corinth the history and legacy of the ancient greek city state

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Corinth

Author : Charles River Charles River Editors
ISBN : 1977598005
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*Includes pictures *Includes ancient accounts of Corinth *Includes online resources and a bibliography for further reading Modern perceptions of Classical Greece are almost invariably based on Athens and Sparta, but Corinth was also a key city-state in antiquity. When St. Paul visited in 51 CE, the Corinth he saw was actually a relatively new city, having been built a little over 100 years previously, but he found a city five times larger than Athens at that time and one which was the capital of a prosperous province. However, ancient Corinth had actually been founded in the 10th century BCE and was, for most of its history, the richest port and the largest city in all of Greece. Corinth had a population in excess of 90,000 in 400 BCE, but the Romans leveled this original city in 146 BCE, killing all the male inhabitants and selling the women and children into slavery. The few that survived fled to Delos, and for the next 100 years the site was deserted until Julius Caesar rebuilt it in 44 BCE. The story of the rise and fall of this powerful polis is intriguing, as are the reasons for ancient Corinth's reputation throughout the Greek world for its licentiousness. One of the Greek words for fornication was korinthiazomai, and while the city's association with sacred prostitutes scandalized contemporary Athenians in particular, it also made the city a favorite destination for many Greeks. Corinth was also where so much of what became recognized as "Greek art and architecture" was first developed, and it was here that Eastern influence on Greece can first and most obviously be detected. The destruction of ancient Corinth marked the end of free Greece, but despite the integral role it played in Hellas, Corinth has never been recognized as a great military or naval power in the way that Athens and Sparta have. It did not boast any exceptional schools of philosophy, nor are there any great buildings still remaining to attest to its successes. Corinth's contribution to the spread of Greek civilization, however, matches if not surpasses all of the more well-known poleis. Corinth also acted as a gateway for many of the artistic ideas from the East that local artisans adapted and developed to produce their own uniquely Corinthian style of pottery and art. In architecture, too, Corinth's contribution was significant, and the Corinthian style was utilized throughout Greece and the Greek world, especially in relation to temple building. The quintessential Greek ship, the trireme, was first developed in Corinth, and its role in defeating the Persians, a defeat that most historians agree changed world history, is still understated, probably because of the credence given to Herodotus' claims about the Corinthians' behavior in that war. The fact that the city was reestablished by Julius Caesar and, even today, is a highly important center of trade suggests that Corinth was destined to be a hub of trading activity and a prosperous city. Still, the advantages conferred by a favorable geographic position had to be seized, and this ancient Corinth did. Its impact on the ancient Greek world, and hence its influence on Western civilization, should not be underestimated, even as it mostly continues to be. Corinth: The History and Legacy of the Ancient Greek City-State examines the history of one of Greece's most important poleis. Along with pictures depicting important people, places, and events, you will learn about Corinth like never before.

Thebes

Author : Charles River Charles River Editors
ISBN : 1974286940
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*Includes pictures *Includes ancient accounts about Thebes *Includes online resources and a bibliography for further reading Modern perceptions of Classical Greece are almost invariably based on Athens and Sparta, but Thebes was also a key player in the history of the region in this pivotal period. Indeed, it was, in fact, Thebes that was the major power for many of the years preceding the emergence of Macedon. The reasons for so little being known about Thebes and its contributions to ancient Greek civilization are complex, but the fact that it was totally destroyed by Alexander the Great is certainly one. Unlike Athens and Sparta, there are no magnificent structures still extant; indeed, the scale of the destruction meted out to Thebes was so great that very few artifacts of any kind have been discovered that enable a full picture of life in the city. With the very notable exception of Pindar, Thebes did not produce significant numbers of philosophers or playwrights, nor did it host any major pan-Hellenic festivals. Consequently, Thebes is not as well-known as the other major players in the Greek world at that time. It is also true that Thebes was not the most loved of the Greek poleis, and its reputation never really recovered from its decision to side with the Persians during the Persians' invasion of the Greek mainland. Those points notwithstanding, Thebes was an important city-state, served as the scene of many of the great myths of Greece, and developed a reputation for military might and tactical genius that was well-deserved. Thebes' association, at least in the eyes of contemporary Classical Greek rivals, with male homosexuality is a topic in its own right, and a study of the Sacred Band that proved so vital in Thebes' victories in the Classical period is especially revealing, though there is no proof of any real substance that Theban attitudes were greatly different than those of other Greeks on the whole issue of what was and was not acceptable. Regardless, Thebes' rise and fall are subjects well worthy of study, and ones that provide invaluable insights into how ancient Greek politics worked, especially in relation to the constantly changing pattern of alliances. Thebes also provided inspirational stories of individual and group heroism in the face of huge odds. Thebes: The History and Legacy of the Ancient Greek City-State examines the history of one of Greece's most important poleis. Along with pictures depicting important people, places, and events, you will learn about Thebes like never before.

