contemporary psychometrics multivariate applications series

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Frontiers Of Test Validity Theory

Author : Keith A. Markus
ISBN : 9781135055868
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 26. 76 MB
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This book examines test validity in the behavioral, social, and educational sciences by exploring three fundamental problems: measurement, causation and meaning. Psychometric and philosophical perspectives receive attention along with unresolved issues. The authors explore how measurement is conceived from both the classical and modern perspectives. The importance of understanding the underlying concepts as well as the practical challenges of test construction and use receive emphasis throughout. The book summarizes the current state of the test validity theory field. Necessary background on test theory and statistics is presented as a conceptual overview where needed. Each chapter begins with an overview of key material reviewed in previous chapters, concludes with a list of suggested readings, and features boxes with examples that connect theory to practice. These examples reflect actual situations that occurred in psychology, education, and other disciplines in the US and around the globe, bringing theory to life. Critical thinking questions related to the boxed material engage and challenge readers. A few examples include: What is the difference between intelligence and IQ? Can people disagree on issues of value but agree on issues of test validity? Is it possible to ask the same question in two different languages? The first part of the book contrasts theories of measurement as applied to the validity of behavioral science measures.The next part considers causal theories of measurement in relation to alternatives such as behavior domain sampling, and then unpacks the causal approach in terms of alternative theories of causation.The final section explores the meaning and interpretation of test scores as it applies to test validity. Each set of chapters opens with a review of the key theories and literature and concludes with a review of related open questions in test validity theory. Researchers, practitioners and policy makers interested in test validity or developing tests appreciate the book's cutting edge review of test validity. The book also serves as a supplement in graduate or advanced undergraduate courses on test validity, psychometrics, testing or measurement taught in psychology, education, sociology, social work, political science, business, criminal justice and other fields. The book does not assume a background in measurement.

Measuring The Mind

Author : Denny Borsboom
ISBN : 1139444638
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 23. 24 MB
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Is it possible to measure psychological attributes like intelligence, personality and attitudes and if so, how does that work? What does the term 'measurement' mean in a psychological context? This fascinating and timely book discusses these questions and investigates the possible answers that can be given response. Denny Borsboom provides an in-depth treatment of the philosophical foundations of widely used measurement models in psychology. The theoretical status of classical test theory, latent variable theory and positioned in terms of the underlying philosophy of science. Special attention is devoted to the central concept of test validity and future directions to improve the theory and practice of psychological measurement are outlined.

Introduction To Psychometric Theory

Author : Tenko Raykov
ISBN : 9781136900020
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 85. 16 MB
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This new text provides a state-of the-art introduction to educational and psychological testing and measurement theory that reflects many intellectual developments of the past two decades. The book introduces psychometric theory using a latent variable modeling (LVM) framework and emphasizes interval estimation throughout, so as to better prepare readers for studying more advanced topics later in their careers. Featuring numerous examples, it presents an applied approach to conducting testing and measurement in the behavioral, social, and educational sciences. Readers will find numerous tips on how to use test theory in today’s actual testing situations. To reflect the growing use of statistical software in psychometrics, the authors introduce the use of Mplus after the first few chapters. IBM SPSS, SAS, and R are also featured in several chapters. Software codes and associated outputs are reviewed throughout to enhance comprehension. Essentially all of the data used in the book are available on the website. In addition instructors will find helpful PowerPoint lecture slides and questions and problems for each chapter. The authors rely on LVM when discussing fundamental concepts such as exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, test theory, generalizability theory, reliability and validity, interval estimation, nonlinear factor analysis, generalized linear modeling, and item response theory. The varied applications make this book a valuable tool for those in the behavioral, social, educational, and biomedical disciplines, as well as in business, economics, and marketing. A brief introduction to R is also provided. Intended as a text for advanced undergraduate and/or graduate courses in psychometrics, testing and measurement, measurement theory, psychological testing, and/or educational and/or psychological measurement taught in departments of psychology, education, human development, epidemiology, business, and marketing, it will also appeal to researchers in these disciplines. Prerequisites include an introduction to statistics with exposure to regression analysis and ANOVA. Familiarity with SPSS, SAS, STATA, or R is also beneficial. As a whole, the book provides an invaluable introduction to measurement and test theory to those with limited or no familiarity with the mathematical and statistical procedures involved in measurement and testing.

