crime modeling and mapping using geospatial technologies 8 geotechnologies and the environment

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Crime Modeling And Mapping Using Geospatial Technologies

Author : Michael Leitner
ISBN : 9789400749979
Genre : Science
File Size : 26. 48 MB
Format : PDF
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Recent years in North America have seen a rapid development in the area of crime analysis and mapping using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology. In 1996, the US National Institute of Justice (NIJ) established the crime mapping research center (CMRC), to promote research, evaluation, development, and dissemination of GIS technology. The long-term goal is to develop a fully functional Crime Analysis System (CAS) with standardized data collection and reporting mechanisms, tools for spatial and temporal analysis, visualization of data and much more. Among the drawbacks of current crime analysis systems is their lack of tools for spatial analysis. For this reason, spatial analysts should research which current analysis techniques (or variations of such techniques) that have been already successfully applied to other areas (e.g., epidemiology, location-allocation analysis, etc.) can also be employed to the spatial analysis of crime data. This book presents a few of those cases.

Environmental Criminology And Crime Analysis

Author : Richard Wortley
ISBN : 9781317487104
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 25. 66 MB
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Environmental criminology is a term that encompasses a range of overlapping perspectives. At its core, the many strands of environmental criminology are bound by a common focus on the role that the immediate environment plays in the performance of crime, and a conviction that careful analyses of these environmental influences are the key to the effective investigation, control, and prevention of crime. This new edition brings together leading theorists and practitioners in the field to provide a comprehensive, integrative coverage of the field of environmental criminology and crime analysis. This book is divided into three sequential parts: • Understanding the crime event explores routine activity approach, crime pattern theory, the rational choice perspective, and situational precipitators of crime. • Analysing crime patterns discusses crime mapping, offender mobility, repeat victimisation, geographic profiling, and crime scripts. • Preventing and controlling crime covers topics including problem oriented policing, situational crime prevention, and environmental design. Fully updated and including new chapters on crime scripts and offender mobility, a scene-setting introductory overview, and critical thinking questions at the end of each chapter, this text is an essential and comprehensive resource for practitioners and students taking courses on environmental criminology, crime analysis, and crime prevention.

The Oxford Handbook Of Offender Decision Making

Author : Wim Bernasco
ISBN : 9780199338818
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 75. 99 MB
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Although the issue of offender decision-making pervades almost every discussion of crime and law enforcement, only a few comprehensive texts cover and integrate information about the role of decision-making in crime. The Oxford Handbook of Offender Decision Making provide high-quality reviews of the main paradigms in offender decision-making, such as rational choice theory and dual-process theory. It contains up-to-date reviews of empirical research on decision-making in a wide range of decision types including not only criminal initiation and desistance, but also choice of locations, times, targets, victims, methods as well as large variety crimes including homicide, robbery, domestic violence, burglary, street crime, sexual crimes, and cybercrime. Lastly, it provides in-depth treatments of the major methods used to study offender decision-making, including experiments, observation studies, surveys, offender interviews, and simulations. Comprehensive and authoritative, the Handbook will quickly become the primary source of theoretical, methodological, and empirical knowledge about decision-making as it relates to criminal behavior.

Forensic Gis

Author : Gregory A. Elmes
ISBN : 9789401787574
Genre : Science
File Size : 21. 65 MB
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A variety of disciplines and professions have embraced geospatial technologies for collecting, storing, manipulating, analyzing and displaying spatial data to investigate crime, prosecute and convict offenders, exonerate suspects and submit evidence in civil lawsuits. The applications, acceptability and relevance and procedural legality of each geospatial technologies vary. The purpose of this book is to explain the nature of geospatial technologies, demonstrate a variety of geospatial applications used to investigate and litigate civil and criminal activities and to provide a reference of current acceptability of geospatial technology in the production of evidence. This book is an introductory overview designed to appeal to researchers and practitioners across disciplinary boundaries. The authors of this book are researchers and practitioners across disciplines and professions, experts in the field.

