decisions and elections explaining the unexpected

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Decisions And Elections

Author : Donald Saari
ISBN : 0521004047
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 32. 48 MB
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A highly accessible book offering a new interpretation and resolution of Arrow's and Sen's theorems.

Chaotic Elections

Author : Donald Saari
ISBN : 0821886169
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 88. 85 MB
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What does the 2000 U.S. presidential election have in common with selecting a textbook for a calculus course in your department? Was Ralph Nader's influence on the election of George W. Bush greater than the now-famous chads? In Chaotic Elections!, Don Saari analyzes these questions, placing them in the larger context of voting systems in general. His analysis shows that the fundamental problems with the 2000 presidential election are not with the courts, recounts, or defective ballots, but are caused by the very way Americans vote for president. This expository book shows how mathematics can help to identify and characterize a disturbingly large number of paradoxical situations that result from the choice of a voting procedure. Moreover, rather than being able to dismiss them as anomalies, the likelihood of a dubious election result is surprisingly large. These consequences indicate that election outcomes--whether for president, the site of the next Olympics, the chair of a university department, or a prize winner--can differ from what the voters really wanted. They show that by using an inadequate voting procedure, we can, inadvertently, choose badly. To add to the difficulties, it turns out that the mathematical structures of voting admit several strategic opportunities, which are described. Finally, mathematics also helps identify positive results: By using mathematical symmetries, we can identify what the phrase ``what the voters really want'' might mean and obtain a unique voting method that satisfies these conditions. Saari's book should be required reading for anyone who wants to understand not only what happened in the presidential election of 2000, but also how we can avoid similar problems from appearing anytime any group is making a choice using a voting procedure. Reading this book requires little more than high school mathematics and an interest in how the apparently simple situation of voting can lead to surprising paradoxes.

The Mathematics Of Voting And Elections

Author : Jonathan K. Hodge
ISBN : 9780821837986
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 44. 30 MB
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Have you ever wondered ... ... why elections often produce results that seem to be displeasing to many of the voters involved? Would you be surprised to learn that a perfectly fair election can produce an outcome that literally nobody likes? When voting, we often think about the candidates or proposals in the election, but we rarely consider the procedures that we use to express our preferences and arrive at a collective decision. ... how Jesse ``The Body'' Ventura was elected governor of Minnesota when most of the state's population preferred either of the other two candidates? And what about the 2000 U.S. presidential election? Should George W. Bush really have won despite receiving more than half a million fewer votes than Al Gore? Is it possible that these elections would have turned out differently had different voting procedures been used? The Mathematics of Voting and Elections: A Hands-On Approach will help you discover answers to these and many other questions. Easily accessible to anyone interested in the subject, the book requires virtually no prior mathematical experience beyond basic arithmetic, and includes numerous examples and discussions regarding actual elections from politics and popular culture.

Decision Support For Global Enterprises

Author : Uday Kulkarni
ISBN : 0387481370
Genre : Computers
File Size : 33. 10 MB
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India is becoming the "global back office" to international supply chains. This book consists of peer-reviewed and invited papers with two primary goals: (1) Stimulate creative discussion between academic researchers and the practitioner IS community to improve the research and practice in the area. (2) Increase awareness of the problems and challenges faced by global enterprises that can be met with innovative decision support systems.

Behavioral Social Choice

Author : Michel Regenwetter
ISBN : 0521536669
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 71. 26 MB
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Behavioral Social Choice looks at the probabilistic foundations of collective decision-making rules. The authors challenge much of the existing theoretical wisdom about social choice processes, and seek to restore faith in the possibility of democratic decision-making. In particular, they argue that worries about the supposed prevalence of majority rule cycles that would preclude groups from reaching a final decision about what alternative they prefer have been greatly overstated. In practice, majority rule can be expected to work well in most real-world settings. They provide new insights into how alternative model specifications can change our estimates of social orderings.

Handbook Of Group Decision And Negotiation

Author : D. Marc Kilgour
ISBN : 9048190975
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 89. 68 MB
Format : PDF
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Publication of the Handbook of Group Decision and Negotiation marks a milestone in the evolution of the group decision and negotiation (GDN) eld. On this occasion, editors Colin Eden and Marc Kilgour asked me to write a brief history of the eld to provide background and context for the volume. They said that I am in a good position to do so: Actively involved in creating the GDN Section and serving as its chair; founding and leading the GDN journal, Group Decision and Negotiation as editor-in-chief, and the book series, “Advances in Group Decision and Negotiation” as editor; and serving as general chair of the GDN annual meetings. I accepted their invitation to write a brief history. In 1989 what is now the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences (INFORMS) established its Section on Group Decision and Negotiation. The journal Group Decision and Negotiation was founded in 1992, published by Springer in cooperation with INFORMS and the GDN Section. In 2003, as an ext- sion of the journal, the Springer book series, “Advances in Group Decision and Negotiation” was inaugurated.

Handbook Of Design Research Methods In Education

Author : Anthony E. Kelly
ISBN : 9781317639640
Genre : Education
File Size : 59. 21 MB
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This Handbook presents the latest thinking and current examples of design research in education. Design-based research involves introducing innovations into real-world practices (as opposed to constrained laboratory contexts) and examining the impact of those designs on the learning process. Designed prototype applications (e.g., instructional methods, software or materials) and the research findings are then cycled back into the next iteration of the design innovation in order to build evidence of the particular theories being researched, and to positively impact practice and the diffusion of the innovation. The Handbook of Design Research Methods in Education-- the defining book for the field -- fills a need in how to conduct design research by those doing so right now. The chapters represent a broad array of interpretations and examples of how today’s design researchers conceptualize this emergent methodology across areas as diverse as educational leadership, diffusion of innovations, complexity theory, and curriculum research. This volume is designed as a guide for doctoral students, early career researchers and cross-over researchers from fields outside of education interested in supporting innovation in educational settings through conducting design research.

Parties Elections And Electoral Contests

Author : Marc Guinjoan
ISBN : 9781317083719
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 26. 67 MB
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According to the Duvergerian theories, in the long run, only viable parties are expected to stand for elections. Non-viable parties should join a pre-electoral coalition with another party or withdraw from competition entirely. Why then do non-viable political parties throughout the world systematically continue presenting candidates? This book responds to this evident but unanswered question to create a general theory about deviations from the Duvergerian equilibrium. The author argues that, far from being just a random or irrational decision, the choice of political parties to present candidates when they do not expect to achieve representation can be explained by the overlap of electoral arenas, that generate opportunities for viable parties to present candidates where they are non-viable. In sum, political parties will take advantage of their viability in an arena to present candidacies in other arenas where they do not have chances to become viable. The building of this new theory on electoral contamination allows the construction of a new and more encompassing conceptual framework through which to make sense of what, until now, has been understood as disparate phenomena and contributes to a better understanding of political parties’ strategic behaviour.

Social Choice And Individual Values

Author : Kenneth J. Arrow
ISBN : 9780300186987
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 70. 39 MB
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Decision Making In Engineering Design

Author : Kemper E. Lewis
ISBN : 0791802469
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 27. 78 MB
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Whether you are an engineer facing decisions in product design, an instructor or student engaged in course work, or a researcher exploring new options and opportunities, you can turn to Decision Making in Engineering Design

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