chocolate pathway to the gods

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Chocolate

Author : Meredith L. Dreiss
ISBN : 0816524645
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 84. 66 MB
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The story of chocolate, from its discovery as a food source to today's gourmet chocolate recipes and European chocolatiers.

Chocolate As Medicine

Author : Philip K Wilson
ISBN : 9781782625124
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 33. 77 MB
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The Mesoamerican population who lived near the indigenous cultivation sites of the "Chocolate Tree" (Theobromo cacao) had a multitude of documented applications of chocolate as medicine, ranging from alleviating fatigue to preventing heart ailments to treating snakebite. Until recently, these applications have received little sound scientific scrutiny. Rather, it has been the reputed health claims stemming from Europe and the United States which have attracted considerable biomedical attention. This book, for the first time, describes the centuries-long quest to uncover chocolate's potential health benefits. The authors explore variations in the types of evidence used to support chocolate's use as medicine as well as note the ongoing tension over categorizing chocolate as food or medicine, and more recently, as functional food or nutraceutical. The authors, Wilson an historian of science and medicine, and Hurst an analytical chemist in the chocolate industry, bring their collective insights to bear upon the development of ideas and practices surrounding the use of chocolate as medicine. Chocolate's use in this manner is explored first among the Mesoamerican peoples, then as it is transported to Europe, and back into Colonial North America. The authors then focus upon more recent bioscience experimental undertakings which have been aimed to ascertain both long-standing and novel suggestions as to chocolate's efficacy as a medicinal and a nutritional substance. Chocolate/s reputation as the most craved food boosts this book's appeal to food and biomedical scientists, cacao researchers, ethnobotanists, historians, folklorists, and healers of all types as well as to the general reading audience.

Chocolate And Health

Author : Philip K. Wilson
ISBN : 9781849739122
Genre : Medical
File Size : 30. 48 MB
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Following on from their previous volume on Chocolate as Medicine, Philip K. Wilson and W. Jeffrey Hurst edit this companion volume, Chocolate and Health, providing a comprehensive overview of the chemistry, nutrition and bioavailability of cacao and chocolate. The book begins with a brief historical introduction to the topic, outlining the current and historical medical uses of chocolate and chocolate derivatives. The remainder of the text is arranged into three sections, taking the reader through various aspects of the nutritional and health aspects of cacoa. The first section covers the cultivation, chemistry and genome analysis of cacao. The second section discusses the biochemistry and nutritional components of cacao in relation to health, covering bioavailabilty and the metabolism and metabolomics of cacao. The final section provides an overview of the potential use of chocolate in health and medical care. Each section is written and prepared by experts within each field, providing a global perspective of the current and ongoing research in this area. This text provides the reader with a complete overview of the field and is of interest to food and biomedical scientists, as well as nutritionists, medicinal chemists and anyone with an interest in chocolate.

Chocolate As Medicine

Author : Philip K Wilson
ISBN : 9781782625124
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 56. 98 MB
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The Mesoamerican population who lived near the indigenous cultivation sites of the "Chocolate Tree" (Theobromo cacao) had a multitude of documented applications of chocolate as medicine, ranging from alleviating fatigue to preventing heart ailments to treating snakebite. Until recently, these applications have received little sound scientific scrutiny. Rather, it has been the reputed health claims stemming from Europe and the United States which have attracted considerable biomedical attention. This book, for the first time, describes the centuries-long quest to uncover chocolate's potential health benefits. The authors explore variations in the types of evidence used to support chocolate's use as medicine as well as note the ongoing tension over categorizing chocolate as food or medicine, and more recently, as functional food or nutraceutical. The authors, Wilson an historian of science and medicine, and Hurst an analytical chemist in the chocolate industry, bring their collective insights to bear upon the development of ideas and practices surrounding the use of chocolate as medicine. Chocolate's use in this manner is explored first among the Mesoamerican peoples, then as it is transported to Europe, and back into Colonial North America. The authors then focus upon more recent bioscience experimental undertakings which have been aimed to ascertain both long-standing and novel suggestions as to chocolate's efficacy as a medicinal and a nutritional substance. Chocolate/s reputation as the most craved food boosts this book's appeal to food and biomedical scientists, cacao researchers, ethnobotanists, historians, folklorists, and healers of all types as well as to the general reading audience.

