cultural patterns and neurocognitive circuits eastcwest connections exploring complexity

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Cultural Patterns And Neurocognitive Circuits

Author : Jan W Vasbinder
ISBN : 9789813147508
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 46. 19 MB
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Our age is characterized by global access to information, places and cultures: we can gain more and more knowledge about "the others": other people and their cultures by "indirect knowledge" — learning about them via the global information net assisted by electronic and other high-tech communication channels, as well as by "direct knowledge": personally visiting various parts of the world and meeting local people in their own natural and social environments. East and West, two major worlds of aspirations, cultures, world-views, theoretical and practical approaches to life and death, have come closer by personal experiences of both Westerners and Easterners. But do we really understand the similarities and differences between the cultural-cognitive-behavioural-emotional patterns of the East and the West, with special regard to their neurobiological underpinnings in the human brain? The contents of this book focus on cultural patterns and cognitive patterns in the East and West, with special regard to those patterns which are determined by our natural-genetic endownments in contrast to those patterns which are influenced by our cultural ("East–West") influences, and within this context a unique flavour is given to the "good life" aspects of adapting to this global community.

Cultural Patterns And Neurocognitive Circuits Ii East West Connections

Author : Gulyas Balazs
ISBN : 9789813230491
Genre : Science
File Size : 32. 74 MB
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The contents of this book continues the theme as in the previous volume on cultural patterns and cognitive patterns in the East and West, with special regard to those patterns which are determined by our natural-genetic endownments in contrast to those patterns which are influenced by our cultural ("East-West") influences, and within this context a unique flavour is given to the "good life" aspects of adapting to this global community. The chapters written by leading neuroscientists, give an overarching picture from the elementary organisational principles of the human brain through the basic perceptual and motor functions of the brain to the highest levels of cognition, including aesthetical or moral judgments, with an eye on what can be called "good life" in both Eastern and Western cultures. A unique compilation of state-of-the-art overviews of how the human brain is organised and functions in order to achieve high level of social, moral or aesthetic thoughts across cultures. Contents: Preface (J Vasbinder and B Gulyás)Introduction (Sydney Brenner)Neuronal Circuits: Action Observation as a Visual Process: Different Classes of Actions Engage Distinct Regions of Human PPC (Guy A Orban)The Power of Single Cases: Examples from the Early Visual Pathway and from Visual Art (Ernst Pöppel and Yan Bao)Emergence of Higher Cognitive Functions: Imitation: Mechanisms and Importance for Human Culture (Giacomo Rizzolatti)Brain Mechanisms of Tool-Use that Advance Our Knowledge Beyond the Border Neural Correlates of "Proto-Language" in the Monkey Brain (Atsushi Iriki and Kevin W McCairn)Conscious Processing: Unity in Time Rather Than in Space (Wolf Singer)Highest Cognitive Functions: Overcoming "Monocausalitis" by Complementarity as a Generative Principle and a Thought Pattern Exemplified with Aesthetic Appreciations and the Arts (Yan Bao and Ernst Pöppel)Modelling Levels of Consciousness for Language Development in Infants: A Feature-based Approach (Helena Hong Gao)Individual Differences in Math Achievement: Finland and Singapore (Kerry Lee and Pirjo Aunio)Moral Progress Requires a Coupling Between Empathy and Reason — A Social Neuroscience Perspective (Jean Decety)Appendix: The Video and Presentation Links Readership: Students and researchers interested in following cultural and behavioral patterns, with respect to their neurobiological foundations. Keywords: Cultures;Cognitive Patterns;Cultural Patterns;Behavioral PatternsReview: Key Features: Contributions from world renowned neuroscientistsFocus on highest level neurocognitive functions, including perception, action, learningJudgements on aesthetics, morals and good life

43 Visions For Complexity

Author : Stefan Thurner
ISBN : 9789813206861
Genre : Science
File Size : 85. 62 MB
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Coping with the complexities of the social world in the 21st century requires deeper quantitative and predictive understanding. Forty-three internationally acclaimed scientists and thinkers share their vision for complexity science in the next decade in this invaluable book. Topics cover how complexity and big data science could help society to tackle the great challenges ahead, and how the newly established Complexity Science Hub Vienna might be a facilitator on this path.

Selected Papers Of John H Holland

Author : Jan Wouter Vasbinder
ISBN : 9789813234765
Genre : Systems engineering
File Size : 33. 96 MB
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With his work on computer logic, John H Holland became one of the most important founders of modern computer science. People who knew John H Holland were all amazed and deeply influenced by his incredibly imaginative and creative mind. He produced many more ideas than he could follow up in his life time. This selection of his papers in the field of computer logic entails many of his explored and unexplored ideas. Revisiting the explored ideas and exploring the unexplored ones should be of great interest to scientists of all ages, and of great value to the current research not only in computer science but in many other fields as well.

Aha That Is Interesting John Holland 85 Years Young

Author : Vasbinder Jan Wouter
ISBN : 9789814619882
Genre : Science
File Size : 89. 54 MB
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John Holland is one of the few scientists, who all by themselves and by their pursuits, helped change the course of science and the wealth of human knowledge. There is hardly a field of science or problems, that is not affected by John's work on complexity and in particular, complex adaptive systems. On the occasion of his 85th birthday, many of his friends wrote about John, about facets of this remarkable man that only people close to him can know and tell.This book collects those stories highlighting aspects of the creation of complexity science that will most likely not be found in the books on John's works.The stories and anecdotes about his quests, his collaborators, and his friends, show his incredible mind, his boyish curiosity and explorative energy, his philosophy of life, his enormous hospitality and natural inclination to make friends.