Handbook Of Ethics In Quantitative Methodology

Author : A. T. Panter
ISBN : 9781136888724
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 64. 90 MB
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This comprehensive Handbook is the first to provide a practical, interdisciplinary review of ethical issues as they relate to quantitative methodology including how to present evidence for reliability and validity, what comprises an adequate tested population, and what constitutes scientific knowledge for eliminating biases. The book uses an ethical framework that emphasizes the human cost of quantitative decision making to help researchers understand the specific implications of their choices. The order of the Handbook chapters parallels the chronology of the research process: determining the research design and data collection; data analysis; and communicating findings. Each chapter: Explores the ethics of a particular topic Identifies prevailing methodological issues Reviews strategies and approaches for handling such issues and their ethical implications Provides one or more case examples Outlines plausible approaches to the issue including best-practice solutions. Part 1 presents ethical frameworks that cross-cut design, analysis, and modeling in the behavioral sciences. Part 2 focuses on ideas for disseminating ethical training in statistics courses. Part 3 considers the ethical aspects of selecting measurement instruments and sample size planning and explores issues related to high stakes testing, the defensibility of experimental vs. quasi-experimental research designs, and ethics in program evaluation. Decision points that shape a researchers’ approach to data analysis are examined in Part 4 – when and why analysts need to account for how the sample was selected, how to evaluate tradeoffs of hypothesis-testing vs. estimation, and how to handle missing data. Ethical issues that arise when using techniques such as factor analysis or multilevel modeling and when making causal inferences are also explored. The book concludes with ethical aspects of reporting meta-analyses, of cross-disciplinary statistical reform, and of the publication process. This Handbook appeals to researchers and practitioners in psychology, human development, family studies, health, education, sociology, social work, political science, and business/marketing. This book is also a valuable supplement for quantitative methods courses required of all graduate students in these fields.

Item Response Theory

Author : Susan E. Embretson
ISBN : 9781135681470
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 48. 22 MB
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This book develops an intuitive understanding of IRT principles through the use of graphical displays and analogies to familiar psychological principles. It surveys contemporary IRT models, estimation methods, and computer programs. Polytomous IRT models are given central coverage since many psychological tests use rating scales. Ideal for clinical, industrial, counseling, educational, and behavioral medicine professionals and students familiar with classical testing principles, exposure to material covered in first-year graduate statistics courses is helpful. All symbols and equations are thoroughly explained verbally and graphically.

Modern Psychometrics With R

Author : Patrick Mair
ISBN : 9783319931777
Genre :
File Size : 35. 37 MB
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Cognitive Assessment

Author : Kikumi K. Tatsuoka
ISBN : 9781135681326
Genre : Education
File Size : 84. 1 MB
Format : PDF
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This book introduces a new methodology for the analysis of test results. Free from ambiguous interpretations, the results truly demonstrate an individual’s progress. The methodology is ideal for highlighting patterns derived from test scores used in evaluating progress. Dr. Tatsuoka introduces readers to the Rule Space Method (RSM), a technique that transforms unobservable knowledge and skill variables into observable and measurable attributes. RSM converts item response patterns into attribute mastery probabilities. RSM is the only up-to-date methodology that can handle large scale assessment for tests such as the SAT and PSAT. PSAT used the results from this methodology to create cognitively diagnostic scoring reports. In this capacity, RSM helps teachers understand what scores mean by helping them ascertain an individual’s cognitive strengths and weaknesses. For example, two students may have the exact same score, but for different reasons. One student might excel at processing grammatically complex texts but miss the main idea of the prose, while another excels at understanding the global message. Such knowledge helps teachers customize a student’s education to his or her cognitive abilities. RSM is also used for medical diagnoses, genetics research, and to help classify music into various states of emotions for treating mental problems. The book opens with an overview of cognitive assessment research and nonparametric and parametric person-fit statistics. The Q-matrix theory is then introduced followed by the Rule Space method. Various properties of attribute mastery probabilities are then introduced along with the reliability theory of attributes and its connection to classical and item response theory. The book concludes with a discussion of how the construct validity of a test can be clarified with the Rule Space method. Intended for researchers and graduate students in quantitative, educational, and cognitive psychology, this book also appeals to those in computer science, neuroscience, medicine, and mathematics. The book is appropriate for advanced courses on cognometrics, latent class structures, and advanced psychometrics as well as statistical pattern recognition and classification courses taught in statistics and/or math departments.