Chocolate In Mesoamerica

Author : Cameron L. McNeil
ISBN : 0813033829
Genre : Cooking
File Size : 85. 5 MB
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New models of research and analysis, as well as breakthroughs in deciphering Mesoamerican writing, have recently produced a watershed of information on the regional use and importance of cacao, or chocolate as it is commonly called today. McNeil brings together scholars in the fields of archaeology, history, art history, linguistics, epigraphy, botany, chemistry, and cultural anthropology to explore the domestication, preparation, representation, and significance of cacao in ancient and modern communities of the Americas, with a concentration on its use in Mesoamerica. Cacao was used by many cultures in the pre-Columbian Americas as an important part of rituals associated with birth, coming of age, marriage, and death, and was strongly linked with concepts of power and rulership. While Europeans have for hundreds of years claimed that they introduced "chocolate" as a sauce for foods, evidence from ancient royal tombs indicates cacao was used in a range of foods as well as beverages in ancient times. In addition, the volume's authors present information that supports a greater importance for cacao in pre-Columbian South America, where ancient vessels depicting cacao pods have recently been identified. From the botanical structure and chemical makeup of "Theobroma cacao" and methods of identifying it in the archaeological record, to the importance of cacao during the Classic period in Mesoamerica, to the impact of European arrival on the production and use of cacao, to contemporary uses in the Americas, this volume provides a richly informed account of the history and cultural significance of chocolate.

The Chocolate Tree

Author : Allen M. Young
ISBN : 0813030447
Genre : History
File Size : 51. 16 MB
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"Young's readers will thank him for making life a bit more pleasant, both by improving the production of chocolate and by providing such entertaining reading."--"The Sciences" "Informative, valuable, and original."--"Quarterly Review of Biology" "Young has new and important things to say about the ecology and biology of cacao."--"Times Higher Educational Supplement" "Engaging."--"Booklist" Young provides an overview of the fascinating natural and human history of one of the world's most intriguing commodities: chocolate. Cultivated for over 1,000 years in Latin America and the starting point for millions of tons of chocolate annually consumed worldwide, cacao beans have been used for beverages, as currency, and for regional trade. After the Spanish brought the delectable secret of the cacao tree back to Europe in the late 16th century, its seeds created and fed an insatiable worldwide appetite for chocolate. "The Chocolate Tree" chronicles the natural and cultural history of "Theobroma cacao" and explores its ecological niche. Tracing cacao's journey out of the rain forest, into pre-Columbian gardens, and then onto plantations adjacent to rain forests, Young describes the production of this essential crop, the environmental price of Europeanized cultivation, and ways that current reclamation efforts for New World rain forests can improve the natural ecology of the cacao tree. Amid encounters with sloths, toucans, butterflies, giant tarantula hawk wasps, and other creatures found in cacao groves, Young identifies a tiny fly that provides a vital link between the chocolate tree and its original rain forest habitat. This discovery leads him to conclude that cacao trees in cultivation today may have lost their original insect pollinators due to the plant's long history of agricultural manipulation. In addition to basic natural history of the cacao tree and the relationship between cacao production systems and the preservation of the rain forest, Young also presents a history of the use of cacao, from the archaeological evidence of Mesoamerica to contemporary evidence of the relationship between chocolate consumption and mental and physical health. A rich concoction of cultural and natural history, archaeological evidence, botanical research, environmental activism, and lush descriptions of a contemporary adventurer's encounters with tropical wonders, "The Chocolate Tree" offers an appreciation of the plant and the environment that provide us with this Mayan "food of the gods."

