digital apollo human and machine in spaceflight

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Digital Apollo

Author : David A. Mindell
ISBN : 0262266687
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 34. 42 MB
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As Apollo 11's Lunar Module descended toward the moon under automatic control, a program alarm in the guidance computer's software nearly caused a mission abort. Neil Armstrong responded by switching off the automatic mode and taking direct control. He stopped monitoring the computer and began flying the spacecraft, relying on skill to land it and earning praise for a triumph of human over machine. In Digital Apollo, engineer-historian David Mindell takes this famous moment as a starting point for an exploration of the relationship between humans and computers in the Apollo program. In each of the six Apollo landings, the astronaut in command seized control from the computer and landed with his hand on the stick. Mindell recounts the story of astronauts' desire to control their spacecraft in parallel with the history of the Apollo Guidance Computer. From the early days of aviation through the birth of spaceflight, test pilots and astronauts sought to be more than "spam in a can" despite the automatic controls, digital computers, and software developed by engineers.Digital Apollo examines the design and execution of each of the six Apollo moon landings, drawing on transcripts and data telemetry from the flights, astronaut interviews, and NASA's extensive archives. Mindell's exploration of how human pilots and automated systems worked together to achieve the ultimate in flight -- a lunar landing -- traces and reframes the debate over the future of humans and automation in space. The results have implications for any venture in which human roles seem threatened by automated systems, whether it is the work at our desktops or the future of exploration.

The Problem With Pilots

Author : Timothy P. Schultz
ISBN : 9781421424798
Genre : History
File Size : 71. 40 MB
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"Pilots were a major problem in aviation development. They were exposed as feeble, vulnerable, and inefficient as aircraft flew higher, faster, and farther. Pilots asphyxiated or got the bends at high altitudes; they blacked out during high-G maneuvers; they spun into the ground after encountering clouds or fog; and they found innumerable ways to commit fatal errors. This is the story of how physicians and engineers, spurred by airpower enthusiasts seeking to advance the military potential of aviation, sought new means to address these problems and bridge the widening gap between human and machine performance. It provides an original view of how their efforts connected the technological, the medical, and the human element and effected changes that transformed the pilot's role and redefined flight. Schultz explores the major changes in the pilot-aircraft relationship that transpired primarily between World War One and the end of World War Two and applies them to modern flight. Archival resources illuminate the pilot's evolution, and theories of technological change inform the innovations and institutional imperatives that elevated the roles of life scientists and engineers."--Provided by publisher.

The Oxford Handbook Of The Archaeology Of The Contemporary World

Author : Paul Graves-Brown
ISBN : 9780191663956
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 60. 32 MB
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It has been clear for many years that the ways in which archaeology is practised have been a direct product of a particular set of social, cultural, and historical circumstances - archaeology is always carried out in the present. More recently, however, many have begun to consider how archaeological techniques might be used to reflect more directly on the contemporary world itself: how we might undertake archaeologies of, as well as in the present. This Handbook is the first comprehensive survey of an exciting and rapidly expanding sub-field and provides an authoritative overview of the newly emerging focus on the archaeology of the present and recent past. In addition to detailed archaeological case studies, it includes essays by scholars working on the relationships of different disciplines to the archaeology of the contemporary world, including anthropology, psychology, philosophy, historical geography, science and technology studies, communications and media, ethnoarchaeology, forensic archaeology, sociology, film, performance, and contemporary art. This volume seeks to explore the boundaries of an emerging sub-discipline, to develop a tool-kit of concepts and methods which are applicable to this new field, and to suggest important future trajectories for research. It makes a significant intervention by drawing together scholars working on a broad range of themes, approaches, methods, and case studies from diverse contexts in different parts of the world, which have not previously been considered collectively.

Tangible Interactive Systems

Author : Guy André Boy
ISBN : 9783319302706
Genre : Computers
File Size : 79. 24 MB
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Distinguishing between tangible user interfaces (TUI) and tangible interactive systems (TISs), this book takes into account not only the user interfaces but also looks at how interaction can be enabled by using digital information through the physical environment. TISs go far beyond the concept of tangible user interfaces, addressing large complex systems in the framework of human-centred design and putting the human at the center of the design process from the start. How can human-centered designers grasp the real world with computers? This question is explored by looking at concepts such as innovation, complexity, flexibility, maturity, stability, sustainability and art to see whether we can assess both physical and figurative tangibility during the design process before product delivery. Concepts like creativity, design thinking and team spirit are fundamental to TIS’s human-centered design, and are presented together with human-systems integration (HSI), agile development and formative evaluations to build a greater understanding of this new area of research. Tangible Interactive Systems would be an essential read to designers, academics and other professionals concerned with product design within HCI, industrial design, virtual engineering and other related areas.

