children s understanding the development of mental models

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Children S Understanding

Author : Graeme S. Halford
ISBN : 9781317766636
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 82. 51 MB
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This work argues that cognitive development is experience driven, and processes entailed in acquiring information about the world are analyzed based on recent models of learning and induction. The way information is represented and accessed when performing cognitive tasks is considered paying particular attention to the implications of Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) models for cognitive development. The first half of the book contains analyses of human reasoning processes (drawing on PDP models of analogy), development of strategies, and task complexity -- all based on aspects of PDP representations. It is proposed that PDP representations become more differentiated with age, so more vectors can be processed in parallel, with the result that structures of greater complexity can be processed. This model gives an account of previously unexplained difficulties in children's reasoning, including some which were influential in stage theories. The second half of the book examines processes entailed in some representative cognitive developmental tasks, including transitive inference, deductive inference (categorical syllogisms), hypothesis testing, learning set acquisition, acquisition and transfer of relational structures, humor, hierarchical classification and inclusion, understanding of quantity, arithmetic word problems, algebra, conservation, mechanics, and the concept of mind. Process accounts of tasks are emphasized, based on applications of recent developments in cognitive science.

The Wiley Blackwell Handbook Of Childhood Cognitive Development

Author : Usha Goswami
ISBN : 9781444351736
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 72. 79 MB
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This definitive volume is the result of collaboration by top scholars in the field of children's cognition. New edition offers an up-to-date overview of all the major areas of importance in the field, and includes new data from cognitive neuroscience and new chapters on social cognitive development and language Provides state-of-the-art summaries of current research by international specialists in different areas of cognitive development Spans aspects of cognitive development from infancy to the onset of adolescence Includes chapters on symbolic reasoning, pretend play, spatial development, abnormal cognitive development and current theoretical perspectives

The Mental Models Theory Of Reasoning

Author : Walter Schaeken
ISBN : 9781134810819
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 35. 18 MB
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The Mental Models Theory of Reasoning presents theoretical and empirical research on an area of growing interest, the status of mental models in deductive reasoning. As research in the framework of the mental models theory flourishes, this book answers a need to assess the contribution of the notion of training and content. It covers the central issues of propositional, relational, causal and probabilistic reasoning, and argumentation and development. In addition, this work presents data regarding strategies, argumentation, and the development of reasoning. Special features of this text include: *sharp theoretical analyses as well as important new empirical data offered by theorists who work in the framework of the mental models theory; *a critical and empirically driven account of content effects in conditional and linear reasoning; and *an original account on the influence of pragmatics on reasoning. The Mental Models Theory of Reasoning will be of interest to researchers and advanced students of cognitive psychology, and will be valuable to individuals working in Artificial Intelligence, as it highlights theoretical and empirical data on how humans use mental models when tackling deductive puzzles.

Handbook Of Pediatric Neuropsychology

Author : Andrew S. Davis, PhD
ISBN : 0826157378
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 62. 48 MB
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ìBy far, the most comprehensive and detailed coverage of pediatric neuropsychology available in a single book today, Davis provides coverage of basic principles of pediatric neuropsychology, but overall the work highlights applications to daily practice and special problems encountered by the pediatric neuropsychologist.î Cecil R. Reynolds, PhD Texas A&M University "The breadth and depth of this body of work is impressive. Chapters written by some of the best researchers and authors in the field of pediatric neuropsychology address every possible perspective on brain-behavior relationships culminating in an encyclopedic textÖ. This [book] reflects how far and wide pediatric neuropsychology has come in the past 20 years and the promise of how far it will go in the next." Elaine Fletcher-Janzen, EdD, NCSP, ABPdN The Chicago School of Professional Psychology "...it would be hard to imagine a clinical situation in pediatric neuropsychology in whichthis book would fail as a valuable resource."--Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology "I believe there is much to recommend this hefty volume. It is a solid reference that I can see appreciating as a resource as I update my training bibliography."--Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society This landmark reference covers all aspects of pediatric neuropsychology from a research-based perspective, while presenting an applied focus with practical suggestions and guidelines for clinical practice. Useful both as a training manual for graduate students and as a comprehensive reference for experienced practitioners, it is an essential resource for those dealing with a pediatric population. This handbook provides an extensive overview of the most common medical conditions that neuropsychologists encounter while dealing with pediatric populations. It also discusses school-based issues such as special education law, consulting with school staff, and reintegrating children back into mainstream schools. It contains over 100 well-respected authors who are leading researchers in their respective fields. Additionally, each of the 95 chapters includes an up-to-date review of available research, resulting in the most comprehensive text on pediatric neuropsychology available in a single volume. Key Features: Provides thorough information on understanding functional neuroanatomy and development, and on using functional neuroimaging Highlights clinical practice issues, such as legal and ethical decision-making, dealing with child abuse and neglect, and working with school staff Describes a variety of professional issues that neuropsychologists must confront during their daily practice, such as ethics, multiculturalism, child abuse, forensics, and psychopharmacology

