boundaries of contagion how ethnic politics have shaped government responses to aids

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Boundaries Of Contagion

Author : Evan S. Lieberman
ISBN : 9781400830459
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 20. 87 MB
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Why have governments responded to the HIV/AIDS pandemic in such different ways? During the past quarter century, international agencies and donors have disseminated vast resources and a set of best practice recommendations to policymakers around the globe. Yet the governments of developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean continue to implement widely varying policies. Boundaries of Contagion is the first systematic, comparative analysis of the politics of HIV/AIDS. The book explores the political challenges of responding to a stigmatized condition, and identifies ethnic boundaries--the formal and informal institutions that divide societies--as a central influence on politics and policymaking. Evan Lieberman examines the ways in which risk and social competition get mapped onto well-institutionalized patterns of ethnic politics. Where strong ethnic boundaries fragment societies into groups, the politics of AIDS are more likely to involve blame and shame-avoidance tactics against segments of the population. In turn, government leaders of such countries respond far less aggressively to the epidemic. Lieberman's case studies of Brazil, South Africa, and India--three developing countries that face significant AIDS epidemics--are complemented by statistical analyses of the policy responses of Indian states and over seventy developing countries. The studies conclude that varied patterns of ethnic competition shape how governments respond to this devastating problem. The author considers the implications for governments and donors, and the increasing tendency to identify social problems in ethnic terms.

Doomed Interventions

Author : Kim Yi Dionne
ISBN : 9781108173841
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 52. 55 MB
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Between 2002 and 2013, bilateral donors spent over $64 billion on AIDS intervention in low- and middle-income countries. During the same period, nearly 25 million died of AIDS and more than 32 million were newly infected with HIV. In this book for students of political economy and public policy in Africa, as well as global health, Kim Yi Dionne tries to understand why AIDS interventions in Africa often fail. The fight against AIDS requires the coordination of multiple actors across borders and levels of governance in highly affected countries, and these actors can be the primary sources of the problem. Dionne observes misaligned priorities along the global chain of actors, and argues this misalignment can create multiple opportunities for failure. Analyzing foreign aid flows and public opinion polls, Dionne shows that while the international community highly prioritizes AIDS, ordinary Africans view AIDS as but one of the many problems they face daily.

Beyond Ethnic Politics In Africa

Author : Dominika Koter
ISBN : 9781316772904
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 28. 26 MB
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Why do ethnic politics emerge in some ethnically diverse societies but not others? Focusing on sub-Saharan Africa, Dominika Koter argues that the prevailing social structures of a country play a central role in how politicians attempt to mobilize voters. In particular, politicians consider the strength of local leaders, such as chiefs or religious dignitaries, who have historically played a crucial role in many parts of rural Africa. Local leaders can change the electoral dynamics by helping politicians secure votes among people of different ethnicities. Ethnic politics thus can be avoided where there are local leaders who can serve as credible electoral intermediaries between voters and politicians. Koter shows that there is widespread variation in the standing of local leaders across Africa, as a result of long-term historical trends, which has meant that politicians have mobilized voters in qualitatively different ways, resulting in different levels of ethnic politics across the continent.

The Aids Conspiracy

Author : Nicoli Nattrass
ISBN : 9780231520256
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 49. 81 MB
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Since the early days of the AIDS epidemic, many bizarre and dangerous hypotheses have been advanced to explain the origins of the disease. In this compelling book, Nicoli Nattrass explores the social and political factors prolonging the erroneous belief that the American government manufactured the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to be used as a biological weapon, as well as the myth's consequences for behavior, especially within African American and black South African communities. Contemporary AIDS denialism, the belief that HIV is harmless and that antiretroviral drugs are the true cause of AIDS, is a more insidious AIDS conspiracy theory. Advocates of this position make a "conspiratorial move" against HIV science by implying its methods cannot be trusted and that untested, alternative therapies are safer than antiretrovirals. These claims are genuinely life-threatening, as tragically demonstrated in South Africa when the delay of antiretroviral treatment resulted in nearly 333,000 AIDS deaths and 180,000 HIV infections—a tragedy of stunning proportions. Nattrass identifies four symbolically powerful figures ensuring the lifespan of AIDS denialism: the hero scientist (dissident scientists who lend credibility to the movement); the cultropreneur (alternative therapists who exploit the conspiratorial move as a marketing mechanism); the living icon (individuals who claim to be living proof of AIDS denialism's legitimacy); and the praise-singer (journalists who broadcast movement messages to the public). Nattrass also describes how pro-science activists have fought back by deploying empirical evidence and political credibility to resist AIDS conspiracy theories, which is part of the crucial project to defend evidence-based medicine.

