children s understanding the development of mental models

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Children S Understanding

Author : Graeme S. Halford
ISBN : 9781317766636
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 35. 23 MB
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This work argues that cognitive development is experience driven, and processes entailed in acquiring information about the world are analyzed based on recent models of learning and induction. The way information is represented and accessed when performing cognitive tasks is considered paying particular attention to the implications of Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) models for cognitive development. The first half of the book contains analyses of human reasoning processes (drawing on PDP models of analogy), development of strategies, and task complexity -- all based on aspects of PDP representations. It is proposed that PDP representations become more differentiated with age, so more vectors can be processed in parallel, with the result that structures of greater complexity can be processed. This model gives an account of previously unexplained difficulties in children's reasoning, including some which were influential in stage theories. The second half of the book examines processes entailed in some representative cognitive developmental tasks, including transitive inference, deductive inference (categorical syllogisms), hypothesis testing, learning set acquisition, acquisition and transfer of relational structures, humor, hierarchical classification and inclusion, understanding of quantity, arithmetic word problems, algebra, conservation, mechanics, and the concept of mind. Process accounts of tasks are emphasized, based on applications of recent developments in cognitive science.

Model Based Reasoning

Author : L. Magnani
ISBN : 9781461506058
Genre : Science
File Size : 46. 38 MB
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There are several key ingredients common to the various forms of model-based reasoning considered in this book. The term ‘model’ comprises both internal and external representations. The models are intended as interpretations of target physical systems, processes, phenomena, or situations and are retrieved or constructed on the basis of potentially satisfying salient constraints of the target domain. The book’s contributors are researchers active in the area of creative reasoning in science and technology.

The Journey From Child To Scientist

Author : Sharon M. Carver
ISBN : 1433811383
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 74. 43 MB
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The impulse to investigate the natural world is deeply rooted in our earliest childhood experiences. This notion has long guided researchers to uncover the cognitive mechanisms underlying the development of scientific reasoning in children. Until recently, however, research in cognitive development and education followed largely independent tracks. A major exception to this trend is represented in the multifaceted work of David Klahr. His lifelong effort to integrate a detailed understanding of children's reasoning and skill acquisition with the role of education in influencing and facilitating scientific exploration has been essential to the growth of these fields. In this volume, a diverse group of stellar contributors follow Dr. Klahr's example in examining the practical implications of our insights into cognitive development for children in the classroom. Authors discuss such wide-ranging ideas as the evolution of "folk science" in young children and the mechanisms that underlie mathematical understanding, as well as mental models used by children in classroom activities. The volume's lessons will have profound implications for STEM education, and for the next generation of scientists.

Mental Models

Author : Indi Young
ISBN : 1933820195
Genre : Computers
File Size : 52. 99 MB
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There is no single methodology for creating the perfect product—but you can increase your odds. One of the best ways is to understand users' reasons for doing things. Mental Models gives you the tools to help you grasp, and design for, those reasons. Adaptive Path co-founder Indi Young has written a roll-up-your-sleeves book for designers, managers, and anyone else interested in making design strategic, and successful.

The Wiley Blackwell Handbook Of Childhood Cognitive Development

Author : Usha Goswami
ISBN : 9781444351736
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 83. 18 MB
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This definitive volume is the result of collaboration by top scholars in the field of children's cognition. New edition offers an up-to-date overview of all the major areas of importance in the field, and includes new data from cognitive neuroscience and new chapters on social cognitive development and language Provides state-of-the-art summaries of current research by international specialists in different areas of cognitive development Spans aspects of cognitive development from infancy to the onset of adolescence Includes chapters on symbolic reasoning, pretend play, spatial development, abnormal cognitive development and current theoretical perspectives

Understanding The Representational Mind

Author : Josef Perner
ISBN : 0262660822
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 47. 23 MB
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A model of writing in cognitive development, Understanding the Representational Mind synthesizes the burgeoning literature on the child's theory of mind to provide an integrated account of children's understanding of representational and mental processes, which is crucial in their acquisition of our commonsense psychology.

