desalination a national perspective

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Desalination

Author : Committee on Advancing Desalination Technology
ISBN : 9780309119238
Genre : Science
File Size : 61. 13 MB
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There has been an exponential increase in desalination capacity both globally and nationally since 1960, fueled in part by growing concern for local water scarcity and made possible to a great extent by a major federal investment for desalination research and development. Traditional sources of supply are increasingly expensive, unavailable, or controversial, but desalination technology offers the potential to substantially reduce water scarcity by converting the almost inexhaustible supply of seawater and the apparently vast quantities of brackish groundwater into new sources of freshwater. Desalination assesses the state of the art in relevant desalination technologies, and factors such as cost and implementation challenges. It also describes reasonable long-term goals for advancing desalination technology, posits recommendations for action and research, estimates the funding necessary to support the proposed research agenda, and identifies appropriate roles for governmental and nongovernmental entities.

Desalination

Author : Committee on Advancing Desalination Technology
ISBN : 030913434X
Genre : Science
File Size : 71. 46 MB
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There has been an exponential increase in desalination capacity both globally and nationally since 1960, fueled in part by growing concern for local water scarcity and made possible to a great extent by a major federal investment for desalination research and development. Traditional sources of supply are increasingly expensive, unavailable, or controversial, but desalination technology offers the potential to substantially reduce water scarcity by converting the almost inexhaustible supply of seawater and the apparently vast quantities of brackish groundwater into new sources of freshwater. Desalination assesses the state of the art in relevant desalination technologies, and factors such as cost and implementation challenges. It also describes reasonable long-term goals for advancing desalination technology, posits recommendations for action and research, estimates the funding necessary to support the proposed research agenda, and identifies appropriate roles for governmental and nongovernmental entities.

Review Of The Desalination And Water Purification Technology Roadmap

Author : Committee to Review the Desalination and Water Purification Technology Roadmap
ISBN : 9780309091572
Genre : Science
File Size : 37. 25 MB
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The Bureau of Reclamation and Sandia National Laboratories jointly developed the Roadmap to serve as a strategic research pathway for desalination and water purification technologies to meet future water needs. The book recommends that the Roadmap include a sharper focus on the research and technological advancements needed to reach the long-term objectives. The book also suggests that the environmental, economic, and social costs of energy required by increased dependence on desalination be examined. Strategies for implementing the Roadmap initiative are provided.

Flowback And Produced Waters

Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
ISBN : 9780309452656
Genre : Science
File Size : 22. 96 MB
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Produced waterâ€"water from underground formations that is brought to the surface during oil and gas productionâ€"is the greatest volume byproduct associated with oil and gas production. It is managed by some combination of underground injection, treatment and subsequent use, treatment and discharge, or evaporation, subject to compliance with state and federal regulations. Management of these waters is challenging not only for industry and regulators, but also for landowners and the public because of differences in the quality and quantity of produced water, varying infrastructure needs, costs, and environmental considerations associated with produced water disposal, storage, and transport. Unconventional oil and gas development involves technologies that combine horizontal drilling with the practice of hydraulic fracturing. Hydraulic fracturing is a controlled, high-pressure injection of fluid and proppant into a well to generate fractures in the rock formation containing the oil or gas. After the hydraulic fracture procedure is completed, the injected fluid is allowed to flow back into the well, leaving the proppant in the newly created fractures. As a result, a portion of the injected water returns to the surface and this water is called “flowback water†which initially may mix with the naturally occurring produced water from the formation. The chemistry and volume of water returning to the surface from unconventional oil and gas operations thus changes during the lifetime of the well due to the amount of fluid used in the initial stage of well development, the amount of water naturally occurring in the geologic formation, the original water and rock chemistry, the type of hydrocarbon being produced, and the way in which production is conducted. The volume and composition of flowback and produced waters vary with geography, time, and site-specific factors. A workshop was conducted by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to highlight the challenges and opportunities associated in managing produced water from unconventional hydrocarbon development, and particularly in the area of potential beneficial uses for these waters. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

Desalination Sustainability

Author : Hassan Arafat
ISBN : 9780128098967
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 52. 27 MB
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Desalination Sustainability: A Technical, Socioeconomic, and Environmental Approach presents a technical, socioeconomical, and environmental approach that guides researchers and technology developers on how to quantify the energy efficiency of a proposed desalination process using thermodynamics-based tools. The book offers the technical reader an understanding of the issues related to desalination sustainability. For example, technology users, such as public utility managers will gain the ability and tools to assess whether or not desalination is a good choice for a city or country. Readers will learn new insights on a clear and practical methodology on how to probe the economic feasibility of desalination using simple and effective tools, such as levelized cost of water (LCOW) calculation. Decision-makers will find this book to be a valuable resource for the preliminary assessment of whether renewable-powered desalination is a good choice for their particular setting. Presents the issues related to desalination sustainability Guides researchers and technology developers on how to quantify the energy efficiency of a proposed desalination process using thermodynamics-based tools Outlines a clear and practical methodology on how to probe the economic feasibility of desalination using simple and effective tools Provides a roadmap for decision-makers on the applicability of a desalination process at a particular setting

