In cancer research, a traditional phase II trial is designed as a single-arm trial that compares the experimental therapy to a historical control. This simple trial design has led to several adverse issues, including increased false positivity of phase II trial results and negative phase III trials. To rectify these problems, oncologists and biostatisticians have begun to use a randomized phase II trial that compares an experimental therapy with a prospective control therapy. Randomized Phase II Cancer Clinical Trials explains how to properly select and accurately use diverse statistical methods for designing and analyzing phase II trials. The author first reviews the statistical methods for single-arm phase II trials since some methodologies for randomized phase II trials stem from single-arm phase II trials and many phase II cancer clinical trials still use single-arm designs. The book then presents methods for randomized phase II trials and describes statistical methods for both single-arm and randomized phase II trials. Although the text focuses on phase II cancer clinical trials, the statistical methods covered can also be used (with minor modifications) in phase II trials for other diseases and in phase III cancer clinical trials. Suitable for cancer clinicians and biostatisticians, this book shows how randomized phase II trials with a prospective control resolve the shortcomings of traditional single-arm phase II trials. It provides readers with numerous statistical design and analysis methods for randomized phase II trials in oncology.

Benefit Risk Assessment Methods In Medical Product Development

Author : Qi Jiang
ISBN : 9781315355016
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 30. 40 MB
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Guides You on the Development and Implementation of B–R Evaluations Benefit–Risk Assessment Methods in Medical Product Development: Bridging Qualitative and Quantitative Assessments provides general guidance and case studies to aid practitioners in selecting specific benefit–risk (B–R) frameworks and quantitative methods. Leading experts from industry, regulatory agencies, and academia present practical examples, lessons learned, and best practices that illustrate how to conduct structured B–R assessment in clinical development and regulatory submission. The first section of the book discusses the role of B–R assessments in medicine development and regulation, the need for both a common B–R framework and patient input into B–R decisions, and future directions. The second section focuses on legislative and regulatory policy initiatives as well as decisions made at the U.S. FDA’s Center for Devices and Radiological Health. The third section examines key elements of B–R evaluations in a product’s life cycle, such as uncertainty evaluation and quantification, quantifying patient B–R trade-off preferences, ways to identify subgroups with the best B–R profiles, and data sources used to assist B–R assessment. The fourth section equips practitioners with tools to conduct B–R evaluations, including assessment methodologies, a quantitative joint modeling and joint evaluation framework, and several visualization tools. The final section presents a rich collection of case studies. With top specialists sharing their in-depth knowledge, thought-provoking considerations, and practical advice, this book offers comprehensive coverage of B–R evaluation methods, tools, and case studies. It gives practitioners a much-needed toolkit to develop and conduct their own B–R evaluations.

Measures Of Interobserver Agreement And Reliability

Author : Mohamed M. Shoukri
ISBN : 0203502590
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 71. 45 MB
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Agreement among at least two evaluators is an issue of prime importance to statisticians, clinicians, epidemiologists, psychologists, and many other scientists. Measuring interobserver agreement is a method used to evaluate inconsistencies in findings from different evaluators who collect the same or similar information. Highlighting applications over theory, Measure of Interobserver Agreement provides a comprehensive survey of this method and includes standards and directions on how to run sound reliability and agreement studies in clinical settings and other types of investigations. The author clearly explains how to reduce measurement error, presents numerous practical examples of the interobserver agreement approach, and emphasizes measures of agreement among raters for categorical assessments. The models and methods are considered in two different but closely related contexts: 1) assessing agreement among several raters where the response variable is continuous and 2) where there is a prior decision by the investigators to use categorical scales to judge the subjects enrolled in the study. While the author thoroughly discusses the practical and theoretical issues of case 1, a major portion of this book is devoted to case 2. He explores issues such as two raters randomly judging a group of subjects, interrater bias and its connection to marginal homogeneity, and statistical issues in determining sample size. Statistical analysis of real and hypothetical datasets are presented to demonstrate the various applications of the models in repeatability and validation studies. To help with problem solving, the monograph includes SAS code, both within the book and on the CRC Web site. The author presents information with the right amount mathematical details, making this a cohesive book that reflects new research and the latest developments in the field.

