brethren by nature new england indians colonists and the origins of american slavery

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Brethren By Nature

Author : Margaret Ellen Newell
ISBN : 9780801456473
Genre : History
File Size : 80. 53 MB
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In Brethren by Nature, Margaret Ellen Newell reveals a little-known aspect of American history: English colonists in New England enslaved thousands of Indians. Massachusetts became the first English colony to legalize slavery in 1641, and the colonists' desire for slaves shaped the major New England Indian wars, including the Pequot War of 1637, King Philip's War of 1675–76, and the northeastern Wabanaki conflicts of 1676–1749. When the wartime conquest of Indians ceased, New Englanders turned to the courts to get control of their labor, or imported Indians from Florida and the Carolinas, or simply claimed free Indians as slaves. Drawing on letters, diaries, newspapers, and court records, Newell recovers the slaves’ own stories and shows how they influenced New England society in crucial ways. Indians lived in English homes, raised English children, and manned colonial armies, farms, and fleets, exposing their captors to Native religion, foods, and technology. Some achieved freedom and power in this new colonial culture, but others experienced violence, surveillance, and family separations. Newell also explains how slavery linked the fate of Africans and Indians. The trade in Indian captives connected New England to Caribbean and Atlantic slave economies. Indians labored on sugar plantations in Jamaica, tended fields in the Azores, and rowed English naval galleys in Tangier. Indian slaves outnumbered Africans within New England before 1700, but the balance soon shifted. Fearful of the growing African population, local governments stripped Indian and African servants and slaves of legal rights and personal freedoms. Nevertheless, because Indians remained a significant part of the slave population, the New England colonies did not adopt all of the rigid racial laws typical of slave societies in Virginia and Barbados. Newell finds that second- and third-generation Indian slaves fought their enslavement and claimed citizenship in cases that had implications for all enslaved peoples in eighteenth-century America.

Swindler Sachem

Author : Jenny Hale Pulsipher
ISBN : 9780300214932
Genre : History
File Size : 54. 48 MB
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Indians, too, could play the land game for both personal and political benefit According to his kin, John Wompas was "no sachem," although he claimed that status to achieve his economic and political ends. He drew on the legal and political practices of both Indians and the English--even visiting and securing the support of King Charles II--to legitimize the land sales that funded his extravagant spending. But he also used the knowledge acquired in his English education to defend the land and rights of his fellow Nipmucs. Jenny Hale Pulsipher's biography offers a window on seventeenth-century New England and the Atlantic world from the unusual perspective of an American Indian who, even though he may not have been what he claimed, was certainly out of the ordinary. Drawing on documentary and anthropological sources as well as consultations with Native people, Pulsipher shows how Wompas turned the opportunities and hardships of economic, cultural, religious, and political forces in the emerging English empire to the benefit of himself and his kin.

Invisible Masters

Author : Elisabeth Ceppi
ISBN : 9781512602975
Genre : History
File Size : 25. 46 MB
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Invisible Masters rewrites the familiar narrative of the relation between Puritan religious culture and New England's economic culture as a history of the primary discourse that connected them: service. The understanding early Puritans had of themselves as God's servants and earthly masters was shaped by their immersion in an Atlantic culture of service and the worldly pressures and opportunities generated by New England's particular place in it. Concepts of spiritual service and mastery determined Puritan views of the men, women, and children who were servants and slaves in that world. So, too, did these concepts shape the experience of family, labor, law, and economy for those men, women, and children - the very bedrock of their lives. This strikingly original look at Puritan culture will appeal to a wide range of Americanists and historians.

Colonial Ecology Atlantic Economy

Author : Strother E. Roberts
ISBN : 9780812296143
Genre : History
File Size : 27. 15 MB
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Colonial Ecology, Atlantic Economy focuses on New England's largest watershed to explore how the participation of Native nations and English settlers in local, regional, and transatlantic markets for colonial commodities transformed the physical environment in one corner of the rapidly globalizing early modern world.

From Dependency To Independence

Author : Margaret Ellen Newell
ISBN : 9781501700262
Genre : History
File Size : 26. 55 MB
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In a sweeping synthesis of a crucial period of American history, From Dependency to Independence starts with the "problem" of New England's economic development. As a struggling outpost of a powerful commercial empire, colonial New England grappled with problems familiar to modern developing societies: a lack of capital and managerial skills, a nonexistent infrastructure, and a domestic economy that failed to meet the inhabitants' needs or to generate exports. Yet, less than a century and a half later, New England staged the war for political independence and the industrial revolution. How and why did this transformation occur Marshaling an enormous array of research data, Margaret Ellen Newell demonstrates that colonial New England's economic development and its leadership role in these two American revolutions were interrelated.

Ninigret Sachem Of The Niantics And Narrangansetts

Author : Julie A. Fisher
ISBN : 9780801470462
Genre : History
File Size : 37. 32 MB
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Ninigret was a sachem of the Niantic and Narragansett Indians of what is now Rhode Island from the mid-1630s through the mid-1670s. For Ninigret and his contemporaries, Indian Country and New England were multipolar political worlds shaped by ever-shifting intertribal rivalries. In the first biography of Ninigret, Julie A. Fisher and David J. Silverman assert that he was the most influential Indian leader of his era in southern New England. As such, he was a key to the balance of power in both Indian-colonial and intertribal relations. Ninigret was at the center of almost every major development involving southern New England Indians between the Pequot War of 1636–37 and King Philip’s War of 1675–76. He led the Narrangansetts’ campaign to become the region’s major power, including a decades-long war against the Mohegans led by Uncas, Ninigret’s archrival. To offset growing English power, Ninigret formed long-distance alliances with the powerful Mohawks of the Iroquois League and the Pocumtucks of the Connecticut River Valley. Over the course of Ningret’s life, English officials repeatedly charged him with plotting to organize a coalition of tribes and even the Dutch to roll back English settlement. Ironically, though, he refused to take up arms against the English in King Philip’s War. Ninigret died at the end of the war, having guided his people through one of the most tumultuous chapters of the colonial era.

Cassell S History Of The United States

Author : Edmund Ollier
ISBN : OXFORD:600034646
Genre : United States
File Size : 41. 11 MB
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Understanding The American Experience Recent Interpretations

Author : James M. Banner
ISBN : 0155928805
Genre : History
File Size : 52. 15 MB
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The New International Encyclop Dia

Author : Frank Moore Colby
ISBN : SRLF:A0008220956
Genre : Education
File Size : 65. 53 MB
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The New International Encyclopaedia

Author : Frank Moore Colby
ISBN : STANFORD:36105008445657
Genre : Encyclopedias and dictionaries
File Size : 37. 39 MB
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