computability and randomness oxford logic guides

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Computability And Randomness

Author : André Nies
ISBN : 9780191627880
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 57. 60 MB
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The interplay between computability and randomness has been an active area of research in recent years, reflected by ample funding in the USA, numerous workshops, and publications on the subject. The complexity and the randomness aspect of a set of natural numbers are closely related. Traditionally, computability theory is concerned with the complexity aspect. However, computability theoretic tools can also be used to introduce mathematical counterparts for the intuitive notion of randomness of a set. Recent research shows that, conversely, concepts and methods originating from randomness enrich computability theory. The book covers topics such as lowness and highness properties, Kolmogorov complexity, betting strategies and higher computability. Both the basics and recent research results are desribed, providing a very readable introduction to the exciting interface of computability and randomness for graduates and researchers in computability theory, theoretical computer science, and measure theory.

Probability And Random Number A First Guide To Randomness

Author : Sugita Hiroshi
ISBN : 9789813228276
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 34. 25 MB
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This is a book of elementary probability theory that includes a chapter on algorithmic randomness. It rigorously presents definitions and theorems in computation theory, and explains the meanings of the theorems by comparing them with mechanisms of the computer, which is very effective in the current computer age. Random number topics have not been treated by any books on probability theory, only some books on computation theory. However, the notion of random number is necessary for understanding the essential relation between probability and randomness. The field of probability has changed very much, thus this book will make and leave a big impact even to expert probabilists. Readers from applied sciences will benefit from this book because it presents a very proper foundation of the Monte Carlo method with practical solutions, keeping the technical level no higher than 1st year university calculus. Contents: Mathematics of Coin TossingMathematical ModelRandom NumberLimit TheoremMonte Carlo MethodInfinite coin TossesRandom Number: Recursive FunctionKolmogorov Complexity and Random NumberLimit Theorem: Bernoulli's TheoremLaw of Large NumbersDe Moivre–Laplace's TheoremCentral Limit TheoremMathematical StatisticsMonte Carlo Method: Monte Carlo Method as GamblingPseudorandom GeneratorMonte Carlo IntegrationFrom the Viewpoint of Mathematical StatisticsAppendices: Symbols and TermsBinary Numeral SystemLimit of Sequence and FunctionLimits of Exponential Function and LogarithmC Language Program Readership: First year university students to professionals. Keywords: Probability;Probability Theory;Randomness;Random Number;Pseudorandom Number;Monte Carlo Method;Monte Carlo IntegrationReview: Key Features: This is the first book that presents both probability theory and algorithmic randomness for from 1st year university students to experts. It is technically easy but worth reading for experts as wellThis book presents basic limit theorems with proofs that are not seen in usual probability textbooks; for readers should learn that a good solution is not always uniqueThis book rigorously treats the Monte Carlo method. In particular, it presents the random Weyl sampling, which produces pseudorandom numbers for the Monte Carlo integration that act complete substitutes for random numbers

Computability Theory

Author : Rebecca Weber
ISBN : 9780821873922
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 47. 6 MB
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What can we compute--even with unlimited resources? Is everything within reach? Or are computations necessarily drastically limited, not just in practice, but theoretically? These questions are at the heart of computability theory. The goal of this book is to give the reader a firm grounding in the fundamentals of computability theory and an overview of currently active areas of research, such as reverse mathematics and algorithmic randomness. Turing machines and partial recursive functions are explored in detail, and vital tools and concepts including coding, uniformity, and diagonalization are described explicitly. From there the material continues with universal machines, the halting problem, parametrization and the recursion theorem, and thence to computability for sets, enumerability, and Turing reduction and degrees. A few more advanced topics round out the book before the chapter on areas of research. The text is designed to be self-contained, with an entire chapter of preliminary material including relations, recursion, induction, and logical and set notation and operators. That background, along with ample explanation, examples, exercises, and suggestions for further reading, make this book ideal for independent study or courses with few prerequisites.

