breaking the pendulum the long struggle over criminal justice

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Breaking The Pendulum

Author : Philip Goodman
ISBN : 9780199976065
Genre : Law
File Size : 38. 73 MB
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The history of criminal justice in the U.S. is often described as a pendulum, swinging back and forth between strict punishment and lenient rehabilitation. While this view is common wisdom, it is wrong. In Breaking the Pendulum, Philip Goodman, Joshua Page, and Michelle Phelps systematically debunk the pendulum perspective, showing that it distorts how and why criminal justice changes. The pendulum model blinds us to the blending of penal orientations, policies, and practices, as well as the struggle between actors that shapes laws, institutions, and how we think about crime, punishment, and related issues. Through a re-analysis of more than two hundred years of penal history, starting with the rise of penitentiaries in the 19th Century and ending with ongoing efforts to roll back mass incarceration, the authors offer an alternative approach to conceptualizing penal development. Their agonistic perspective posits that struggle is the motor force of criminal justice history. Punishment expands, contracts, and morphs because of contestation between real people in real contexts, not a mechanical -swing- of the pendulum. This alternative framework is far more accurate and empowering than metaphors that ignore or downplay the importance of struggle in shaping criminal justice. This clearly written, engaging book is an invaluable resource for teachers, students, and scholars seeking to understand the past, present, and future of American criminal justice. By demonstrating the central role of struggle in generating major transformations, Breaking the Pendulum encourages combatants to keep fighting to change the system.

Locked In

Author : John Pfaff
ISBN : 9780465096923
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 62. 38 MB
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"Pfaff, let there be no doubt, is a reformer...Nonetheless, he believes that the standard story--popularized in particular by Michelle Alexander, in her influential book, The New Jim Crow--is false. We are desperately in need of reform, he insists, but we must reform the right things, and address the true problem."--Adam Gopnik, The New Yorker A groundbreaking examination of our system of imprisonment, revealing the true causes of mass incarceration as well as the best path to reform In the 1970s, the United States had an incarceration rate comparable to those of other liberal democracies-and that rate had held steady for over 100 years. Yet today, though the US is home to only about 5 percent of the world's population, we hold nearly one quarter of its prisoners. Mass incarceration is now widely considered one of the biggest social and political crises of our age. How did we get to this point? Locked In is a revelatory investigation into the root causes of mass incarceration by one of the most exciting scholars in the country. Having spent fifteen years studying the data on imprisonment, John Pfaff takes apart the reigning consensus created by Michelle Alexander and other reformers, revealing that the most widely accepted explanations-the failed War on Drugs, draconian sentencing laws, an increasing reliance on private prisons-tell us much less than we think. Pfaff urges us to look at other factors instead, including a major shift in prosecutor behavior that occurred in the mid-1990s, when prosecutors began bringing felony charges against arrestees about twice as often as they had before. He describes a fractured criminal justice system, in which counties don't pay for the people they send to state prisons, and in which white suburbs set law and order agendas for more-heavily minority cities. And he shows that if we hope to significantly reduce prison populations, we have no choice but to think differently about how to deal with people convicted of violent crimes-and why some people are violent in the first place. An authoritative, clear-eyed account of a national catastrophe, Locked In transforms our understanding of what ails the American system of punishment and ultimately forces us to reconsider how we can build a more equitable and humane society.

Nordic Nationalism And Penal Order

Author : Vanessa Barker
ISBN : 9781351980142
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 58. 36 MB
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In late summer 2015, Sweden embarked on one of the largest self-described humanitarian efforts in its history, opening its borders to 163,000 asylum seekers fleeing the war in Syria. Six months later this massive effort was over. On January 4, 2016, Sweden closed its border with Denmark. This closure makes a startling reversal of Sweden’s open borders to refugees and contravenes free movement in the Schengen Area, a founding principle of the European Union. What happened? This book sets out to explain this reversal. In her new and compelling book, Vanessa Barker explores the Swedish case study to challenge several key paradigms for understanding penal order in the twenty-first century and makes an important contribution to our understanding of punishment and welfare states. She questions the dominance of neoliberalism and political economy as the main explanation for the penalization of others, migrants and foreign nationals, and develops an alternative theoretical framework based on the internal logic of the welfare state and democratic theory about citizenship, incorporation, and difference, paying particular attention to questions of belonging, worthiness, and ethnic and gender hierarchies. Her book develops the concept of penal nationalism as an important form of penal power in the twenty-first century, providing a bridge between border control and punishment studies.