Roman Greece

Author : Charles River Charles River Editors
ISBN : 1984036793
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*Includes pictures *Includes online resources and a bibliography for further reading "Graecia capta ferum victorem cepit" ("Conquered Greece captured her uncouth conqueror and brought her arts to Latium") - Horace Graeco-Roman relations in the ancient world are normally assumed to date, essentially, from 146 B.C., when Rome organized its supervision of Greece through its Governors in Macedonia. In fact, the first direct interactions of any note between the two come about during the first Illyrian War in 229 B.C, although, of course there had been contacts of numerous kinds even prior to this date. Phillip V of Macedon had allied himself with Hannibal and that, in itself, guaranteed, at some point, that the Romans would turn their full attention to the eastern Mediterranean area, if for no other reason than to settle that outstanding score once and for all. Phillip was defeated in 197 B.C. at the Battle of Cynoscephalae and his son Perseus, at Pydna in 168 B.C. Following these defeats, Macedonia was divided into four republics under Roman governorship, but the rest of Greece was left relatively free from direct Roman rule. In due course, opposition to Rome's increasing domination of the region led to the establishment of the Achaean League, comprising a number of city states, headed by Corinth, to oppose the Romans. As this suggests, in the early years of the Principate despite growing Philhellenism in the Empire, the vast majority of Greeks, with the notable exception of Sparta, were very unwilling subjects of Rome. There was unrest in the Augustan period (27 B.C. - AD 14), particularly in Athens, and the imperial cult made little or no headway until the time of Nero (AD54 - 68), who, along with Hadrian much later (AD117 - 138), took a special interest in Greece and all things Greek. Nero, for example began the work on the Corinth canal, using slave labour, of course, and Hadrian completed a number of projects that are dealt with later in some detail. The antagonism that the majority of Greeks felt towards Rome was not helped by Caesar's foundation of a Roman colony at Corinth in 44 B.C. and another by Augustus at Nicopolis in 31 B.C. In both cases the establishment of the colonies had led to the forcible removal of the indigenous populations to make room for the colonists. What was, however, even more resented was what the Greeks considered to be the pillage of their culture and heritage. Various emperors systematically looted Greek temples and public buildings of their sculptures and other priceless works of art, taking them back to adorn the homes of the rich or public buildings in Rome. The pillage of Greek heritage extended to attempts to absorb Greek cults and Suetonius records the ultimately failed attempt to transfer the whole Eleusinian mystery cult to Rome. However, despite the ravages wrought on the Greek cities and their populations by Roman rule, in the end the Hellenism that came to be such a feature of the Roman Empire actually did more to secure the continuation of Greek culture and heritage than anything the Greeks themselves could have done. It can be argued that Roman culture was, indeed, Graeco-Roman rather than Roman. It was the Greek language that served as the lingua franca in the Eastern Empire and much of the west including Italy. Many Greek intellectuals, including Galen, were based in Rome and the Roman aristocracy more and more came to embrace Greek literature and philosophy. Homer's epics inspired Virgil's Aeneid and Seneca wrote in Greek. Earlier, Scipio Africanus (236 - 183 B.C.), the epitome of the Roman martial hero, studied Greek philosophy and regarded Greek culture as the benchmark against which all others had to be judged. The Roman poet and philosopher Horace studied in Athens during the Principate and, in common with many of his class, saw that city as the intellectual centre of the world.

Ancient Corinth

Author : Nicos Papahatzis
ISBN : 9602131438
Genre : Travel
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The museums of Corinth, Isthmia and Sicyon.

