cause and correlation in biology a user s guide to path analysis structural equations and causal inference with r

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Cause And Correlation In Biology

Author : Bill Shipley
ISBN : 9781316539163
Genre : Science
File Size : 74. 72 MB
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Many problems in biology require an understanding of the relationships among variables in a multivariate causal context. Exploring such cause-effect relationships through a series of statistical methods, this book explains how to test causal hypotheses when randomised experiments cannot be performed. This completely revised and updated edition features detailed explanations for carrying out statistical methods using the popular and freely available R statistical language. Sections on d-sep tests, latent constructs that are common in biology, missing values, phylogenetic constraints, and multilevel models are also an important feature of this new edition. Written for biologists and using a minimum of statistical jargon, the concept of testing multivariate causal hypotheses using structural equations and path analysis is demystified. Assuming only a basic understanding of statistical analysis, this new edition is a valuable resource for both students and practising biologists.

Cause And Correlation In Biology

Author : Bill Shipley
ISBN : 9781107442597
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 58. 53 MB
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A complete user's guide to structural equations explaining the underlying principals and practical implementation of these methods.

Cause And Correlation In Biology

Author : Bill Shipley
ISBN : 0521529212
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 43. 40 MB
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Explores the relationship between correlation and causation using a series of novel statistical methods.

Structural Equation Modeling And Natural Systems

Author : James B. Grace
ISBN : 9781139457842
Genre : Nature
File Size : 56. 59 MB
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This book, first published in 2006, presents an introduction to the methodology of structural equation modeling, illustrates its use, and goes on to argue that it has revolutionary implications for the study of natural systems. A major theme of this book is that we have, up to this point, attempted to study systems primarily using methods (such as the univariate model) that were designed only for considering individual processes. Understanding systems requires the capacity to examine simultaneous influences and responses. Structural equation modeling (SEM) has such capabilities. It also possesses many other traits that add strength to its utility as a means of making scientific progress. In light of the capabilities of SEM, it can be argued that much of ecological theory is currently locked in an immature state that impairs its relevance. It is further argued that the principles of SEM are capable of leading to the development and evaluation of multivariate theories of the sort vitally needed for the conservation of natural systems.

Handbook Of Structural Equation Modeling

Author : Rick H. Hoyle
ISBN : 9781462516797
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 30. 21 MB
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The first comprehensive structural equation modeling (SEM) handbook, this accessible volume presents both the mechanics of SEM and specific SEM strategies and applications. The editor, contributors, and editorial advisory board are leading methodologists who have organized the book to move from simpler material to more statistically complex modeling approaches. Sections cover the foundations of SEM; statistical underpinnings, from assumptions to model modifications; steps in implementation, from data preparation through writing the SEM report; and basic and advanced applications, including new and emerging topics in SEM. Each chapter provides conceptually oriented descriptions, fully explicated analyses, and engaging examples that reveal modeling possibilities for use with readers' data. Many of the chapters also include access to data and syntax files at the companion website, allowing readers to try their hands at reproducing the authors' results.

Romanian Studies In Philosophy Of Science

Author : Ilie Pȃrvu
ISBN : 9783319166551
Genre : Science
File Size : 40. 26 MB
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This book presents a collection of studies by Romanian philosophers, addressing foundational issues currently debated in contemporary philosophy of science. It offers a historical survey of the tradition of scientific philosophy in Romania. It examines some problems in the foundations of logic, mathematics, linguistics, the natural and social sciences. Among the more specific topics, it discusses scientific explanation, models, and mechanisms, as well as memory, artifacts, and rules of research. The book is useful to those interested in the philosophy of real science, but also to those interested in Romanian philosophy.

From Plant Traits To Vegetation Structure

Author : Bill Shipley
ISBN : 9780521117470
Genre : Science
File Size : 33. 53 MB
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Explains how natural selection, combined with methods in statistical physics, can predict and explain the assembly of ecological communities.

Modern Phylogenetic Comparative Methods And Their Application In Evolutionary Biology

Author : László Zsolt Garamszegi
ISBN : 9783662435502
Genre : Science
File Size : 73. 38 MB
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Phylogenetic comparative approaches are powerful analytical tools for making evolutionary inferences from interspecific data and phylogenies. The phylogenetic toolkit available to evolutionary biologists is currently growing at an incredible speed, but most methodological papers are published in the specialized statistical literature and many are incomprehensible for the user community. This textbook provides an overview of several newly developed phylogenetic comparative methods that allow to investigate a broad array of questions on how phenotypic characters evolve along the branches of phylogeny and how such mechanisms shape complex animal communities and interspecific interactions. The individual chapters were written by the leading experts in the field and using a language that is accessible for practicing evolutionary biologists. The authors carefully explain the philosophy behind different methodologies and provide pointers – mostly using a dynamically developing online interface – on how these methods can be implemented in practice. These “conceptual” and “practical” materials are essential for expanding the qualification of both students and scientists, but also offer a valuable resource for educators.