Speaking Reading And Writing In Children With Language Learning Disabilities

Author : Katharine G. Butler
ISBN : 9781135665920
Genre : Education
File Size : 36. 75 MB
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The ability to use language in more literate ways has always been a central outcome of education. Today, however, "being literate" requires more than functional literacy, the recognition of printed words as meaningful. It requires the knowledge of how to use language as a tool for analyzing, synthesizing, and integrating what is heard or read in order to arrive at new interpretations. Specialists in education, cognitive psychology, learning disabilities, communication sciences and disorders, and other fields have studied the language learning problems of school age children from their own perspectives. All have tended to emphasize either the oral language component or phonemic awareness. The major influence of phonemic awareness on learning to read and spell is well-researched, but it is not the only relevant focus for efforts in intervention and instruction. An issue is that applications are usually the products of a single discipline or profession, and few integrate an understanding of phonemic awareness with an understanding of the ways in which oral language comprehension and expression support reading, writing, and spelling. Thus, what we have learned about language remains disconnected from what we have learned about literacy; interrelationships between language and literacy are not appreciated; and educational services for students with language and learning disabilities are fragmented as a result. This unique book, a multidisciplinary collaboration, bridges research, practice, and the development of new technologies. It offers the first comprehensive and integrated overview of the multiple factors involved in language learning from late preschool through post high school that must be considered if problems are to be effectively addressed. Practitioners, researchers, and students professionally concerned with these problems will find the book an invaluable resource.

Mental Models In Cognitive Science

Author : Alan Garnham
ISBN : 9781134835737
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 29. 81 MB
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Phil Johnson-Laird's theory of mental models has proved to be an influential development in the cognitive sciences. This theory aims to provide a detailed account of both reasoning and inference on the one hand, and language on the other. It can therefore be regarded as a step toward the much-sought-after unified theory of cognition.; This book provides an overview of mental models research. Some of the contributors were collaborators or former graduate students of Johnson-Laird, and between them they cover the main strands of mental models theory. After an appreciation of Johnson-Laird, the book covers topics including language Processing, Reasoning, Inference, The Role Of Emotions, And The Impact Of mental illnesses on thought processes.

Annual Review Of Nursing Research Volume 29

Author : Ginette A. Pepper, PhD, RN, FAAN
ISBN : 9780826157553
Genre : Medical
File Size : 30. 7 MB
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This landmark annual review has provided three decades of knowledge, insight, and research on topics critical to the continued advancement of the nursing profession. This latest edition is a compilation of the most significant nursing research in genetics and genomics. Articles have been carefully selected by the editors, highly respected scholars and researchers in the field of genetics, to bring together current research that has particular relevance for translation into a clinical setting or expansion into other research areas. The review provides authoritative information of the highest caliber not only to researchers, but also to clinicians and undergraduate and graduate nursing students. Key Topics: The current status of genomic molecular science Ethical, legal, and social issues in genomics Genetics of diseases and symptoms Genomics across the lifespan