Cognitive Aging

Author : Institute of Medicine
ISBN : 9780309368650
Genre : Medical
File Size : 76. 2 MB
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For most Americans, staying "mentally sharp" as they age is a very high priority. Declines in memory and decision-making abilities may trigger fears of Alzheimer's disease or other neurodegenerative diseases. However, cognitive aging is a natural process that can have both positive and negative effects on cognitive function in older adults - effects that vary widely among individuals. At this point in time, when the older population is rapidly growing in the United States and across the globe, it is important to examine what is known about cognitive aging and to identify and promote actions that individuals, organizations, communities, and society can take to help older adults maintain and improve their cognitive health. Cognitive Aging assesses the public health dimensions of cognitive aging with an emphasis on definitions and terminology, epidemiology and surveillance, prevention and intervention, education of health professionals, and public awareness and education. This report makes specific recommendations for individuals to reduce the risks of cognitive decline with aging. Aging is inevitable, but there are actions that can be taken by individuals, families, communities, and society that may help to prevent or ameliorate the impact of aging on the brain, understand more about its impact, and help older adults live more fully and independent lives. Cognitive aging is not just an individual or a family or a health care system challenge. It is an issue that affects the fabric of society and requires actions by many and varied stakeholders. Cognitive Aging offers clear steps that individuals, families, communities, health care providers and systems, financial organizations, community groups, public health agencies, and others can take to promote cognitive health and to help older adults live fuller and more independent lives. Ultimately, this report calls for a societal commitment to cognitive aging as a public health issue that requires prompt action across many sectors.

Local Activity Principle The Cause Of Complexity And Symmetry Breaking

Author : Mainzer Klaus
ISBN : 9781908977113
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 62. 75 MB
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The principle of local activity explains the emergence of complex patterns in a homogeneous medium. At first defined in the theory of nonlinear electronic circuits in a mathematically rigorous way, it can be generalized and proven at least for the class of nonlinear reaction-diffusion systems in physics, chemistry, biology, and brain research. Recently, it was realized by memristors for nanoelectronic device applications. In general, the emergence of complex patterns and structures is explained by symmetry breaking in homogeneous media, which is caused by local activity. This book argues that the principle of local activity is really fundamental in science, and can even be identified in quantum cosmology as symmetry breaking of local gauge symmetries generating the complexity of matter and forces in our universe. Applications are considered in economic, financial, and social systems with the emergence of equilibrium states, symmetry breaking at critical points of phase transitions and risky acting at the edge of chaos./a

Epigenetics Brain And Behavior

Author : Paolo Sassone Corsi
ISBN : 9783642279133
Genre : Medical
File Size : 85. 23 MB
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Recent years have seen spectacular advances in the filed of epigenetics. These have attracted the interest of researchers in many fields and evidence connecting epigentic regulation to brain functions has been accumulationg. Neurons daily convert a variety of external stimuli into rapid or long-lasting changes in gene expression. A variety of studies have centered on the molcular mechanisms implicated in epigentic control and how these may operte in concert. It will be critical to unravel how specifity is achieved. The focus of this volume is on critical epigenetic regulation and chromatin remodeling events that occur in the nervous system and on the presumed mechanisms that operate within neurons to translate them into long-lasting neuronal responses.

Human Behavior In Military Contexts

Author : Committee on Opportunities in Basic Research
ISBN : 9780309112307
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 21. 52 MB
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Human behavior forms the nucleus of military effectiveness. Humans operating in the complex military system must possess the knowledge, skills, abilities, aptitudes, and temperament to perform their roles effectively in a reliable and predictable manner, and effective military management requires understanding of how these qualities can be best provided and assessed. Scientific research in this area is critical to understanding leadership, training and other personnel issues, social interactions and organizational structures within the military. The U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences (ARI) asked the National Research Council to provide an agenda for basic behavioral and social research focused on applications in both the short and long-term. The committee responded by recommending six areas of research on the basis of their relevance, potential impact, and timeliness for military needs: intercultural competence; teams in complex environments; technology-based training; nonverbal behavior; emotion; and behavioral neurophysiology. The committee suggests doubling the current budget for basic research for the behavioral and social sciences across U.S. military research agencies. The additional funds can support approximately 40 new projects per year across the committee's recommended research areas. Human Behavior in Military Contexts includes committee reports and papers that demonstrate areas of stimulating, ongoing research in the behavioral and social sciences that can enrich the military's ability to recruit, train, and enhance the performance of its personnel, both organizationally and in its many roles in other cultures.

Quality Of Life Impairment In Schizophrenia Mood And Anxiety Disorders

Author : A. George Awad
ISBN : 9781402057793
Genre : Medical
File Size : 85. 25 MB
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A fascinating and worthy text that presents new insights into a hugely important area of mental health. Health-related quality of life (HRQL) impairment is a core domain of prevalent mental disorders such as schizophrenia, schizoaffective, mood and anxiety disorders. The authors present a new conceptual framework for this field by explaining how HRQL impairment arises from interactions between various multidimensional factors. They suggest several ways in which further research could enhance our understanding of HRQL impairment, its biological basis, and its relevance to psychopathology.

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