breast cancer screening making sense of complex and evolving evidence

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Breast Cancer Screening

Author : Nehmat Houssami
ISBN : 9780128024942
Genre : Medical
File Size : 60. 78 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
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Breast Cancer Screening: Making Sense of Complex and Evolving Evidence covers broad aspects of breast cancer screening specifically focusing on current evidence, emerging evidence, and issues that will be critical for future breast screening practice such as tailored screening and shared decision-making in breast screening. The scope of the book is relevant to a global audience. This book provides balanced perspectives on this increasingly controversial topic, using scientific evidence to explain the evolution of knowledge relating to breast cancer screening. Breast Cancer Screening covers the key points related to this debate including the context of increasingly complex and conflicting evidence, divergent opinions on the benefits and harms of breast screening, and variability in screening practice and outcomes across settings around the world. Explains complex and evolving evidence on breast screening with a balanced approach Provides balanced information and up-to-date evidence in an increasingly complex area Addresses emerging topical issues such as screening trials of digital breast tomosynthesis, tailored breast screening, and shared decision-making in breast screening Assists academics and researchers in identifying areas needing further research

Evolution In Health And Disease

Author : Stephen C. Stearns
ISBN : 0199207461
Genre : Health & Fitness
File Size : 27. 66 MB
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In this fully revised and updated edition, the editors have integrated a completely new set of contributions from the leading researchers in the field to describe the latest research in evolutionary medicine, providing a fresh summary of this rapidly expanding field 10 years after its predecessor was first compiled. It continues to adopt a broad approach to the subject, drawing on medically relevant research from evolutionary genetics, human behavioural ecology, evolutionary microbiology (especially experimental evolution of virulence and resistance), the evolution of aging and degenerative disease, and other aspects of biology or medicine where evolutionary approaches make important contributions. Evolution in Health and Disease describes how evolutionary thinking gives valuable insights and fresh perspectives into human health and disease, establishing evolutionary biology as an essential complementary science for medicine. Integrating evolutionary thought into medical research and practice helps to explain the origins of many medical conditions, including diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, asthma, allergies, other autoimmune diseases, and aging. It also provides life-saving insights into the evolutionary responses of pathogens to antibiotics, vaccinations, and other human interventions. Why do we grow old? How can we stay healthy as we age? The book discusses these and many other fascinating questions, as well as suggesting exciting possibilities for future treatment and research. This research level text is suitable for graduate level students and researchers in the fields of evolutionary (Darwinian) medicine, evolutionary biology, anthropology, developmental biology and genetics. It will also be of relevance and use to medical researchers and doctors.

Meeting Psychosocial Needs Of Women With Breast Cancer

Author : National Cancer Policy Board
ISBN : 9780309091299
Genre : Medical
File Size : 30. 1 MB
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In Meeting Psychosocial Needs of Women with Breast Cancer, the National Cancer Policy Board of the Institute of Medicine examines the psychosocial consequences of the cancer experience. The book focuses specifically on breast cancer in women because this group has the largest survivor population (over 2 million) and this disease is the most extensively studied cancer from the standpoint of psychosocial effects. The book characterizes the psychosocial consequences of a diagnosis of breast cancer, describes psychosocial services and how they are delivered, and evaluates their effectiveness. It assesses the status of professional education and training and applied clinical and health services research and proposes policies to improve the quality of care and quality of life for women with breast cancer and their families. Because cancer of the breast is likely a good model for cancer at other sites, recommendations for this cancer should be applicable to the psychosocial care provided generally to individuals with cancer. For breast cancer, and indeed probably for any cancer, the report finds that psychosocial services can provide significant benefits in quality of life and success in coping with serious and life-threatening disease for patients and their families.

Screening

Author : Angela E Raffle
ISBN : 0199214492
Genre : Medical
File Size : 79. 78 MB
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Screening is the routine testing of populations to identify individuals who may have a particular medical condition or disease. This book covers the theory and evidence behind screening, and serves as a practical, non-technical introduction to the subject, for public health practitioners involved in all aspects of screening.

Twisting Fate

Author : Pamela Munster
ISBN : 9781615195145
Genre : Biography & Autobiography
File Size : 70. 62 MB
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A practical yet personal guide to the medical and emotional facets of breast cancer, from a woman who’s made her living researching the disease—and lived through it herself A leading oncologist at the University of California San Francisco, Dr. Pamela Munster has advised thousands of women on how to deal with the life-altering diagnosis of breast cancer. But when she got a call saying that her own mammogram showed “irregularities,” she found herself experiencing a whole new side of the disease she thought she was an expert in. Weaving together her personal story with her team’s groundbreaking research on the BRCA gene—responsible for not only breast cancer but also for many other inherited cancers affecting both women and men—Twisting Fate is an inspiring guide to living with BRCA mutations. With authority, insight, and compassion, Dr. Munster uses her voice to create a safe space for genuine healing and honesty in a world otherwise dominated by fear.

