# classical mathematical logic the semantic foundations of logic

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## Classical Mathematical Logic

**Author :**Richard L. Epstein

**ISBN :**9781400841554

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**86. 84 MB

**Format :**PDF, Kindle

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In Classical Mathematical Logic, Richard L. Epstein relates the systems of mathematical logic to their original motivations to formalize reasoning in mathematics. The book also shows how mathematical logic can be used to formalize particular systems of mathematics. It sets out the formalization not only of arithmetic, but also of group theory, field theory, and linear orderings. These lead to the formalization of the real numbers and Euclidean plane geometry. The scope and limitations of modern logic are made clear in these formalizations. The book provides detailed explanations of all proofs and the insights behind the proofs, as well as detailed and nontrivial examples and problems. The book has more than 550 exercises. It can be used in advanced undergraduate or graduate courses and for self-study and reference. Classical Mathematical Logic presents a unified treatment of material that until now has been available only by consulting many different books and research articles, written with various notation systems and axiomatizations.

## Predicate Logic

**Author :**Richard L. Epstein

**ISBN :**UCSC:32106016862713

**Genre :**Philosophy

**File Size :**50. 69 MB

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A presentation of the fundamental ideas that generate the formal systems of predicate logic. This text clearly relates predicate logic to reasoning in ordinary language, with hundreds of examples of formalization, with a clear theory of how to formalize ordinary arguments. The writing is exceptionally clear and easy to read.

## Algebraic Methods Of Mathematical Logic

**Author :**Ladislav Rieger

**ISBN :**9781483270524

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**85. 65 MB

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Algebraic Methods of Mathematical Logic focuses on the algebraic methods of mathematical logic, including Boolean algebra, mathematical language, and arithmetization. The book first offers information on the dialectic of the relation between mathematical and metamathematical aspects; metamathematico-mathematical parallelism and its natural limits; practical applications of methods of mathematical logic; and principal mathematical tools of mathematical logic. The text then elaborates on the language of mathematics and its symbolization and recursive construction of the relation of consequence. Discussions focus on recursive construction of the relation of consequence, fundamental descriptively-semantic rules, mathematical logic and mathematical language as a material system of signs, and the substance and purpose of symbolization of mathematical language. The publication examines expressive possibilities of symbolization; intuitive and mathematical notions of an idealized axiomatic mathematical theory; and the algebraic theory of elementary predicate logic. Topics include the notion of Boolean algebra based on joins, meets, and complementation, logical frame of a language and mathematical theory, and arithmetization and algebraization. The manuscript is a valuable reference for mathematicians and researchers interested in the algebraic methods of mathematical logic.

## A Tour Through Mathematical Logic

**Author :**Robert S. Wolf

**ISBN :**0883850362

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**64. 17 MB

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A guide that any interested reader with some post-calculus experience in mathematics can read, enjoy, and learn from.

## Mathematical Logic

**Author :**Wei Li

**ISBN :**9783034808620

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**38. 72 MB

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Mathematical logic is a branch of mathematics that takes axiom systems and mathematical proofs as its objects of study. This book shows how it can also provide a foundation for the development of information science and technology. The first five chapters systematically present the core topics of classical mathematical logic, including the syntax and models of first-order languages, formal inference systems, computability and representability, and Gödel’s theorems. The last five chapters present extensions and developments of classical mathematical logic, particularly the concepts of version sequences of formal theories and their limits, the system of revision calculus, proschemes (formal descriptions of proof methods and strategies) and their properties, and the theory of inductive inference. All of these themes contribute to a formal theory of axiomatization and its application to the process of developing information technology and scientific theories. The book also describes the paradigm of three kinds of language environments for theories and it presents the basic properties required of a meta-language environment. Finally, the book brings these themes together by describing a workflow for scientific research in the information era in which formal methods, interactive software and human invention are all used to their advantage. The second edition of the book includes major revisions on the proof of the completeness theorem of the Gentzen system and new contents on the logic of scientific discovery, R-calculus without cut, and the operational semantics of program debugging. This book represents a valuable reference for graduate and undergraduate students and researchers in mathematics, information science and technology, and other relevant areas of natural sciences. Its first five chapters serve as an undergraduate text in mathematical logic and the last five chapters are addressed to graduate students in relevant disciplines.

## Mathematical Logic And Formalized Theories

**Author :**Robert L. Rogers

**ISBN :**9781483257976

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**32. 31 MB

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Mathematical Logic and Formalized Theories: A Survey of Basic Concepts and Results focuses on basic concepts and results of mathematical logic and the study of formalized theories. The manuscript first elaborates on sentential logic and first-order predicate logic. Discussions focus on first-order predicate logic with identity and operation symbols, first-order predicate logic with identity, completeness theorems, elementary theories, deduction theorem, interpretations, truth, and validity, sentential connectives, and tautologies. The text then tackles second-order predicate logic, as well as second-order theories, theory of definition, and second-order predicate logic F2. The publication takes a look at natural and real numbers, incompleteness, and the axiomatic set theory. Topics include paradoxes, recursive functions and relations, Gödel's first incompleteness theorem, axiom of choice, metamathematics of R and elementary algebra, and metamathematics of N. The book is a valuable reference for mathematicians and researchers interested in mathematical logic and formalized theories.

