cities of the mediterranean from the ottomans to the present day library of ottoman studies

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Cities Of The Mediterranean

Author : Meltem Toksöz
ISBN : 9781780767697
Genre : Architecture
File Size : 34. 11 MB
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'The Eastern Mediterranean is one of the world's most vibrant and vital commercial centres and for centuries the region's cities and ports have been at the heart of East-West trade. Taking a full and comprehensive look at the region as a whole rather than isolating individual cities or distinct cultures, Cities of the Mediterranean offers a fresh and original portrait of the entire region, from the 16th century to the present. In this ambitious inter-disciplinary study, the authors examine the relationships between the Eastern Mediterranean port cities and their hinterlands as well as inland and provincial cities from many different perspectives - political, economic, international and ecological - without prioritising either Ottoman Anatolia, or the Ottoman Balkans, or the Arab provinces in order to think of the Eastern Mediterranean world as a coherent whole. Through its penetrating analysis of the various networks that connected the ports and towns of the Mediterranean and their inhabitants throughout the Ottoman period, Cities of the Mediterranean presents the region as a unified and dynamic community and paves the way for a new understanding of the subject.'

Trading With The Ottomans

Author : Despina Vlami
ISBN : 9781780768892
Genre : History
File Size : 79. 76 MB
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Trade is the engine of history, and the acceleration in what scholars call 'globalism' from the beginning of the last millennium has been driven by communities interacting with each other through commerce and exchange. The Ottoman Empire was a trading partner that spanned the globe, and was therefore the primary link between the West and the Middle East in the 15th to the 19th century. The Levant Company traded British manufacturing with the Ottomans for two centuries, hiring de facto ambassadors, locals, explorers and adventurers and tradesmen. It set up 'factories' (trading posts) across the Ottoman lands and traded skins, textiles, crafts and spices. Here Vlami Despina focuses on the company's long decline - utilizing new archival research she unpicks this crucial partnership and assesses it's important to the modern world.

Empire And Holy War In The Mediterranean

Author : Phillip Williams
ISBN : 9780857735980
Genre : History
File Size : 85. 35 MB
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In the century after 1530 the empires of the Habsburgs of Spain and the Ottoman Turks fought a maritime war that seemed destined to lead nowhere:: lasting peace was as unlikely as final triumph, in part because the salient feature of this conflict was a violent form of piracy practiced by the ‘corsairs’ of North African and Malta. It was fundamentally a war of unequal means, since the Habsburgs of Spain had too few good warships and the Ottomans too many bad ones. Christendom and Islam engaged in a war fought largely through the exercise of private violence: the Hospitaller Knights of Malta and ghazi captains of North Africa succeeded in imposing their crusading ethos on the Mediterranean. If a degree of futility loomed over these campaigns, it was nevertheless true that the Mediterranean witnessed a sustained conflict which in scale and intensity was far greater than that of any contemporary form of warfare at sea. Moreover the sea was never abandoned as, until at least 1620, large galley fleets continued to patrol the inland sea. The raiding methods employed by Elizabethan ‘seadogs’ like Sir Francis Drake would certainly not have worked in this theatre of arms, as the defences in Italy and North Africa were much more formidable than those of the Atlantic. Phillip Williams begins with a detailed examination of the oared warships used in these campaigns. He then explores the structures of political and military organization and the role of geography and the environment in shaping the fighting; stressing that the Italian territories were of vital significance to the Habsburgs of Spain. He considers the cultural and historical outlook of protagonists such as the Habsburg rulers Charles V and Philip II and the Ottoman Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent, examining the extent to which the dictates of prudence triumphed over ideals of performing ‘the service of God’. Providing a unique perspective on early modern maritime conflict, this book will be essential reading for all students and researchers of Mediterranean History and the early modern world.