Causation Prediction And Search

Author : Peter Spirtes
ISBN : 9781461227489
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 37. 90 MB
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This book is intended for anyone, regardless of discipline, who is interested in the use of statistical methods to help obtain scientific explanations or to predict the outcomes of actions, experiments or policies. Much of G. Udny Yule's work illustrates a vision of statistics whose goal is to investigate when and how causal influences may be reliably inferred, and their comparative strengths estimated, from statistical samples. Yule's enterprise has been largely replaced by Ronald Fisher's conception, in which there is a fundamental cleavage between experimental and non experimental inquiry, and statistics is largely unable to aid in causal inference without randomized experimental trials. Every now and then members of the statistical community express misgivings about this turn of events, and, in our view, rightly so. Our work represents a return to something like Yule's conception of the enterprise of theoretical statistics and its potential practical benefits. If intellectual history in the 20th century had gone otherwise, there might have been a discipline to which our work belongs. As it happens, there is not. We develop material that belongs to statistics, to computer science, and to philosophy; the combination may not be entirely satisfactory for specialists in any of these subjects. We hope it is nonetheless satisfactory for its purpose.

A Beginner S Guide To Structural Equation Modeling

Author : Randall E. Schumacker
ISBN : 9781317608097
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 39. 97 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
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Noted for its crystal clear explanations, this book is considered the most comprehensive introductory text to structural equation modeling (SEM). Noted for its thorough review of basic concepts and a wide variety of models, this book better prepares readers to apply SEM to a variety of research questions. Programming details and the use of algebra are kept to a minimum to help readers easily grasp the concepts so they can conduct their own analysis and critique related research. Featuring a greater emphasis on statistical power and model validation than other texts, each chapter features key concepts, examples from various disciplines, tables and figures, a summary, and exercises. Highlights of the extensively revised 4th edition include: -Uses different SEM software (not just Lisrel) including Amos, EQS, LISREL, Mplus, and R to demonstrate applications. -Detailed introduction to the statistical methods related to SEM including correlation, regression, and factor analysis to maximize understanding (Chs. 1 – 6). -The 5 step approach to modeling data (specification, identification, estimation, testing, and modification) is now covered in more detail and prior to the modeling chapters to provide a more coherent view of how to create models and interpret results (ch. 7). -More discussion of hypothesis testing, power, sampling, effect sizes, and model fit, critical topics for beginning modelers (ch. 7). - Each model chapter now focuses on one technique to enhance understanding by providing more description, assumptions, and interpretation of results, and an exercise related to analysis and output (Chs. 8 -15). -The use of SPSS AMOS diagrams to describe the theoretical models. -The key features of each of the software packages (Ch. 1). -Guidelines for reporting SEM research (Ch. 16). -www.routledge.com/9781138811935 which provides access to data sets that can be used with any program, links to other SEM examples, related readings, and journal articles, and more. Reorganized, the new edition begins with a more detailed introduction to SEM including the various software packages available, followed by chapters on data entry and editing, and correlation which is critical to understanding how missing data, non-normality, measurement, and restriction of range in scores affects SEM analysis. Multiple regression, path, and factor models are then reviewed and exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis is introduced. These chapters demonstrate how observed variables share variance in defining a latent variables and introduce how measurement error can be removed from observed variables. Chapter 7 details the 5 SEM modeling steps including model specification, identification, estimation, testing, and modification along with a discussion of hypothesis testing and the related issues of power, and sample and effect sizes.Chapters 8 to 15 provide comprehensive introductions to different SEM models including Multiple Group, Second-Order CFA, Dynamic Factor, Multiple-Indicator Multiple-Cause, Mixed Variable and Mixture, Multi-Level, Latent Growth, and SEM Interaction Models. Each of the 5 SEM modeling steps is explained for each model along with an application. Chapter exercises provide practice with and enhance understanding of the analysis of each model. The book concludes with a review of SEM guidelines for reporting research. Designed for introductory graduate courses in structural equation modeling, factor analysis, advanced, multivariate, or applied statistics, quantitative techniques, or statistics II taught in psychology, education, business, and the social and healthcare sciences, this practical book also appeals to researchers in these disciplines. Prerequisites include an introduction to intermediate statistics that covers correlation and regression principles.

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