Geospatial Techniques In Urban Hazard And Disaster Analysis

Author : Pamela S. Showalter
ISBN : 9048122384
Genre : Science
File Size : 65. 35 MB
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This book is the second in a series that examines how geographic information te- nologies (GIT) are being implemented to improve our understanding of a variety of hazard and disaster situations. The main types of technologies covered under the umbrella of GIT, as used in this volume, are geographic information systems, remote sensing (not including ground-penetrating or underwater systems), and global po- tioning systems. Our focus is on urban areas, broadly de ned in order to encompass rapidly growing and densely populated areas that may not be considered “urban” in the conventional sense. The material presented here is also unabashedly applied – our goal is to provide GIT tools to those seeking more ef cient ways to respond to, recover from, mitigate, prevent, and/or model hazard and disaster events in urban settings. Therefore, this book was created not only with our colleagues in the academic world in mind, but also for hazards professionals and practitioners. We also believe graduate students will nd the material presented here of interest, as may upper division undergraduate students.

Gis Technology Applications In Environmental And Earth Sciences

Author : Bai Tian
ISBN : 9781498776059
Genre : Science
File Size : 39. 43 MB
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This book starts with an overview of GIS technology, what GIS technology is, what it can do, what software products are available, etc. Then, throughout the book, the author explains with many case studies, programs, maps, graphics, and 3D models how GIS and other related technologies can be used to automate mapping processes, collect, process, edit, store, manage, and share datasets, statistically analyze data, model, and visualize large datasets to understand patterns, trends, and relationships to make educated decisions. This book is an excellent resource for anyone who is interested in GIS and related technologies, geology, natural resource, and environmental science.

Geospatial Technologies And Homeland Security

Author : Daniel Z. Sui
ISBN : 9781402085079
Genre : Science
File Size : 73. 39 MB
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Homeland security and context In the Geographical Dimensions of Terrorism (GDOT) (Cutter et al. 2003), the first book after 9/11 to address homeland security and geography, we developed several thematic research agendas and explored intersections between geographic research and the importance of context, both geographical and political, in relationship to the concepts of terrorism and security. It is good to see that a great deal of new thought and research continues to flow from that initial research agenda, as illustrated by many of the papers of this new book, entitled Geospatial Technologies and Homeland Security: Research Frontiers and Future Challenges. Context is relevant not only to understanding homeland security issues broadly, but also to the conduct of research on geospatial technologies. It is impossible to understand the implications of a homeland security strategy, let alone hope to make predictions, conduct meaningful modeling and research, or assess the value and dangers of geospatial technologies, without consideration of overarching political, social, economic, and geographic contexts within which these questions are posed.

Citizen Empowered Mapping

Author : Michael Leitner
ISBN : 3319516280
Genre : Science
File Size : 28. 92 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book promotes the exploitation of novel and emerging approaches for mapping environmental and urban informatics empowered by citizens. The book includes diverse case studies from, Mexico, the United States and Czech Republic. The book includes diverse case studies from, Mexico, the United States and Czech Republic. The topics covered in this collection are of interest for research scholars, practitioners, postgraduates, and professionals from a variety of disciplines including geography, environmental science, geographic information science, social science, and computer science.

Computational Approaches For Urban Environments

Author : Marco Helbich
ISBN : 9783319114699
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 86. 18 MB
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This book aims to promote the synergistic usage of advanced computational methodologies in close relationship to geospatial information across cities of different scales. A rich collection of chapters subsumes current research frontiers originating from disciplines such as geography, urban planning, computer science, statistics, geographic information science and remote sensing. The topics covered in the book are of interest to researchers, postgraduates, practitioners and professionals. The editors hope that the scientific outcome of this book will stimulate future urban-related international and interdisciplinary research, bringing us closer to the vision of a “new science of cities.”

Geospatial Technologies And Climate Change

Author : Janardhanan Sundaresan
ISBN : 9783319016894
Genre : Science
File Size : 55. 85 MB
Format : PDF
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Geospatial Technologies and Climate Change describes various approaches from different countries on how to use geospatial technologies to help solving climate change issues. It also details how different geospatial technologies (remote sensing, Geographical Information System...) can be used to help with climate monitoring and modeling, how to work with them and what to be careful about. This book is written by scientific experts from four different continents. Written in a comprehensive and complete way, this book is essential reading material for graduate and undergraduate students interested in these techniques and in climate change.

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