The Language Of Science Education

Author : William F. McComas
ISBN : 9789462094970
Genre : Education
File Size : 65. 99 MB
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The Language of Science Education: An Expanded Glossary of Key Terms and Concepts in Science Teaching and Learning is written expressly for science education professionals and students of science education to provide the foundation for a shared vocabulary of the field of science teaching and learning. Science education is a part of education studies but has developed a unique vocabulary that is occasionally at odds with the ways some terms are commonly used both in the field of education and in general conversation. Therefore, understanding the specific way that terms are used within science education is vital for those who wish to understand the existing literature or make contributions to it. The Language of Science Education provides definitions for 100 unique terms, but when considering the related terms that are also defined as they relate to the targeted words, almost 150 words are represented in the book. For instance, “laboratory instruction” is accompanied by definitions for openness, wet lab, dry lab, virtual lab and cookbook lab. Each key term is defined both with a short entry designed to provide immediate access following by a more extensive discussion, with extensive references and examples where appropriate. Experienced readers will recognize the majority of terms included, but the developing discipline of science education demands the consideration of new words. For example, the term blended science is offered as a better descriptor for interdisciplinary science and make a distinction between project-based and problem-based instruction. Even a definition for science education is included. The Language of Science Education is designed as a reference book but many readers may find it useful and enlightening to read it as if it were a series of very short stories.

Handbook Of The Psychology Of Science

Author : Gregory J. Feist, PhD
ISBN : 9780826106247
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 70. 23 MB
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"Highly recommended."--Choice: Current Reviews for Academic Libraries This handbook is the definitive resource for scholars and students interested in how research and theory within each of the major domains of psychologyódevelopmental, cognitive, personality, and socialóhave been applied to understand the nature of scientific thought and behavior. Edited by two esteemed pioneers in the emerging discipline of the psychology of science, it is the first empirically based compendium of its time. The handbook provides a comprehensive examination of how scientific thinking is learned and evolves from infancy to adolescence and adulthood, and combines developmental and cognitive approaches to show the categorical similarities and differences in thinking between children, adolescents, adults, and scientists. Chapters highlight the breadth and depth of psychological perspectives in the studies of science, from creativity and genius, gender, and conflict and cooperation, to postmodernism and psychobiography. A section on applications offers findings and ideas that can be put to use by educators, policymakers, and science administrators. Contributors examine the importance of mental models in solving difficult technical problems, and the significance of leadership and organizational structure in successful innovation. The final section of the book is devoted to the future of this new field, focusing on how to continue to develop a healthy psychology of science. Key Features: Presents the only empirically based compendium of current knowledge about the psychology of scientific thought and behavior Edited by two pioneers in the discipline of psychology of science Describes how scientific thinking is learned and changes throughout the life span Addresses creativity and genius, gender, conflict and cooperation, postmodernism, and psychobiography Covers applications of the psychology of science that can be used by educators, policymakers, and science administrators

Child Development A Thematic Approach

Author : Danuta Bukatko
ISBN : 9780618608652
Genre : Education
File Size : 49. 30 MB
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Bukatko/Daehler's CHILD DEVELOPMENT: A THEMATIC APPROACH provides a comprehensive, topically organized, up-to-date picture of development from conception to adolescence. Most important, it draws students' attention to the themes that replay themselves throughout the course of development, fundamental issues that resurface continually and that provide coherence to sometimes seemingly disparate research. The themes can serve as frameworks to help students further understand and remember the multitude of facts about child development. Bukatko/Daehler's sixth edition text draws on five themes, Nature and Nurture, Sociocultural Influence, Continuity/Discontinuity, Interaction among Domains, and Risk/Resilience. By drawing on these themes, the authors hope to stimulate readers to think about the process of development, or why it proceeds as it does. Through new For Your Review and Reflection sections, the authors also hope students will engage with the text and become more adept critical thinkers, who are more likely to appreciate the ramifications of theory and research for applied issues such as parenting practices, education, and social policy for children, which are ultimately concerns for us all. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

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