Handbook Of Item Response Theory Modeling

Author : Steven P. Reise
ISBN : 9781317565703
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 66. 9 MB
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Item response theory (IRT) has moved beyond the confines of educational measurement into assessment domains such as personality, psychopathology, and patient-reported outcomes. Classic and emerging IRT methods and applications that are revolutionizing psychological measurement, particularly for health assessments used to demonstrate treatment effectiveness, are reviewed in this new volume. World renowned contributors present the latest research and methodologies about these models along with their applications and related challenges. Examples using real data, some from NIH-PROMIS, show how to apply these models in actual research situations. Chapters review fundamental issues of IRT, modern estimation methods, testing assumptions, evaluating fit, item banking, scoring in multidimensional models, and advanced IRT methods. New multidimensional models are provided along with suggestions for deciding among the family of IRT models available. Each chapter provides an introduction, describes state-of-the art research methods, demonstrates an application, and provides a summary. The book addresses the most critical IRT conceptual and statistical issues confronting researchers and advanced students in psychology, education, and medicine today. Although the chapters highlight health outcomes data the issues addressed are relevant to any content domain. The book addresses: IRT models applied to non-educational data especially patient reported outcomes Differences between cognitive and non-cognitive constructs and the challenges these bring to modeling. The application of multidimensional IRT models designed to capture typical performance data. Cutting-edge methods for deriving a single latent dimension from multidimensional data A new model designed for the measurement of constructs that are defined on one end of a continuum such as substance abuse Scoring individuals under different multidimensional IRT models and item banking for patient-reported health outcomes How to evaluate measurement invariance, diagnose problems with response categories, and assess growth and change. Part 1 reviews fundamental topics such as assumption testing, parameter estimation, and the assessment of model and person fit. New, emerging, and classic IRT models including modeling multidimensional data and the use of new IRT models in typical performance measurement contexts are examined in Part 2. Part 3 reviews the major applications of IRT models such as scoring, item banking for patient-reported health outcomes, evaluating measurement invariance, linking scales to a common metric, and measuring growth and change. The book concludes with a look at future IRT applications in health outcomes measurement. The book summarizes the latest advances and critiques foundational topics such a multidimensionality, assessment of fit, handling non-normality, as well as applied topics such as differential item functioning and multidimensional linking. Intended for researchers, advanced students, and practitioners in psychology, education, and medicine interested in applying IRT methods, this book also serves as a text in advanced graduate courses on IRT or measurement. Familiarity with factor analysis, latent variables, IRT, and basic measurement theory is assumed.

The Theory And Practice Of Item Response Theory

Author : R. J. de Ayala
ISBN : 9781462514694
Genre : Education
File Size : 42. 64 MB
Format : PDF
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Item response theory (IRT) is a latent variable modeling approach used to minimize bias and optimize the measurement power of educational and psychological tests and other psychometric applications. Designed for researchers, psychometric professionals, and advanced students, this book clearly presents both the "how-to" and the "why" of IRT. It describes simple and more complex IRT models and shows how they are applied with the help of widely available software packages. Chapters follow a consistent format and build sequentially, taking the reader from model development through the fit analysis and interpretation phases that one would perform in practice. The use of common empirical data sets across the chapters facilitates understanding of the various models and how they relate to one another.

The Essence Of Multivariate Thinking

Author : Lisa L. Harlow
ISBN : 9781317859789
Genre : Education
File Size : 21. 17 MB
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By focusing on underlying themes, this book helps readers better understand the connections between multivariate methods. For each method the author highlights: the similarities and differences between the methods, when they are used and the questions they address, the key assumptions and equations, and how to interpret the results. The concepts take center stage while formulas are kept to a minimum. Examples using the same data set give readers continuity so they can more easily apply the concepts. Each method is also accompanied by a worked out example, SPSS and SAS input, and an example of how to write up the results. EQS code is used for the book’s SEM applications. This extensively revised edition features: New SEM chapters including an introduction (ch.10), path analysis (ch.11), confirmatory factor analysis (ch.12), and latent variable modeling (ch.13) the last three with an EQS application. A new chapter on multilevel modeling (ch. 8) that is now used more frequently in the social sciences. More emphasis on significance tests, effect sizes, and confidence intervals to encourage readers to adopt a thorough approach to assessing the magnitude of their findings. A new data set that explores the work environment. More discussion about the basic assumptions and equations for each method for a more accessible approach. New examples that help clarify the distinctions between methods. A new website at https://sites.google.com/site/multivariatesecondedition/ that features the datasets for all of the examples in the book for use in both SPSS and SAS and in EQS for the SEM chapters. The first two chapters review the core themes that run through most multivariate methods. The author shows how understanding multivariate methods is much more achievable when we notice the themes that underlie these statistical techniques. This multiple level approach also provides greater reliability and validity in our research. After providing insight into the core themes, the author illustrates them as they apply to the most popular multivariate methods used in the social, and behavioral sciences. First, two intermediate methods are explored – multiple regression and analysis of covariance. Next the multivariate grouping variable methods of multivariate analysis of variance, discriminant function analysis, and logistic regression are explored. Next the themes are applied to multivariate modeling methods including multilevel modeling, path analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and latent variable models that include exploratory structural methods of principal component and factor analysis. The book concludes with a summary of the common themes and how they pertain to each method discussed in this book. Intended for advanced undergraduate and/or graduate courses in multivariate statistics taught in psychology, education, human development, business, nursing, and other social and life sciences, researchers also appreciate this book‘s applied approach. Knowledge of basic statistics, research methods, basic algebra, and finite mathematics is recommended.

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