Making And Unmaking Nations

Author : Scott Straus
ISBN : 9780801455674
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 22. 5 MB
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In Making and Unmaking Nations, Scott Straus seeks to explain why and how genocide takes place—and, perhaps more important, how it has been avoided in places where it may have seemed likely or even inevitable. To solve that puzzle, he examines postcolonial Africa, analyzing countries in which genocide occurred and where it could have but did not. Why have there not been other Rwandas? Straus finds that deep-rooted ideologies—how leaders make their nations—shape strategies of violence and are central to what leads to or away from genocide. Other critical factors include the dynamics of war, the role of restraint, and the interaction between national and local actors in the staging of campaigns of large-scale violence. Grounded in Straus's extensive fieldwork in contemporary Africa, the study of major twentieth-century cases of genocide, and the literature on genocide and political violence, Making and Unmaking Nations centers on cogent analyses of three nongenocide cases (Côte d’Ivoire, Mali, and Senegal) and two in which genocide took place (Rwanda and Sudan). Straus’s empirical analysis is based in part on an original database of presidential speeches from 1960 to 2005. The book also includes a broad-gauge analysis of all major cases of large-scale violence in Africa since decolonization. Straus’s insights into the causes of genocide will inform the study of political violence as well as giving policymakers and nongovernmental organizations valuable tools for the future.

Der Aufstieg Der Anderen

Author : Fareed Zakaria
ISBN : 388680917X
Genre : East and West
File Size : 65. 33 MB
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Der Verfasser erklärt in seinem Buch, warum wir am Beginn eines neuen, postamerikanischen Zeitalters stehen und dennoch auf eine starke Rolle der USA unter ihrem neuen Präsidenten Barack Obama angewiesen sind.

Warum Nationen Scheitern

Author : Daron Acemoglu
ISBN : 9783104022475
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 41. 69 MB
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Der Klassiker - von sechs Wirtschaftsnobelpreisträgern empfohlen, eine Pflichtlektüre! Warum sind Nationen reich oder arm? Starökonom Daron Acemoglu und Harvard-Politologe James Robinson geben eine ebenso schlüssige wie eindrucksvolle Antwort auf diese grundlegende Frage. Anhand zahlreicher, faszinierender Fallbeispiele – von den Conquistadores über die Industrielle Revolution bis zum heutigen China, von Sierra Leone bis Kolumbien – zeigen sie, mit welcher Macht die Eliten mittels repressiver Institutionen sämtliche Regeln zu ihren Gunsten manipulieren - zum Schaden der vielen Einzelnen. Ein spannendes und faszinierendes Plädoyer dafür, dass Geschichte und Geographie kein Schicksal sind. Und ein überzeugendes Beispiel, dass die richtige Analyse der Vergangenheit neue Wege zum Verständnis unserer Gegenwart und neue Perspektiven für die Zukunft eröffnet. Ein provokatives, brillantes und einzigartiges Buch. »Dieses Buch werden unsere Ur-Ur-Urenkel in zweihundert Jahren noch lesen.« George Akerlof, Nobelpreisträger für Wirtschaftswissenschaften »Eine absolut überzeugende Studie.« Gary S. Becker, Nobelpreisträger für Wirtschaftswissenschaften »Ein wirklich wichtiges Buch.« Michael Spence, Nobelpreisträger für Wirtschaftswissenschaften »Acemoglu und Robinson begeistern und regen zum Nachdenken an.« Robert Solow, Nobelpreisträger für Wirtschaftswissenschaften »Ein wichtiges, unverzichtbares Werk.« Peter Diamond, Nobelpreisträger für Wirtschaftswissenschaften »Ein wichtiger Beitrag zur Debatte, warum Staaten mit gleicher Vorrausetzung sich so wesentlich in wirtschaftlichen und politischen Entwicklungen unterscheiden.« Kenneth J. Arrow, Nobelpreisträger für Wirtschaftswissenschaften »Diese faktenreiche und ermutigende Streitschrift lehrt uns, dass die Geschichte glücklich enden kann, wenn ihr kein Mensch mehr als Versuchsobjekt dient.« Michael Holmes, NZZ am Sonntag »Anderthalb Jahrzehnte Arbeit eines Pools von Wissenschaftlern, auf 600 Seiten zusammengefasst durch zwei Forscher von Weltrang – und dies kommt heraus: eine Liebeserklärung an Institutionen, die im Sinne ihrer Bürger funktionieren. [...] bestechend.« Elisabeth von Thadden, Die Zeit »Sie werden von diesem Buch begeistert sein.« Jared Diamond, Pulitzer Preisträger und Autor der Weltbestseller »Kollaps« und »Arm und Reich« » Ein höchst lesenswertes Buch.« Francis Fukuyama, Autor des Bestsellers »Das Ende der Geschichte« »Ein phantastisches Buch. Acemoglu und Robinson gehen das wichtigste Problem der Sozialwissenschaften an – eine Frage, die führende Denker seit Jahrhunderten plagt – und liefern eine in ihrer Einfachheit und Wirkmächtigkeit brillante Antwort. Eine wunderbar lesbare Mischung aus Geschichte, Politikwissenschaft und Ökonomie, die unser Denken verändern wird. Pflichtlektüre.« Steven Levitt, Autor von »Freakonomics«