The History And Legacy Of Ancient Greece S Most Influential City States

Author : Charles River Charles River Editors
ISBN : 1986841316
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*Includes pictures *Includes ancient accounts *Includes online resources and a bibliography for further reading Dominated to this day by the sprawling white marble complex of the Acropolis, Athens is a city which is immensely and rightly proud of its past. For a period of roughly three centuries, the polis of Athens stood, if not in a position of unchallenged supremacy among the cities of Hellas, then at the very least among its three most important polities. Its fledgling Empire, though small by the standards later set by Alexander or the Romans, or even by those of its ancient enemy Persia, nonetheless encompassed cities as far afield as Asia Minor and Southern Italy, a remarkable fact considering such expansion was achieved by the inhabitants of a single city and its immediate surroundings, rather than by an entire nation. Athens is chiefly remembered for two reasons: its political system, which would in time form the nucleus of all Western democratic systems of government, and the remarkable number of outstanding individuals which, during the Golden Age of Athens, lived and flourished in the enlightened city-state. The Ancient Athenians formed the backbone of the West's entire culture, from the arts to philosophy and everything in between. The most unique city-state in Ancient Greece was Sparta, which continues to fascinate contemporaneous society. It is not entirely clear why Sparta placed such a great emphasis on having a militaristic society, but the result was that military fitness was a preoccupation from birth. If a Spartan baby did not appear physically fit at birth, it was left to die. Spartan children underwent military training around the age of 7 years old, and every male had to join the army around the age of 18. Sparta will forever be known for its military prowess, but they had lives off the battlefield as well, and their way of life was also unique. For example, Spartan females were formally educated, which was a rarity among the city-states, and the Spartan way of life was entirely dependent on a class of indentured servants known as the helots. Yet the Laws of Lycurgus, which ordered all Spartans to disregard art (with the exception of song, which the Spartans prized, and some forms of music and poetry), to distrust philosophy, and to abhor excess in all things, were designed to create the perfect warrior society, and they did. As a result, the Spartans became notorious for "Laconic phrases" In the Archaic and Classical periods, Rhodes often stood as a prime exemplar of the highs and lows of its fellow Greek cities, and as the largest island of the Dodecanese, Rhodes' history is largely in line with that of the rest of those islands. Rhodes would reach the zenith of its power in the Hellenistic period following the death of Alexander the Great in 323 B.C. Even as the rest of the city-states waned compared to the much larger kingdoms of Alexander's successors in Egypt and Asia, Rhodes would come to the forefront as a main power in the Greek world. Modern perceptions of Classical Greece are almost invariably based on Athens and Sparta, but Thebes was also a key player in the history of the region in this pivotal period. Indeed, it was, in fact, Thebes that was the major power for many of the years preceding the emergence of Macedon. The reasons for so little being known about Thebes and its contributions to ancient Greek civilization are complex, but the fact that it was totally destroyed by Alexander the Great is certainly one. Ancient Corinth had actually been founded in the 10th century B.C. and was, for most of its history, the richest port and the largest city in all of Greece. Corinth had a population in excess of 90,000 in 400 B.C., but the Romans leveled this original city in 146 B.C., killing all the male inhabitants and selling the women and children into slavery. This book weaves all these city-states' stories and histories together.

Thebes

Author : Nicholas Rockwell
ISBN : 9781317218289
Genre : History
File Size : 88. 50 MB
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Thebes offers a scholarly survey of the history and archaeology of the city, from 1600 BCE – 476 CE. Discussions of major developments in politics, war, society and culture form the basis of a chronological examination of one of Greece’s most powerful and dynamic cities. By taking a broad view, the book’s account speaks to larger trends in the ancient Mediterranean world while also demonstrating how Thebes was unique in its ancient context. It provides an up-to-date examination of all available information: topographic, demographic, numismatic, epigraphic, archaeological and textual discussions provide the most complete, current picture of ancient Thebes and illustrate the value of an interdisciplinary approach.

Empire Of Ancient Greece

Author : Jean Kinney Williams
ISBN : 9781438127835
Genre : Greece
File Size : 26. 87 MB
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The classical Greek civilization is the cornerstone of Western civilization today. The Greeks invented and developed everything from logic and democracy to rhetoric, drama, and philosophy. Empire of Ancient Greece, Revised Edition chronicles the remarkable legacy of the Greeks, as well as the diversity of their societies--from the thriving democracy of Athens to the militarism of Sparta to the oligarchy of Thrace. It explores the conditions that made it possible for the ancient Greeks to develop a culture that set the foundation for our intellectual lives today, and explains why Greek power eventually declined. Everyday life in ancient Greece, from the wealthy citizens who grappled in the Olympic arena to the farmers who found 50 different ways to use olive oil, is also examined. Connections in our own world to the ancient Greeks are numerous, including the Olympics, much of our classical literature, the scientific method, architecture, and many English words.

