defects in microelectronic materials and devices

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Defects In Microelectronic Materials And Devices

Author : Daniel M. Fleetwood
ISBN : 1420043773
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 89. 56 MB
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Uncover the Defects that Compromise Performance and Reliability As microelectronics features and devices become smaller and more complex, it is critical that engineers and technologists completely understand how components can be damaged during the increasingly complicated fabrication processes required to produce them. A comprehensive survey of defects that occur in silicon-based metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) technologies, this book also discusses flaws in linear bipolar technologies, silicon carbide-based devices, and gallium arsenide materials and devices. These defects can profoundly affect the yield, performance, long-term reliability, and radiation response of microelectronic devices and integrated circuits (ICs). Organizing the material to build understanding of the problems and provide a quick reference for scientists, engineers and technologists, this text reviews yield- and performance-limiting defects and impurities in the device silicon layer, in the gate insulator, and/or at the critical Si/SiO2 interface. It then examines defects that impact production yield and long-term reliability, including: Vacancies, interstitials, and impurities (especially hydrogen) Negative bias temperature instabilities Defects in ultrathin oxides (SiO2 and silicon oxynitride) Take A Proactive Approach The authors condense decades of experience and perspectives of noted experimentalists and theorists to characterize defect properties and their impact on microelectronic devices. They identify the defects, offering solutions to avoid them and methods to detect them. These include the use of 3-D imaging, as well as electrical, analytical, computational, spectroscopic, and state-of-the-art microscopic methods. This book is a valuable look at challenges to come from emerging materials, such as high-K gate dielectrics and high-mobility substrates being developed to replace Si02 as the preferred gate dielectric material, and high-mobility substrates.

Reliability And Failure Of Electronic Materials And Devices

Author : Milton Ohring
ISBN : 9780080575520
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 57. 99 MB
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Reliability and Failure of Electronic Materials and Devices is a well-established and well-regarded reference work offering unique, single-source coverage of most major topics related to the performance and failure of materials used in electronic devices and electronics packaging. With a focus on statistically predicting failure and product yields, this book can help the design engineer, manufacturing engineer, and quality control engineer all better understand the common mechanisms that lead to electronics materials failures, including dielectric breakdown, hot-electron effects, and radiation damage. This new edition adds cutting-edge knowledge gained both in research labs and on the manufacturing floor, with new sections on plastics and other new packaging materials, new testing procedures, and new coverage of MEMS devices. Covers all major types of electronics materials degradation and their causes, including dielectric breakdown, hot-electron effects, electrostatic discharge, corrosion, and failure of contacts and solder joints New updated sections on "failure physics," on mass transport-induced failure in copper and low-k dielectrics, and on reliability of lead-free/reduced-lead solder connections New chapter on testing procedures, sample handling and sample selection, and experimental design Coverage of new packaging materials, including plastics and composites

Germanium Based Technologies

Author : Cor Claeys
ISBN : 008047490X
Genre : Science
File Size : 30. 48 MB
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Germanium is a semiconductor material that formed the basis for the development of transistor technology. Although the breakthrough of planar technology and integrated circuits put silicon in the foreground, in recent years there has been a renewed interest in germanium, which has been triggered by its strong potential for deep submicron (sub 45 nm) technologies. Germanium-Based technologies: From Materials to Devices is the first book to provide a broad, in-depth coverage of the field, including recent advances in Ge-technology and the fundamentals in material science, device physics and semiconductor processing. The contributing authors are international experts with a world-wide recognition and involved in the leading research in the field. The book also covers applications and the use of Ge for optoelectronics, detectors and solar cells. An ideal reference work for students and scientists working in the field of physics of semiconductor devices and materials, as well as for engineers in research centres and industry. Both the newcomer and the expert should benefit from this unique book. State-of-the-art information available for the first time as an all-in-source Extensive reference list making it an indispensable reference book Broad coverage from fundamental aspects up to industrial applications

Nano And Giga Challenges In Microelectronics

Author : J. Greer
ISBN : 0080537219
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 79. 75 MB
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The book is designed as an introduction for engineers and researchers wishing to obtain a fundamental knowledge and a snapshot in time of the cutting edge in technology research. As a natural consequence, Nano and Giga Challenges is also an essential reference for the "gurus" wishing to keep abreast of the latest directions and challenges in microelectronic technology development and future trends. The combination of viewpoints presented within the book can help to foster further research and cross-disciplinary interaction needed to surmount the barriers facing future generations of technology design. Key Features: • Quickly becoming the hottest topic of the new millennium (2.4 billion dollars funding in US alone • Current status and future trends of micro and nanoelectronics research • Written by leading experts in the corresponding research areas • Excellent tutorial for graduate students and reference for "gurus"