Gerechte Freiheit

Author : Philip Pettit
ISBN : 9783518740989
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 78. 65 MB
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Was heißt Freiheit heute – jenseits einer auf persönliche Interessendurchsetzung zielenden neoliberalen Marktfreiheit? Können wir noch ein Freiheitsverständnis entwickeln, das uns moralische Orientierung in einer immer komplexer werdenden Welt bietet? Philip Pettit, einer der meistdiskutierten Philosophen der Gegenwart, entwickelt in seinem mitreißenden Buch einen Freiheitsbegriff, der die Idee eines nichtbeherrschten Lebens in sein Zentrum stellt. Freiheit heißt ihm zufolge: sein eigener Herr sein, allen auf Augenhöhe begegnen können und den Einfluss anderer Menschen nicht fürchten müssen. Das hat weitreichende soziale, ökonomische und politische Konsequenzen. Ein unverzichtbarer Kompass für die Navigation im 21. Jahrhundert.

Konomische Theorie Der Demokratie

Author : Anthony Downs
ISBN : 3165290520
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 38. 38 MB
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English summary: It was Anthony Downs' objective to create a model dealing with voter and government behavior. In order to do so, he established goals which governments, parties and lobbyists as well as the voters can pursue. To motivate all those concerned, he introduced the self-interest axiom and called for rationality in order to attain these goals. With the help of marginal analysis, each voter determines his/her party differential, which will help to determine each voter's choice at the ballot box and to decide which party's rule will give him/her greater utility in the future. Downs describes how crucial the concept of ideology is to his theory. He maintains that a two-party democracy could not provide stable and effective government unless there is a large measure of ideological consensus amongst its citizens, and that political parties encouraged voters to be irrational by remaining vague and ambiguous. German description: Anthony Downs' inzwischen klassisches Demokratie-Modell des Wahler- und Regierungsverhaltens orientiert sich an der okonomischen Theorie. Er nimmt an, dass politische Parteien und Wahler in der Verfolgung bestimmter, deutlich spezifizierter Ziele optimal handeln. So treffen die Wahler unter Ungewissheit uber den Wahlvorgang und die zukunftige Regierungsbildung ihre Wahl nach dem mutmasslichen Nutzen. Die Regierung versucht, mit Hilfe der Manipulation des Budgets ihre Wiederwahl zu erreichen.Ideologien der Parteien auf der einen Seite, Interessengruppen auf der anderen stellen den Wahlern bzw. der Regierung Informationen zur rationalen Entscheidungsfindung zur Verfugung. Dabei wird deutlich, dass Mehrparteiensysteme und Verhaltniswahlrecht jedes Wahl-Kalkul unlosbar werden lassen. Auf die weiteren Folgerungen fur Demokratie-Forschung und -Verstandnis geht Downs im letzten Teil seines Werkes ausfuhrlich ein.

Aids Narratives

Author : Nicola Birkner
ISBN : 3825899357
Genre : AIDS (Disease)
File Size : 69. 42 MB
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