The Spartan Military

Author : Charles River Charles River Editors
ISBN : 1981856927
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*Includes pictures *Includes ancient accounts describing the Spartan military *Includes online resources and a bibliography for further reading *Includes a table of contents "The only men in the world with whom war brought a respite from training for war." - Plutarch's description of Spartan warriors "The walls of Sparta were its young men, and its borders the points of their spears." - attributed to King Agesilaos There have been no shortage of great warrior societies in history, including the Romans, Mongols, Macedonians, and Vikings, the list goes on. Yet one humble city in particular, nestled in a valley near the Eurotas river in the Greek region of the Peloponnese and once ridiculed as little more than a cluster of villages inhabited by uncouth shepherds, produced the most famous warrior elite the world has ever known. The most unique city-state in Ancient Greece was Sparta, which continues to fascinate contemporaneous society. It is not entirely clear why Sparta placed such a great emphasis on having a militaristic society, but the result was that military fitness was a preoccupation from birth. If a Spartan baby did not appear physically fit at birth, it was left to die. Spartan children underwent military training around the age of 7 years old, and every male had to join the army around the age of 18. The Spartans, whose carefully constructed approach to warfare and - there is no other word for it - Spartan way of life, earned the grudging admiration of all of Greece and succeeded in establishing themselves in the years following the reforms of the semi-legendary ruler Lycurgus as the greatest military force in all of Hellas. Athens might have the mightiest fleet and the greatest cadre of philosophers and dramatists, Thessaly might have had the most vaunted cavalry, and the great city-states of Argos, Thebes and Corinth all had their own claims to fame, but on the battlefield the Spartan phalanx stood without peer. So feared were they in Greece that their very appearance on the battlefield could cause entire enemy armies to flee in terror, and in one of history's most famous battles, 300 Spartan warriors headed a combined Greek force which held off the hundreds of thousands of Persian warriors of Xerxes's invading army for three days at Thermopylae, inflicting an estimated 20,000 casualties upon them before dying to the last man rather than retreating. Sparta will forever be known for its military prowess, but they had lives off the battlefield as well, and their way of life was also unique. For example, Spartan females were formally educated, which was a rarity among the city-states, and the Spartan way of life was entirely dependent on a class of indentured servants known as the helots. Yet the Laws of Lycurgus, which ordered all Spartans to disregard art (with the exception of song, which the Spartans prized, and some forms of music and poetry), to distrust philosophy, and to abhor excess in all things, were designed to create the perfect warrior society, and they did. As a result, the Spartans became notorious for "Laconic phrases." The Spartan Military: The History and Legacy of the Ancient World's Most Renowned Army looks at the history of the Spartan military, and how it became one of the most fearsome fighting forces in history. Along with pictures depicting important people, places, and events, you will learn about the Spartan military like never before.

Ancient Greece

Author : T. D. Van Basten
ISBN : 1532835566
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The Greatest Military Leader in History Alexander III of Macedon, better known to the world as Alexander the Great, was one of the most powerful rulers of the ancient world. During his time, he amassed the largest amount of land that the Greek empire would ever see. He seemed to capture land with ease and managed to spread the culture and language of the Greek empire far and wide, ushering in what is referred to as the Hellenic Period. Born the son of King Philip II of Macedon and his main wife, Olympias, Alexander had a privileged upbringing. While much about his childhood has been lost to the proverbial sands of time, we know that he had a very close relationship with his mother and a rather tumultuous relationship with his father, as his father was gone a good deal of the time, conquering lands and their women. It was during the time of his father that the various Greek city-states came together under a single ruler. Dubbed the League of Corinth, it was comprised of all the regional city-states and Philip II was the sole leader of the League. He was, unfortunately, unexpectedly assassinated at his daughter's wedding, which threw the League and Macedonia into a bit of chaos...

Land Of Sikyon

Author : Yannis A. Lolos
ISBN : 9781621390022
Genre : Social Science
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Ancient Sikyon, in the northeastern Peloponnese, was a major player on the Mediterranean stage, especially in the Archaic and Hellenistic periods. This comprehensive study combines a discussion of the geological and historical background with the results of original research based on many years of archaeological fieldwork. Author Yannis Lolos, drawing upon the limited excavations in Sikyonia, literary sources, and mostly his own extensive survey data, traces the history of the human presence in the territory of Sikyon from prehistory to the early modern period. A series of detailed maps plots the position of many previously unknown roads, fortifications, and settlement sites.

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