City Of Fortune

Author : Roger Crowley
ISBN : 9780679644262
Genre : History
File Size : 48. 48 MB
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“The rise and fall of Venice’s empire is an irresistible story and [Roger] Crowley, with his rousing descriptive gifts and scholarly attention to detail, is its perfect chronicler.”—The Financial Times The New York Times bestselling author of Empires of the Sea charts Venice’s astounding five-hundred-year voyage to the pinnacle of power in an epic story that stands unrivaled for drama, intrigue, and sheer opulent majesty. City of Fortune traces the full arc of the Venetian imperial saga, from the ill-fated Fourth Crusade, which culminates in the sacking of Constantinople in 1204, to the Ottoman-Venetian War of 1499–1503, which sees the Ottoman Turks supplant the Venetians as the preeminent naval power in the Mediterranean. In between are three centuries of Venetian maritime dominance, during which a tiny city of “lagoon dwellers” grow into the richest place on earth. Drawing on firsthand accounts of pitched sea battles, skillful negotiations, and diplomatic maneuvers, Crowley paints a vivid picture of this avaricious, enterprising people and the bountiful lands that came under their dominion. From the opening of the spice routes to the clash between Christianity and Islam, Venice played a leading role in the defining conflicts of its time—the reverberations of which are still being felt today. “[Crowley] writes with a racy briskness that lifts sea battles and sieges off the page.”—The New York Times “Crowley chronicles the peak of Venice’s past glory with Wordsworthian sympathy, supplemented by impressive learning and infectious enthusiasm.”—The Wall Street Journal

The Young Ottomans

Author : Nazan Cicek
ISBN : 9780857718785
Genre : History
File Size : 84. 35 MB
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The scope of the Western world’s Eastern Question in the nineteenth century loomed large, encompassing issues from the threat posed by the ‘Russian bear’ to the interests of other Great Powers in the Eastern Mediterranean, to the conditions, or rather ‘oppression’ of non-Muslims, especially Christians, under the Ottoman ‘yoke’. But the most important question of all, one that summarized the Eastern Question, was published in an anonymous pamphlet from 1850, which asked, ‘what to do with the Turk?’. He was the ‘sick man of Europe’ since his heydays came to an end in the late eighteenth century, and his possible untimely death spelled a nightmare for the crowned heads of Europe. _x000D_ In this book Nazan Çiçek narrates and analyses some salient features of the Eastern Question, or the Ottoman Empire’s ‘Western Question’, through the lenses of the Young Ottomans, the newly-rising semi-autonomous Ottoman Muslim Turkish intelligentsia. The Young Ottomans, although inwardly divided among themselves, were representative of a generation who shared a common framework of experiences and concerns that were mostly generated by the encounter of the Ottoman Empire with its ‘other’, the West. This encounter, intrinsically linked to the Eastern Question, compelled the Ottoman Empire to re-interpret its historical self-conception, to discover the qualities that rendered her different and vulnerable with regard to the West, and to seek a formula for survival in an increasingly hostile atmosphere._x000D_ The intellectual discussions offered by the Young Ottomans took a polemical stance not only on the way the Eastern Question unfolded and how it was received by the Ottomans as well as Western ruling elites and intelligentsias but also on the very legitimacy of the modernisation project initiated, manipulated and implemented by the Tanzimat regime between 1839 and 1876 and its Western backers. By considering the appearance of the Young Ottoman opposition as a site of struggle over the definition of civilisation, modernity, reform and citizenship, a struggle that was by and large engendered by the dynamics of the Ottoman Empire’s Western Question, this book narrates an alternative story of the Eastern Question as experienced by its Eastern observers and provides a fresh and original perspective on the political and intellectual history of the Ottoman Empire.

Printing A Mediterranean World

Author : Sean Roberts
ISBN : 9780674071612
Genre : History
File Size : 55. 99 MB
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In 1482 Francesco Berlinghieri produced the Geographia, a book of over 100 folio leaves describing the world in Italian verse interleaved with lavishly engraved maps. Roberts demonstrates that the Geographia represents the moment of transition between printing and manuscript culture, while forming a critical base for the rise of modern cartography.