Our Robots Ourselves

Author : David A. Mindell
ISBN : 9780698157668
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 68. 54 MB
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“[An] essential book… it is required reading as we seriously engage one of the most important debates of our time.”—Sherry Turkle, author of Reclaiming Conversation: The Power of Talk in a Digital Age From drones to Mars rovers—an exploration of the most innovative use of robots today and a provocative argument for the crucial role of humans in our increasingly technological future. In Our Robots, Ourselves, David Mindell offers a fascinating behind-the-scenes look at the cutting edge of robotics today, debunking commonly held myths and exploring the rapidly changing relationships between humans and machines. Drawing on firsthand experience, extensive interviews, and the latest research from MIT and elsewhere, Mindell takes us to extreme environments—high atmosphere, deep ocean, and outer space—to reveal where the most advanced robotics already exist. In these environments, scientists use robots to discover new information about ancient civilizations, to map some of the world’s largest geological features, and even to “commute” to Mars to conduct daily experiments. But these tools of air, sea, and space also forecast the dangers, ethical quandaries, and unintended consequences of a future in which robotics and automation suffuse our everyday lives. Mindell argues that the stark lines we’ve drawn between human and not human, manual and automated, aren’t helpful for understanding our relationship with robotics. Brilliantly researched and accessibly written, Our Robots, Ourselves clarifies misconceptions about the autonomous robot, offering instead a hopeful message about what he calls “rich human presence” at the center of the technological landscape we are now creating. From the Hardcover edition.

Design Issues

Author :
ISBN : MINN:31951P011862070
Genre : Architectural design
File Size : 34. 84 MB
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Space Travel And Culture

Author : David Bell
ISBN : 1405193328
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 27. 48 MB
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Explores the significance of the first Apollo moon landing and how the countless books, films, and products associated with factual space fiction had an affect on popular culture and artistic practice, but not social sciences and humanities Investigates how a topic is hugely important in popular culture, but almost invisible in the academy, and how it makes us want to ask questions about visibility, or perhaps self-censorship Evaluates how little impact the space age actually had on the social sciences and humanities - partly because its combination of military-industrial cold war politics, combined with patriarchy and big science, sits uneasily with contemporary thought in these areas Provides an interdisciplinary collection of essays on various aspects of NASA, the moon landing, and the commercialization of space generally The book travels from hard engineering to space romance, echoing the variety of attempts to blur science and culture

Nasa Spaceflight

Author : Roger D. Launius
ISBN : 9783319601137
Genre : Science
File Size : 73. 52 MB
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This book presents the first comprehensive history of innovation at NASA, bringing together experts in the field to illuminate how public-private and international partnerships have fueled new ways of exploring space since the beginning of space travel itself. Twelve case studies trace the messy, risky history of such partnerships, exploring the role of AT&T in the early development of satellite technology, the connections between the Apollo program and Silicon Valley, the rise of SpaceX, and more. Some of these projects have succeeded, and some have failed; all have challenged conventional methods of doing the public’s business in space. Together, these essays offer new insights into how innovation happens, with invaluable lessons for policymakers, investors, economists, and members of the space community.

Paragraph

Author :
ISBN : UCSC:32106020240088
Genre : Art criticism
File Size : 81. 10 MB
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Iron Coffin

Author : David A. Mindell
ISBN : 9781421405209
Genre : Science
File Size : 30. 50 MB
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The USS Monitor famously battled the CSS Virginia (the armored and refitted USS Merrimack) at Hampton Roads in March 1862. This updated edition of David A. Mindell's classic account of the ironclad warships and the human dimension of modern warfare commemorates the 150th anniversary of this historic encounter. Mindell explores how mariners—fighting "blindly," below the waterline—lived in and coped with the metal monster they called the "iron coffin." He investigates how the ironclad technology, new to war in the nineteenth century, changed not only the tools but also the experience of combat and anticipated today's world of mechanized, pushbutton warfare. The writings of William Frederick Keeler, the ship's paymaster, inform much of this book, as do the experiences of everyman sailor George Geer, who held Keeler in some contempt. Mindell uses their compelling stories, and those of other shipmates, to recreate the thrills and dangers of living and fighting aboard this superweapon. Recently, pieces of the Monitor wreck have been raised from their watery grave, and with them, information about the ship continues to be discovered. A new epilogue describes the recovery of the Monitor turret and its display at the USS Monitor Museum in Newport News, Virginia. This sensitive and enthralling history of the USS Monitor ensures that this fateful ship, and the men who served on it, will be remembered for generations to come.

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