International Practices Of Criminal Justice

Author : Mikkel Jarle Christensen
ISBN : 9781351384629
Genre : Law
File Size : 45. 18 MB
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International Practices of Criminal Justice: Social and Legal Perspectives examines the practitioners, practices, and institutions that are transforming the relationship between criminal justice and international governance. The book links two dimensions of international criminal justice, by analyzing the fields of international criminal law and international police cooperation. Although often thought of separately, each of these fields presents criminal justice as a governance method for resolving international challenges and crises. By focusing on examples from international criminal tribunals, transitional justice, transnational crime, and transnational policing and prosecution, the contributors to this collection all examine how criminal justice is unmoored from the state, while also attending to the struggles and challenges that emerge when criminal justice is used as a form of international action. International Practices of Criminal Justice: Social and Legal Perspectives breaks new ground in criminology, international legal studies and the sociology of law, and will be of interest to students, scholars, and practitioners across a wide array of fields in criminal justice, international law, and international governance.

Getting Screwed

Author : Alison Bass
ISBN : 9781611688450
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 27. 43 MB
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Alison Bass weaves the true stories of sex workers with the latest research on prostitution into a gripping journalistic account of how women (and some men) navigate a culture that routinely accepts the implicit exchange of sex for money, status, or even a good meal, but imposes heavy penalties on those who make such bargains explicit. Along the way, Bass examines why an increasing number of middle-class white women choose to become sex workers and explores how prostitution has become a thriving industry in the twenty-first-century global economy. Situating her book in American history more broadly, she also discusses the impact of the sexual revolution, the rise of the Nevada brothels, and the growing war on sex trafficking after 9/11. Drawing on recent studies that show lower rates of violence and sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, in regions where adult prostitution is legal and regulated, Bass makes a powerful case for decriminalizing sex work. Through comparisons of the impact of criminalization vs. decriminalization in other countries, her book offers strategies for making prostitution safer for American sex workers and the communities in which they dwell. This riveting assessment of how U.S. anti-prostitution laws harm the public health and safety of sex workers and other citizens - and affect larger societal attitudes toward women - will interest feminists, sociologists, lawyers, health-care professionals, and policy makers. The book also will appeal to anyone with an interest in American history and our society's evolving attitudes toward sexuality and marriage.

The Racial Glass Ceiling

Author : Roy L. Brooks
ISBN : 9780300223309
Genre : Law
File Size : 30. 49 MB
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A compelling study of a subtle and insidious form of racial inequality in American law and culture. Why does racial equality continue to elude African Americans even after the election of a black president? Liberals blame white racism while conservatives blame black behavior. Both define the race problem in socioeconomic terms, mainly citing jobs, education, and policing. Roy Brooks, a distinguished legal scholar, argues that the reality is more complex. He defines the race problem African Americans face today as a three-headed hydra involving socioeconomic, judicial, and cultural conditions. Focusing on law and culture, Brooks defines the problem largely as racial subordination--"the act of impeding racial progress in pursuit of nonracist interests." Racial subordination is little understood and underacknowledged, yet it produces devastating and even deadly racial consequences that affect both poor and socioeconomically successful African Americans. Brooks addresses a serious problem, in many ways more dangerous than overt racism, and offers a well-reasoned solution that draws upon the strongest virtues America has exhibited to the world.