Handbook Of Pediatric Neuropsychology

Author : Andrew S. Davis, PhD
ISBN : 0826157378
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 35. 5 MB
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ìBy far, the most comprehensive and detailed coverage of pediatric neuropsychology available in a single book today, Davis provides coverage of basic principles of pediatric neuropsychology, but overall the work highlights applications to daily practice and special problems encountered by the pediatric neuropsychologist.î Cecil R. Reynolds, PhD Texas A&M University "The breadth and depth of this body of work is impressive. Chapters written by some of the best researchers and authors in the field of pediatric neuropsychology address every possible perspective on brain-behavior relationships culminating in an encyclopedic textÖ. This [book] reflects how far and wide pediatric neuropsychology has come in the past 20 years and the promise of how far it will go in the next." Elaine Fletcher-Janzen, EdD, NCSP, ABPdN The Chicago School of Professional Psychology "...it would be hard to imagine a clinical situation in pediatric neuropsychology in whichthis book would fail as a valuable resource."--Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology "I believe there is much to recommend this hefty volume. It is a solid reference that I can see appreciating as a resource as I update my training bibliography."--Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society This landmark reference covers all aspects of pediatric neuropsychology from a research-based perspective, while presenting an applied focus with practical suggestions and guidelines for clinical practice. Useful both as a training manual for graduate students and as a comprehensive reference for experienced practitioners, it is an essential resource for those dealing with a pediatric population. This handbook provides an extensive overview of the most common medical conditions that neuropsychologists encounter while dealing with pediatric populations. It also discusses school-based issues such as special education law, consulting with school staff, and reintegrating children back into mainstream schools. It contains over 100 well-respected authors who are leading researchers in their respective fields. Additionally, each of the 95 chapters includes an up-to-date review of available research, resulting in the most comprehensive text on pediatric neuropsychology available in a single volume. Key Features: Provides thorough information on understanding functional neuroanatomy and development, and on using functional neuroimaging Highlights clinical practice issues, such as legal and ethical decision-making, dealing with child abuse and neglect, and working with school staff Describes a variety of professional issues that neuropsychologists must confront during their daily practice, such as ethics, multiculturalism, child abuse, forensics, and psychopharmacology

Annual Review Of Nursing Research Volume 29

Author : Ginette A. Pepper, PhD, RN, FAAN
ISBN : 9780826157553
Genre : Medical
File Size : 82. 12 MB
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This landmark annual review has provided three decades of knowledge, insight, and research on topics critical to the continued advancement of the nursing profession. This latest edition is a compilation of the most significant nursing research in genetics and genomics. Articles have been carefully selected by the editors, highly respected scholars and researchers in the field of genetics, to bring together current research that has particular relevance for translation into a clinical setting or expansion into other research areas. The review provides authoritative information of the highest caliber not only to researchers, but also to clinicians and undergraduate and graduate nursing students. Key Topics: The current status of genomic molecular science Ethical, legal, and social issues in genomics Genetics of diseases and symptoms Genomics across the lifespan

Development Of Mental Representation

Author : Kathleen Tyner
ISBN : 9781135690786
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 60. 66 MB
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There is a general and extensive literature in the development of representational thought and symbolic processes because of its centrality in human evolution. However, the umbrella of science and its method does not necessarily lead to a coherent conceptual model, or agreements among scholars. These basic differences among various disciplines have led to the creation of new and exciting realms of research. This book considers how representational or symbolic thought develops for children's use in a wide array of these circumstances.

The Language Of Science Education

Author : William F. McComas
ISBN : 9789462094970
Genre : Education
File Size : 83. 50 MB
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The Language of Science Education: An Expanded Glossary of Key Terms and Concepts in Science Teaching and Learning is written expressly for science education professionals and students of science education to provide the foundation for a shared vocabulary of the field of science teaching and learning. Science education is a part of education studies but has developed a unique vocabulary that is occasionally at odds with the ways some terms are commonly used both in the field of education and in general conversation. Therefore, understanding the specific way that terms are used within science education is vital for those who wish to understand the existing literature or make contributions to it. The Language of Science Education provides definitions for 100 unique terms, but when considering the related terms that are also defined as they relate to the targeted words, almost 150 words are represented in the book. For instance, “laboratory instruction” is accompanied by definitions for openness, wet lab, dry lab, virtual lab and cookbook lab. Each key term is defined both with a short entry designed to provide immediate access following by a more extensive discussion, with extensive references and examples where appropriate. Experienced readers will recognize the majority of terms included, but the developing discipline of science education demands the consideration of new words. For example, the term blended science is offered as a better descriptor for interdisciplinary science and make a distinction between project-based and problem-based instruction. Even a definition for science education is included. The Language of Science Education is designed as a reference book but many readers may find it useful and enlightening to read it as if it were a series of very short stories.

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