Evolving Computability

Author : Arnold Beckmann
ISBN : 9783319200286
Genre : Computers
File Size : 63. 57 MB
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 11th Conference on Computability in Europe, CiE 2015, held in Bucharest, Romania, in June/July 2015. The 26 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 64 submissions and included together with 10 invited papers in this proceedings. The conference CiE 2015 has six special sessions: two sessions, Representing Streams and Reverse Mathematics, were introduced for the first time in the conference series. In addition to this, new developments in areas frequently covered in the CiE conference series were addressed in the further special sessions on Automata, Logic and Infinite Games; Bio-inspired Computation; Classical Computability Theory; as well as History and Philosophy of Computing.

Algorithmic Randomness And Complexity

Author : Rodney G. Downey
ISBN : 9780387684413
Genre : Computers
File Size : 68. 19 MB
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Computability and complexity theory are two central areas of research in theoretical computer science. This book provides a systematic, technical development of "algorithmic randomness" and complexity for scientists from diverse fields.

Category Theory

Author : Steve Awodey
ISBN : 9780199587360
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 27. 76 MB
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A comprehensive reference to category theory for students and researchers in mathematics, computer science, logic, cognitive science, linguistics, and philosophy. Useful for self-study and as a course text, the book includes all basic definitions and theorems (with full proofs), as well as numerous examples and exercises.

The Bulletin Of Symbolic Logic

Author :
ISBN : UVA:X030757333
Genre : Logic, Symbolic and mathematical
File Size : 79. 71 MB
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Computability

Author : Nigel Cutland
ISBN : 0521294657
Genre : Computers
File Size : 35. 40 MB
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This introduction to recursive theory computability begins with a mathematical characterization of computable functions, develops the mathematical theory and includes a full discussion of noncomputability and undecidability. Later chapters move on to more advanced topics such as degrees of unsolvability and Gödel's Incompleteness Theorem.

Bolzano S Logical System

Author : Ettore Casari
ISBN : 9780198788294
Genre :
File Size : 34. 5 MB
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This book is focused on the first three parts of Bolzano's Theory of Sciene and introduces a more systematic reconsideration of Bolzano's logial thought. In undertaking this task, the book is intended as an exploration, not so much of the more specifically discursive aspects of Bolzano's logial thought - already amply studied - as muh as on identifying the singularly coherent and systematic nature of the logic presented in Bolzano's work. Casari presents this within a formal system and adopts the approach of the predicate calculus with identity and choice operator by using Hilbert's epsilon calculus (the logical formalism developed by David Hilbert in the service of his program in the foundations of mathematics).

Turing Computability

Author : Robert I. Soare
ISBN : 9783642319334
Genre : Computers
File Size : 23. 47 MB
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Turing's famous 1936 paper introduced a formal definition of a computing machine, a Turing machine. This model led to both the development of actual computers and to computability theory, the study of what machines can and cannot compute. This book presents classical computability theory from Turing and Post to current results and methods, and their use in studying the information content of algebraic structures, models, and their relation to Peano arithmetic. The author presents the subject as an art to be practiced, and an art in the aesthetic sense of inherent beauty which all mathematicians recognize in their subject. Part I gives a thorough development of the foundations of computability, from the definition of Turing machines up to finite injury priority arguments. Key topics include relative computability, and computably enumerable sets, those which can be effectively listed but not necessarily effectively decided, such as the theorems of Peano arithmetic. Part II includes the study of computably open and closed sets of reals and basis and nonbasis theorems for effectively closed sets. Part III covers minimal Turing degrees. Part IV is an introduction to games and their use in proving theorems. Finally, Part V offers a short history of computability theory. The author has honed the content over decades according to feedback from students, lecturers, and researchers around the world. Most chapters include exercises, and the material is carefully structured according to importance and difficulty. The book is suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in computer science and mathematics and researchers engaged with computability and mathematical logic.

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