Empires Of The Sea

Author : Roger Crowley
ISBN : 9780812977646
Genre : History
File Size : 44. 87 MB
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A thrilling account of the brutal decades-long battle between Christendom and Islam for the soul of Europe. This struggle's brutal climax came between 1565 and 1571, seven years that witnessed a fight to the finish decided in a series of bloody set pieces: the epic siege of Malta, in which a tiny band of Christian defenders defied the might of the Ottoman army; the savage battle for Cyprus; and the apocalyptic last-ditch defense of southern Europe at Lepanto--one of the single most shocking days in world history. At the close of this cataclysmic naval encounter, the carnage was so great that the victors could barely sail away because of the countless corpses floating in the sea. Lepanto fixed the frontiers of the Mediterranean world that we know today.

Mapping The Ottomans

Author : Palmira Brummett
ISBN : 9781107090774
Genre : History
File Size : 22. 68 MB
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This book examines how Ottomans were mapped in the narrative and visual imagination of early modern Europe's Christian kingdoms.

Mapping The Ottomans

Author : Palmira Brummett
ISBN : 9781316300251
Genre : History
File Size : 25. 73 MB
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Simple paradigms of Muslim-Christian confrontation and the rise of Europe in the seventeenth century do not suffice to explain the ways in which European mapping envisioned the 'Turks' in image and narrative. Rather, maps, travel accounts, compendia of knowledge, and other texts created a picture of the Ottoman Empire through a complex layering of history, ethnography, and eyewitness testimony, which juxtaposed current events to classical and biblical history; counted space in terms of peoples, routes, and fortresses; and used the land and seascapes of the map to assert ownership, declare victory, and embody imperial power's reach. Enriched throughout by examples of Ottoman self-mapping, this book examines how Ottomans and their empire were mapped in the narrative and visual imagination of early modern Europe's Christian kingdoms. The maps serve as centerpieces for discussions of early modern space, time, borders, stages of travel, information flows, invocations of authority, and cross-cultural relations.

A Military History Of The Ottomans From Osman To Ataturk

Author : Mesut Uyar Ph.D.
ISBN : 9780313056031
Genre : History
File Size : 69. 88 MB
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The Ottoman Army had a significant effect on the history of the modern world and particularly on that of the Middle East and Europe. This study, written by a Turkish and an American scholar, is a revision and corrective to western accounts because it is based on Turkish interpretations, rather than European interpretations, of events. As the world's dominant military machine from 1300 to the mid-1700's, the Ottoman Army led the way in military institutions, organizational structures, technology, and tactics. In decline thereafter, it nevertheless remained a considerable force to be counted in the balance of power through 1918. From its nomadic origins, it underwent revolutions in military affairs as well as several transformations which enabled it to compete on favorable terms with the best of armies of the day. This study tracks the growth of the Ottoman Army as a professional institution from the perspective of the Ottomans themselves, by using previously untapped Ottoman source materials. Additionally, the impact of important commanders and the role of politics, as these affected the army, are examined. The study concludes with the Ottoman legacy and its effect on the Republic and modern Turkish Army. This is a study survey that combines an introductory view of this subject with fresh and original reference-level information. Divided into distinct periods, Uyar and Erickson open with a brief overview of the establishment of the Ottoman Empire and the military systems that shaped the early military patterns. The Ottoman army emerged forcefully in 1453 during the siege of Constantinople and became a dominant social and political force for nearly two hundred years following Mehmed's capture of the city. When the army began to show signs of decay during the mid-seventeenth century, successive Sultans actively sought to transform the institution that protected their power. The reforms and transformations that began frist in 1606successfully preserved the army until the outbreak of the Ottoman-Russian War in 1876. Though the war was brief, its impact was enormous as nationalistic and republican strains placed increasing pressure on the Sultan and his army until, finally, in 1918, those strains proved too great to overcome. By 1923, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk emerged as the leader of a unified national state ruled by a new National Parliament. As Uyar and Erickson demonstrate, the old army of the Sultan had become the army of the Republic, symbolizing the transformation of a dying empire to the new Turkish state make clear that throughout much of its existence, the Ottoman Army was an effective fighting force with professional military institutions and organizational structures.

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