Evolution Of Infectious Disease

Author : Paul W. Ewald
ISBN : 0195345193
Genre : Science
File Size : 82. 9 MB
Format : PDF
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Findings from the field of evolutionary biology are yielding dramatic insights for health scientists, especially those involved in the fight against infectious diseases. This book is the first in-depth presentation of these insights. In detailing why the pathogens that cause malaria, smallpox, tuberculosis, and AIDS have their special kinds of deadliness, the book shows how efforts to control virtually all diseases would benefit from a more thorough application of evolutionary principles. When viewed from a Darwinian perspective, a pathogen is not simply a disease-causing agent, it is a self-replicating organism driven by evolutionary pressures to pass on as many copies of itself as possible. In this context, so-called "cultural vectors"--those aspects of human behavior and the human environment that allow spread of disease from immobilized people--become more important than ever. Interventions to control diseases don't simply hinder their spread but can cause pathogens and the diseases they engender to evolve into more benign forms. In fact, the union of health science with evolutionary biology offers an entirely new dimension to policy making, as the possibility of determining the future course of many diseases becomes a reality. By presenting the first detailed explanation of an evolutionary perspective on infectious disease, the author has achieved a genuine milestone in the synthesis of health science, epidemiology, and evolutionary biology. Written in a clear, accessible style, it is intended for a wide readership among professionals in these fields and general readers interested in science and health.

Mammography Screening

Author : Peter C. Gøtzsche
ISBN : 1846195853
Genre : Medical
File Size : 55. 59 MB
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The most effective way to decrease women's risk of becoming a breast cancer patient is to avoid attending screening. Mammography screening is one of the greatest controversies in healthcare, and the extent to which some scientists have sacrificed sound scientific principles in order to arrive at politically acceptable results in their research is extraordinary. In contrast, neutral observers increasingly find that the benefit has been much oversold and that the harms are much greater than previously believed. This groundbreaking book takes an evidence-based, critical look at the scientific disputes and the information provided to women by governments and cancer charities. It also explains why mammography screening is unlikely to be effective today. All health professionals and members of the public will find these revelations disturbingly illuminating. It will radically transform the way healthcare policy makers view mammography screening in the future.

Improving Breast Imaging Quality Standards

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 0309165113
Genre : Medical
File Size : 87. 39 MB
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Mammography is an important tool for detecting breast cancer at an early stage. When coupled with appropriate treatment, early detection can reduce breast cancer mortality. At the request of Congress, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) commissioned a study to examine the current practice of mammography and breast cancer detection, with a focus on the FDA’s oversight via the Mammography Quality Standards Act (MQSA), to identify areas in need of improvement. Enacted in 1993, MQSA provides a general framework for ensuring national quality standards in facilities performing screening mammography, requires that each mammography facility be accredited and certified, and mandates that facilities will undergo annual inspections. This book recommends strategies for achieving continued progress in assuring mammography quality, including changes to MQSA regulation, as well as approaches that do not fall within the purview of MQSA. Specifically, this book provides recommendations aimed at improving mammography interpretation; revising MQSA regulations, inspections, and enforcement; ensuring an adequate workforce for breast cancer screening and diagnosis; and improving breast imaging quality beyond mammography.

Ovarian Cancers

Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
ISBN : 9780309380461
Genre : Medical
File Size : 75. 85 MB
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In an era of promising advances in cancer research, there are considerable and even alarming gaps in the fundamental knowledge and understanding of ovarian cancer. Researchers now know that ovarian cancer is not a single disease--several distinct subtypes exist with different origins, risk factors, genetic mutations, biological behaviors, and prognoses. However, persistent questions have impeded progress toward improving the prevention, early detection, treatment, and management of ovarian cancers. Failure to significantly improve morbidity and mortality during the past several decades is likely due to several factors, including the lack of research being performed by specific disease subtype, lack of definitive knowledge of the cell of origin and disease progression, and incomplete understanding of genetic and non-genetic risk factors. Ovarian Cancers examines the state of the science in ovarian cancer research, identifies key gaps in the evidence base and the challenges to addressing those gaps, considers opportunities for advancing ovarian cancer research, and examines avenues for translation and dissemination of new findings and communication of new information to patients and others. This study makes recommendations for public- and private-sector efforts that could facilitate progress in reducing the incidence of morbidity and mortality from ovarian cancers.

Pink Ribbon Blues

Author : Gayle A. Sulik
ISBN : 9780199749935
Genre : Health & Fitness
File Size : 39. 76 MB
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Medical sociologist Gayle A. Sulik reveals the hidden costs of the pink ribbon as an industry, one in which breast cancer functions as a brand name with a pink ribbon logo. Based on historical and ethnographic research, analysis of awareness campaigns and advertisements, and hundreds of interviews, Pink Ribbon Blues shows that while millions walk, run, and purchase products for a cure, cancer rates continue to rise, industry thrives, and breast cancer is stigmatized anew for those who reject the pink ribbon model. Even as Sulik points out the flaws of "pink ribbon culture," she outlines the positives and offers alternatives. The paperback includes a new Introduction investigating Susan G. Komen for the Cure and a color insert with images of, and reactions to, the pinking of breast cancer.

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