The Rise Of Extreme Porn

Author : Alexandros K. Antoniou
ISBN : 9783319489711
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 24. 9 MB
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This book analyses the criminalisation of the possession of extreme pornography through ss 63-68 of the Criminal Justice and Immigration Act 2008. It documents the legislative history of the offence and offers a criminological perspective on the role of the media in the construction of the extreme pornography problem. It evaluates the elements of the s 63 offence and critically reflects upon their weaknesses. Moreover, the book presents an up-to-date account of the number of prosecutions initiated and convictions obtained under s 63 since it came into force, alongside an exploration into the corresponding sentencing trends. The first study of its kind in England and Wales since the controversial legal provisions at issue came into effect in 2009, this book contributes new evidence to the application of the extreme pornography provisions and will play an important role in shaping debates on the prosecution of similar offences in the coming years. This book will serve as an invaluable resource to all those with an interest in law, criminology, sociology of deviance, sexuality and pornography studies.

Nanometer Cmos Ics

Author : Harry J.M. Veendrick
ISBN : 9783319475974
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 66. 73 MB
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This textbook provides a comprehensive, fully-updated introduction to the essentials of nanometer CMOS integrated circuits. It includes aspects of scaling to even beyond 12nm CMOS technologies and designs. It clearly describes the fundamental CMOS operating principles and presents substantial insight into the various aspects of design implementation and application. Coverage includes all associated disciplines of nanometer CMOS ICs, including physics, lithography, technology, design, memories, VLSI, power consumption, variability, reliability and signal integrity, testing, yield, failure analysis, packaging, scaling trends and road blocks. The text is based upon in-house Philips, NXP Semiconductors, Applied Materials, ASML, IMEC, ST-Ericsson, TSMC, etc., courseware, which, to date, has been completed by more than 4500 engineers working in a large variety of related disciplines: architecture, design, test, fabrication process, packaging, failure analysis and software.

Reality Transurfing

Author : Vadim Zeland
ISBN : 9781846946608
Genre : Body, Mind & Spirit
File Size : 76. 76 MB
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Transurfing Reality was one of the top non-fiction bestsellers in the world in 2005 and 2006. Unknown till now in the West, the series has sold over 1,300,000 copies in Russia in three years. This translation (by Natasha Micharina) describes a new way of looking at reality, indeed of creating it. It provides a scientific explanation of the laws that help you do this, building up a scientific model, speaking in detail about particular rules to follow and giving important how-to tips, illustrated with examples. The author introduces a system of specific terms, notions, and metaphors, which together make a truly convincing, thought-provoking theory of creating your own life. “You are ruled by circumstances and it will always be like that until you learn how to manage your reality,” says the author. Bringing together the cutting edge of modern science and philosophical teaching, the book's style is popular-scientific, metaphorical and conversational. Books in the series: Reality Transurfing 1: The Space of Variations; Reality Transurfing 2: A Rustle of Morning Stars; Reality Transurfing 3: Forward to the Past; Reality Transurfing 4: Ruling Reality; Reality Transurfing 5: Apples Fall to the Sky

Pendulum

Author : Adam Hamdy
ISBN : 9781681441337
Genre : Fiction
File Size : 87. 84 MB
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Solitary photojournalist John Wallace struggles to consciousness to find he has been bound and blindfolded by a masked man who is preparing to hang him in his own living room. Forced onto a chair with a noose around his neck, Wallace briefly reconsiders his mostly lonely life before the chair is kicked out beneath him and his world fades to black. Then he gets lucky and manages to escape his apartment, just ahead of his assailant. Bloody, barefoot, and with at least one broken rib, he has no choice but to run for his life. With no idea who would want to kill him, he makes it to the hospital and files a police report, but it soon becomes clear that as far as the authorities are concerned the only threat to Wallace's life is himself, and he is placed under suicide watch. When his would-be killer strikes again, Wallace realizes he will have to figure out who is hunting him and stop him on his own. The pendulum of fate swung briefly in his favor, but it's only a matter of time before its momentum carries it to the other side . . .

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