Chocolate

Author : Louis E. Grivetti
ISBN : 9781118210222
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 72. 49 MB
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International Association of Culinary Professionals (IACP) 2010 Award Finalists in the Culinary History category. Chocolate. We all love it, but how much do we really know about it? In addition to pleasing palates since ancient times, chocolate has played an integral role in culture, society, religion, medicine, and economic development across the Americas, Africa, Asia, and Europe. In 1998, the Chocolate History Group was formed by the University of California, Davis, and Mars, Incorporated to document the fascinating story and history of chocolate. This book features fifty-seven essays representing research activities and contributions from more than 100 members of the group. These contributors draw from their backgrounds in such diverse fields as anthropology, archaeology, biochemistry, culinary arts, gender studies, engineering, history, linguistics, nutrition, and paleography. The result is an unparalleled, scholarly examination of chocolate, beginning with ancient pre-Columbian civilizations and ending with twenty-first-century reports. Here is a sampling of some of the fascinating topics explored inside the book: Ancient gods and Christian celebrations: chocolate and religion Chocolate and the Boston smallpox epidemic of 1764 Chocolate pots: reflections of cultures, values, and times Pirates, prizes, and profits: cocoa and early American east coast trade Blood, conflict, and faith: chocolate in the southeast and southwest borderlands of North America Chocolate in France: evolution of a luxury product Development of concept maps and the chocolate research portal Not only does this book offer careful documentation, it also features new and previously unpublished information and interpretations of chocolate history. Moreover, it offers a wealth of unusual and interesting facts and folklore about one of the world's favorite foods.

City Of Sacrifice

Author : David Carrasco
ISBN : 0807046434
Genre : History
File Size : 39. 77 MB
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At an excavation of the Great Aztec Temple in Mexico City, amid carvings of skulls and a dismembered warrior goddess, David Carrasco stood before a container filled with the decorated bones of infants and children. It was the site of a massive human sacrifice, and for Carrasco the center of fiercely provocative questions: If ritual violence against humans was a profound necessity for the Aztecs in their capital city, is it central to the construction of social order and the authority of city states? Is civilization built on violence? In City of Sacrifice,Carrasco chronicles the fascinating story of Tenochtitlan, the Aztec capital, investigating Aztec religious practices and demonstrating that religious violence was integral to urbanization; the city itself was a temple to the gods. That Mexico City, the largest city on earth, was built on the ruins of Tenochtitlan, is a point Carrasco poignantly considers in his comparison of urban life from antiquity to modernity. Majestic in scope, City of Sacrifice illuminates not only the rich history of a major Meso american city but also the inseparability of two passionate human impulses: urbanization and religious engagement. It has much to tell us about many familiar events in our own time, from suicide bombings in Tel Aviv to rape and murder in the Balkans.

Caring For People God S Way

Author : Tim Clinton
ISBN : 9781418525545
Genre : Religion
File Size : 38. 53 MB
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Caring for People God's Way presents Christian counseling in a systematic, step-by-step manner that outlines the process as practically as possible. It then applies the process to the most common issues faced by Christian counselors: personal and emotional issues, trauma, grief, loss, and suicide.

Chocolate Cocoa And Confectionery Science And Technology

Author : Bernard Minifie
ISBN : 9789401179249
Genre : Science
File Size : 58. 56 MB
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The second edition of this book achieved worldwide recognition within the chocolate and confectionery industry. I was pressed to prepare the third edition to include modern developments in machinery, production, and packaging. This has been a formidable task and has taken longer than anticipated. Students still require, in one book, descriptions of the fundamental principles of the industry as well as an insight into modern methods. Therefore, parts of the previous edition describing basic technology have been retained, with minor alterations where necessary. With over fifty years' experience in the industry and the past eighteen years working as an author, lecturer, and consultant, I have collected a great deal of useful information. Visits to trade exhibitions and to manufacturers of raw materials and machinery in many parts of the world have been very valuable. Much research and reading have been necessary to prepare for teaching and lecturing at various colleges, seminars, and manufacturing establishments. The third edition is still mainly concerned with science, technology, and production. It is not a book of formulations, which are readily available elsewhere. Formulations without knowledge of principles lead to many errors, and recipes are given only where examples are necessary. _ Analytical methods are described only when they are not available in textbooks, of which there are many on standard methods of food analysis. Acknowledgments I am still indebted to many of the persons mentioned under "Acknowledgments" in the second edition. I am especially grateful to the following.

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