Competition For Water Resources

Author : Jadwiga R Ziolkowska
ISBN : 9780128032381
Genre : Science
File Size : 23. 36 MB
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Competition for Water Resources: Experiences and Management Approaches in the U.S. and Europe addresses the escalation of global issues regarding water scarcity and the necessary, cost-effective strategies that must be put in place in order to deal with escalating water crisis. The book evaluates use and competition for water resources in the U.S. and Europe, emphasizing the problems and challenges of dealing with tradeoffs in water. In addition, the book discusses water management strategies that can be used to optimize water use and allocation, mitigate water scarcity, and adapt to water scarcity. Supplementing the numerous case studies, the book includes lessons learned from applying specific strategies and approaches. This comprehensive overview and comparison of management practices across two continents is an invaluable resource for researchers, policymakers, and educators in water. Provides a national and regional perspective through the use of country specific case study examples Includes a comparative analysis between the U.S. and Europe, illustrating experiences in water management from two sides of the Atlantic Covers interdisciplinary topics related to water, such as agriculture and energy

Renewable Energy Technologies For Water Desalination

Author : Hacene Mahmoudi
ISBN : 9781317287438
Genre : Science
File Size : 83. 78 MB
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The book presents a thorough overview of the latest trends and challenges in renewable energy technologies applications for water desalination, with an emphasis on environmental concerns and sustainable development. Emphasis is on the various uses of renewable energy, as well as economics & scale-up, government subsidies & regulations, and environmental concerns. It provides an indication on how renewable energy technologies are rapidly emerging with the promise of economic and environmental viability for desalination. Further it gives a clear indication on how exactly to accelerate the expansion and commercialization of novel water production systems powered by renewable energies and in what manner environmental concerns may be minimized. This book is all-inclusive and wide-ranging and directed at decision makers in government, industry and the academic world as well as students.

Frontiers Of Engineering

Author : National Academy of Engineering
ISBN : 0309165296
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 22. 71 MB
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This volume includes 14 papers from the National Academy of Engineering's Tenth Annual U.S. Frontiers of Engineering Symposium held in September 2004. The U.S. Frontiers meeting brings together 100 outstanding engineers (ages 30-45) to learn from their peers and discuss leading-edge technologies in a range of fields. The 2004 symposium covered these four areas: engineering for extreme environments, designer materials, multiscale modeling, and engineering and entertainment. Papers in the book cover topics such as scalable mobile robots for deployment in polar climates, the challenges of landing on Mars, thin-film active materials, vascular tissue engineering, small-scale processes and large-scale simulations of the climate system, simulating physically accurate illumination in computer graphics, and designing socially intelligent robots, among others. Appendixes include information about the contributors, the symposium program, and a list of the meeting participants. The book is the tenth in a series covering the topics of the U.S. Frontiers of Engineering meetings.

Fresh Water From Saline Waters

Author : Philip Sporn
ISBN : 9781483185859
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 89. 44 MB
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Fresh Water from Saline Waters: The Political, Social, Engineering and Economic Aspects of Desalination examines the political, social, engineering and economic aspects of desalination, with emphasis on the recovery of fresh water from saline waters. The feasibility of combining power generation and distillation is discussed. This book begins with an overview of the history and some basic concepts of desalination, a process that involves artificially taking away or removing the salt from salted water or from sea water. It then presents a brief overall perspective on water supply and its uses in the United States, along with an explanation of the technical principles of distillation with particular reference to evaporation, freezing, and electrodialysis. The desalination process known as multi-stage flash distillation is also considered, together with the principles of combining power generation and distillation and the thermodynamic basis of this integration. The book concludes with an analysis of the economics of nuclear power plants and nuclear heat for distillation. This monograph will be useful for undergraduate students, practitioners, and researchers in engineering, economics, politics, and social sciences.

Progress And Recent Trends In Microbial Fuel Cells

Author : Patit Paban Kundu
ISBN : 9780444640185
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 85. 3 MB
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Progress and Recent Trends in Microbial Fuel Cells provides an in-depth analysis of the fundamentals, working principles, applications and advancements (including commercialization aspects) made in the field of Microbial Fuel Cells research, with critical analyses and opinions from experts around the world. Microbial Fuel cell, as a potential alternative energy harnessing device, has been progressing steadily towards fruitful commercialization. Involvements of electrolyte membranes and catalysts have been two of the most critical factors toward achieving this progress. Added applications of MFCs in areas of bio-hydrogen production and wastewater treatment have made this technology extremely attractive and important. . Reviews and compares MFCs with other alternative energy harnessing devices, particularly in comparison to other fuel cells. Analyses developments of electrolyte membranes, electrodes, catalysts and biocatalysts as critical components of MFCs, responsible for their present and future progress. Includes commercial aspects of MFCs in terms of (i) generation of electricity, (ii) microbial electrolysis cell, (iii) microbial desalination cell, and (iv) wastewater and sludge treatment.

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