Bayesian Methods In Epidemiology

Author : Lyle D. Broemeling
ISBN : 9781466564978
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 37. 93 MB
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Written by a biostatistics expert with over 20 years of experience in the field, Bayesian Methods in Epidemiology presents statistical methods used in epidemiology from a Bayesian viewpoint. It employs the software package WinBUGS to carry out the analyses and offers the code in the text and for download online. The book examines study designs that investigate the association between exposure to risk factors and the occurrence of disease. It covers introductory adjustment techniques to compare mortality between states and regression methods to study the association between various risk factors and disease, including logistic regression, simple and multiple linear regression, categorical/ordinal regression, and nonlinear models. The text also introduces a Bayesian approach for the estimation of survival by life tables and illustrates other approaches to estimate survival, including a parametric model based on the Weibull distribution and the Cox proportional hazards (nonparametric) model. Using Bayesian methods to estimate the lead time of the modality, the author explains how to screen for a disease among individuals that do not exhibit any symptoms of the disease. With many examples and end-of-chapter exercises, this book is the first to introduce epidemiology from a Bayesian perspective. It shows epidemiologists how these Bayesian models and techniques are useful in studying the association between disease and exposure to risk factors.

Confidence Intervals For Proportions And Related Measures Of Effect Size

Author : Robert G. Newcombe
ISBN : 9781439812785
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 29. 19 MB
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Confidence Intervals for Proportions and Related Measures of Effect Size illustrates the use of effect size measures and corresponding confidence intervals as more informative alternatives to the most basic and widely used significance tests. The book provides you with a deep understanding of what happens when these statistical methods are applied in situations far removed from the familiar Gaussian case. Drawing on his extensive work as a statistician and professor at Cardiff University School of Medicine, the author brings together methods for calculating confidence intervals for proportions and several other important measures, including differences, ratios, and nonparametric effect size measures generalizing Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests. He also explains three important approaches to obtaining intervals for related measures. Many examples illustrate the application of the methods in the health and social sciences. Requiring little computational skills, the book offers user-friendly Excel spreadsheets for download at www.crcpress.com, enabling you to easily apply the methods to your own empirical data.

Bayesian Methods In Health Economics

Author : Gianluca Baio
ISBN : 9781439895559
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 55. 67 MB
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Health economics is concerned with the study of the cost-effectiveness of health care interventions. This book provides an overview of Bayesian methods for the analysis of health economic data. After an introduction to the basic economic concepts and methods of evaluation, it presents Bayesian statistics using accessible mathematics. The next chapters describe the theory and practice of cost-effectiveness analysis from a statistical viewpoint, and Bayesian computation, notably MCMC. The final chapter presents three detailed case studies covering cost-effectiveness analyses using individual data from clinical trials, evidence synthesis and hierarchical models and Markov models. The text uses WinBUGS and JAGS with datasets and code available online.

Bayesian Methods In Epidemiology

Author : Lyle D. Broemeling
ISBN : 9781466564978
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 21. 26 MB
Format : PDF, Mobi
Download : 524
Read : 757

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Written by a biostatistics expert with over 20 years of experience in the field, Bayesian Methods in Epidemiology presents statistical methods used in epidemiology from a Bayesian viewpoint. It employs the software package WinBUGS to carry out the analyses and offers the code in the text and for download online. The book examines study designs that investigate the association between exposure to risk factors and the occurrence of disease. It covers introductory adjustment techniques to compare mortality between states and regression methods to study the association between various risk factors and disease, including logistic regression, simple and multiple linear regression, categorical/ordinal regression, and nonlinear models. The text also introduces a Bayesian approach for the estimation of survival by life tables and illustrates other approaches to estimate survival, including a parametric model based on the Weibull distribution and the Cox proportional hazards (nonparametric) model. Using Bayesian methods to estimate the lead time of the modality, the author explains how to screen for a disease among individuals that do not exhibit any symptoms of the disease. With many examples and end-of-chapter exercises, this book is the first to introduce epidemiology from a Bayesian perspective. It shows epidemiologists how these Bayesian models and techniques are useful in studying the association between disease and exposure to risk factors.

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