Microelectronic Materials And Processes

Author : Roland Levy
ISBN : 9789400909175
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 27. 3 MB
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The primary thrust of very large scale integration (VLS!) is the miniaturization of devices to increase packing density, achieve higher speed, and consume lower power. The fabrication of integrated circuits containing in excess of four million components per chip with design rules in the submicron range has now been made possible by the introduction of innovative circuit designs and the development of new microelectronic materials and processes. This book addresses the latter challenge by assessing the current status of the science and technology associated with the production of VLSI silicon circuits. It represents the cumulative effort of experts from academia and industry who have come together to blend their expertise into a tutorial overview and cohesive update of this rapidly expanding field. A balance of fundamental and applied contributions cover the basics of microelectronics materials and process engineering. Subjects in materials science include silicon, silicides, resists, dielectrics, and interconnect metallization. Subjects in process engineering include crystal growth, epitaxy, oxidation, thin film deposition, fine-line lithography, dry etching, ion implantation, and diffusion. Other related topics such as process simulation, defects phenomena, and diagnostic techniques are also included. This book is the result of a NATO-sponsored Advanced Study Institute (AS!) held in Castelvecchio Pascoli, Italy. Invited speakers at this institute provided manuscripts which were edited, updated, and integrated with other contributions solicited from non-participants to this AS!.

Microelectronic Materials

Author : C.R.M. Grovenor
ISBN : 9781351431538
Genre : Science
File Size : 30. 91 MB
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This practical book shows how an understanding of structure, thermodynamics, and electrical properties can explain some of the choices of materials used in microelectronics, and can assist in the design of new materials for specific applications. It emphasizes the importance of the phase chemistry of semiconductor and metal systems for ensuring the long-term stability of new devices. The book discusses single-crystal and polycrystalline silicon, aluminium- and gold-based metallisation schemes, packaging semiconductor devices, failure analysis, and the suitability of various materials for optoelectronic devices and solar cells. It has been designed for senior undergraduates, graduates, and researchers in physics, electronic engineering, and materials science.

Materials For Energy Conversion Devices

Author : C. C. Sorrell
ISBN : 1855739321
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 87. 29 MB
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This book opens with a detailed exploration of the fields of solar energy and thermoelectric conversion. Beginning with chapters on photoelectrochemical devices, properties and uses of photosensitive materials and solar cells, it then moves its focus on thermoelectricity, starting with an introduction to the subject and then explaining the field of thermoelectricity measurement. The book goes on to discuss the field of chemical and nuclear energy conversion and monitoring, including chapters on fast ionic conductors, oxygen ionic conductors and high-level radioactive waste and electrochemical gas sensors for emission control. This innovative new study is the first comprehensive survey of major new developments in energy conversion devices, with contributions from an international group of leading innovators.

Advanced Calculations For Defects In Materials

Author : Audrius Alkauskas
ISBN : 9783527638536
Genre : Science
File Size : 31. 56 MB
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This book investigates the possible ways of improvement by applying more sophisticated electronic structure methods as well as corrections and alternatives to the supercell model. In particular, the merits of hybrid and screened functionals, as well as of the +U methods are assessed in comparison to various perturbative and Quantum Monte Carlo many body theories. The inclusion of excitonic effects is also discussed by way of solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation or by using time-dependent DFT, based on GW or hybrid functional calculations. Particular attention is paid to overcome the side effects connected to finite size modeling. The editors are well known authorities in this field, and very knowledgeable of past developments as well as current advances. In turn, they have selected respected scientists as chapter authors to provide an expert view of the latest advances. The result is a clear overview of the connections and boundaries between these methods, as well as the broad criteria determining the choice between them for a given problem. Readers will find various correction schemes for the supercell model, a description of alternatives by applying embedding techniques, as well as algorithmic improvements allowing the treatment of an ever larger number of atoms at a high level of sophistication.

Charged Semiconductor Defects

Author : Edmund G. Seebauer
ISBN : 9781848820593
Genre : Science
File Size : 85. 59 MB
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Defects in semiconductors have been studied for many years, in many cases with a view toward controlling their behaviour through various forms of “defect engineering”. For example, in the bulk, charging significantly affects the total concentration of defects that are available to mediate phenomena such as solid-state diffusion. Surface defects play an important role in mediating surface mass transport during high temperature processing steps such as epitaxial film deposition, diffusional smoothing in reflow, and nanostructure formation in memory device fabrication. “Charged Defects in Semiconductors” details the current state of knowledge regarding the properties of the ionized defects that can affect the behaviour of advanced transistors, photo-active devices, catalysts, and sensors. Features: group IV, III-V, and oxide semiconductors; intrinsic and extrinsic defects; and, point defects, as well as defect pairs, complexes and clusters.

Analysis Of Microelectronic Materials And Devices

Author : Manfred Grasserbauer
ISBN : 0471917133
Genre : Science
File Size : 54. 97 MB
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