## Classical And Nonclassical Logics

**Author :**Eric Schechter

**ISBN :**0691122792

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**43. 73 MB

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Classical logic is traditionally introduced by itself, but that makes it seem arbitrary and unnatural. This text introduces classical alongside several nonclassical logics (relevant, constructive, quantative, paraconsistent).

## Foundations Of Fuzzy Logic And Semantic Web Languages

**Author :**Umberto Straccia

**ISBN :**9781439853481

**Genre :**Computers

**File Size :**41. 22 MB

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Managing vagueness/fuzziness is starting to play an important role in Semantic Web research, with a large number of research efforts underway. Foundations of Fuzzy Logic and Semantic Web Languages provides a rigorous and succinct account of the mathematical methods and tools used for representing and reasoning with fuzzy information within Semantic Web languages. The book focuses on the three main streams of Semantic Web languages: Triple languages RDF and RDFS Conceptual languages OWL and OWL 2, and their profiles OWL EL, OWL QL, and OWL RL Rule-based languages, such as SWRL and RIF Written by a prominent researcher in this area, the book is the first to combine coverage of fuzzy logic and Semantic Web languages. The first part of the book covers all the theoretical and logical aspects of classical (two-valued) Semantic Web languages. The second part explains how to generalize these languages to cope with fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic. With an extensive bibliography, this book provides in-depth insight into fuzzy Semantic Web languages for non-fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic experts. It also helps researchers of non-Semantic Web languages get a better understanding of the theoretical fundamentals of Semantic Web languages.

## Classical And Fuzzy Concepts In Mathematical Logic And Applications Professional Version

**Author :**Mircea S. Reghis

**ISBN :**0849331978

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**59. 94 MB

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Classical and Fuzzy Concepts in Mathematical Logic and Applications provides a broad, thorough coverage of the fundamentals of two-valued logic, multivalued logic, and fuzzy logic. Exploring the parallels between classical and fuzzy mathematical logic, the book examines the use of logic in computer science, addresses questions in automatic deduction, and describes efficient computer implementation of proof techniques. Specific issues discussed include: Propositional and predicate logic Logic networks Logic programming Proof of correctness Semantics Syntax Completenesss Non-contradiction Theorems of Herbrand and Kalman The authors consider that the teaching of logic for computer science is biased by the absence of motivations, comments, relevant and convincing examples, graphic aids, and the use of color to distinguish language and metalanguage. Classical and Fuzzy Concepts in Mathematical Logic and Applications discusses how the presence of these facts trigger a stirring, decisive insight into the understanding process. This view shapes this work, reflecting the authors' subjective balance between the scientific and pedagogic components of the textbook. Usually, problems in logic lack relevance, creating a gap between classroom learning and applications to real-life problems. The book includes a variety of application-oriented problems at the end of almost every section, including programming problems in PROLOG III. With the possibility of carrying out proofs with PROLOG III and other software packages, readers will gain a first-hand experience and thus a deeper understanding of the idea of formal proof.

## Philosophy Of Logic

**Author :**

**ISBN :**008046663X

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**76. 69 MB

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The papers presented in this volume examine topics of central interest in contemporary philosophy of logic. They include reflections on the nature of logic and its relevance for philosophy today, and explore in depth developments in informal logic and the relation of informal to symbolic logic, mathematical metatheory and the limiting metatheorems, modal logic, many-valued logic, relevance and paraconsistent logic, free logics, extensional v. intensional logics, the logic of fiction, epistemic logic, formal logical and semantic paradoxes, the concept of truth, the formal theory of entailment, objectual and substitutional interpretation of the quantifiers, infinity and domain constraints, the Löwenheim-Skolem theorem and Skolem paradox, vagueness, modal realism v. actualism, counterfactuals and the logic of causation, applications of logic and mathematics to the physical sciences, logically possible worlds and counterpart semantics, and the legacy of Hilbert’s program and logicism. The handbook is meant to be both a compendium of new work in symbolic logic and an authoritative resource for students and researchers, a book to be consulted for specific information about recent developments in logic and to be read with pleasure for its technical acumen and philosophical insights. - Written by leading logicians and philosophers - Comprehensive authoritative coverage of all major areas of contemporary research in symbolic logic - Clear, in-depth expositions of technical detail - Progressive organization from general considerations to informal to symbolic logic to nonclassical logics - Presents current work in symbolic logic within a unified framework - Accessible to students, engaging for experts and professionals - Insightful philosophical discussions of all aspects of logic - Useful bibliographies in every chapter