# discourses on algebra universitext

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## Discourses On Algebra

**Author :**Igor R. Shafarevich

**ISBN :**9783642563256

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**36. 78 MB

**Format :**PDF, ePub

**Download :**987

**Read :**1155

Using various examples this monograph shows that algebra is one of the most beautiful forms of mathematics. In doing so, it explains the basics of algebra, number theory, set theory and probability. The text presupposes very limited knowledge of mathematics, making it an ideal read for anybody new to the subject. The author, I.R. Shafarevich, is well-known across the world as one of the most outstanding mathematicians of this century as well as one of the most respected mathematical writers.

## Geometries And Groups

**Author :**Viacheslav Nikulin

**ISBN :**9783642615702

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**72. 53 MB

**Format :**PDF

**Download :**858

**Read :**1227

This book is devoted to the theory of geometries which are locally Euclidean, in the sense that in small regions they are identical to the geometry of the Euclidean plane or Euclidean 3-space. Starting from the simplest examples, we proceed to develop a general theory of such geometries, based on their relation with discrete groups of motions of the Euclidean plane or 3-space; we also consider the relation between discrete groups of motions and crystallography. The description of locally Euclidean geometries of one type shows that these geometries are themselves naturally represented as the points of a new geometry. The systematic study of this new geometry leads us to 2-dimensional Lobachevsky geometry (also called non-Euclidean or hyperbolic geometry) which, following the logic of our study, is constructed starting from the properties of its group of motions. Thus in this book we would like to introduce the reader to a theory of geometries which are different from the usual Euclidean geometry of the plane and 3-space, in terms of examples which are accessible to a concrete and intuitive study. The basic method of study is the use of groups of motions, both discrete groups and the groups of motions of geometries. The book does not presuppose on the part of the reader any preliminary knowledge outside the limits of a school geometry course.

## Discourses On Algebra

**Author :**Igor R. Shafarevich

**ISBN :**9783642563256

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**72. 28 MB

**Format :**PDF, Kindle

**Download :**203

**Read :**752

Using various examples this monograph shows that algebra is one of the most beautiful forms of mathematics. In doing so, it explains the basics of algebra, number theory, set theory and probability. The text presupposes very limited knowledge of mathematics, making it an ideal read for anybody new to the subject. The author, I.R. Shafarevich, is well-known across the world as one of the most outstanding mathematicians of this century as well as one of the most respected mathematical writers.

## Basic Algebraic Geometry 2

**Author :**Igor R. Shafarevich

**ISBN :**9783642380105

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**41. 21 MB

**Format :**PDF, ePub, Mobi

**Download :**649

**Read :**479

Shafarevich's Basic Algebraic Geometry has been a classic and universally used introduction to the subject since its first appearance over 40 years ago. As the translator writes in a prefatory note, ``For all [advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate] students, and for the many specialists in other branches of math who need a liberal education in algebraic geometry, Shafarevich’s book is a must.'' The second volume is in two parts: Book II is a gentle cultural introduction to scheme theory, with the first aim of putting abstract algebraic varieties on a firm foundation; a second aim is to introduce Hilbert schemes and moduli spaces, that serve as parameter spaces for other geometric constructions. Book III discusses complex manifolds and their relation with algebraic varieties, Kähler geometry and Hodge theory. The final section raises an important problem in uniformising higher dimensional varieties that has been widely studied as the ``Shafarevich conjecture''. The style of Basic Algebraic Geometry 2 and its minimal prerequisites make it to a large extent independent of Basic Algebraic Geometry 1, and accessible to beginning graduate students in mathematics and in theoretical physics.

## A Book Of Abstract Algebra

**Author :**Charles C Pinter

**ISBN :**9780486474175

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**85. 36 MB

**Format :**PDF, Kindle

**Download :**399

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Accessible but rigorous, this outstanding text encompasses all of the topics covered by a typical course in elementary abstract algebra. Its easy-to-read treatment offers an intuitive approach, featuring informal discussions followed by thematically arranged exercises. This second edition features additional exercises to improve student familiarity with applications. 1990 edition.

## Differential Topology

**Author :**Morris W. Hirsch

**ISBN :**9781468494495

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**44. 61 MB

**Format :**PDF, ePub

**Download :**857

**Read :**496

"A very valuable book. In little over 200 pages, it presents a well-organized and surprisingly comprehensive treatment of most of the basic material in differential topology, as far as is accessible without the methods of algebraic topology....There is an abundance of exercises, which supply many beautiful examples and much interesting additional information, and help the reader to become thoroughly familiar with the material of the main text." —MATHEMATICAL REVIEWS

## Mechanizing Hypothesis Formation

**Author :**P. Hajek

**ISBN :**9783642669439

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**80. 71 MB

**Format :**PDF, Mobi

**Download :**969

**Read :**416

Hypothesis formation is known as one of the branches of Artificial Intelligence, The general question of Artificial IntelligencE' ,"Can computers think?" is specified to the question ,"Can computers formulate and justify hypotheses?" Various attempts have been made to answer the latter question positively. The present book is one such attempt. Our aim is not to formalize and mechanize the whole domain of inductive reasoning. Our ultimate question is: Can computers formulate and justify scientific hypotheses? Can they comprehend empirical data and process them rationally, using the apparatus of modern mathematical logic and statistics to try to produce a rational image of the observed empirical world? Theories of hypothesis formation are sometimes called logics of discovery. Plotkin divides a logic of discovery into a logic of induction: studying the notion of justification of a hypothesis, and a logic of suggestion: studying methods of suggesting reasonable hypotheses. We use this division for the organization of the present book: Chapter I is introductory and explains the subject of our logic of discovery. The rest falls into two parts: Part A - a logic of induction, and Part B - a logic of suggestion.

## An Introduction To Homological Algebra

**Author :**Joseph J. Rotman

**ISBN :**9780387683249

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**46. 18 MB

**Format :**PDF, ePub, Docs

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Graduate mathematics students will find this book an easy-to-follow, step-by-step guide to the subject. Rotman’s book gives a treatment of homological algebra which approaches the subject in terms of its origins in algebraic topology. In this new edition the book has been updated and revised throughout and new material on sheaves and cup products has been added. The author has also included material about homotopical algebra, alias K-theory. Learning homological algebra is a two-stage affair. First, one must learn the language of Ext and Tor. Second, one must be able to compute these things with spectral sequences. Here is a work that combines the two.

## Coding And Cryptology

**Author :**Yeow Meng Chee

**ISBN :**9783642209000

**Genre :**Computers

**File Size :**41. 29 MB

**Format :**PDF, ePub

**Download :**957

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Constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Coding and Cryptology, IWCC 2011, held in Qingdao, China, May 30-June 3, 2011. This title covers a range of foundational and methodological as well as applicative issues in coding and cryptology, as well as related areas such as combinatorics.

## Elements Of Algebra

**Author :**John Stillwell

**ISBN :**9781475739763

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**70. 44 MB

**Format :**PDF, ePub, Docs

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Algebra is abstract mathematics - let us make no bones about it - yet it is also applied mathematics in its best and purest form. It is not abstraction for its own sake, but abstraction for the sake of efficiency, power and insight. Algebra emerged from the struggle to solve concrete, physical problems in geometry, and succeeded after 2000 years of failure by other forms of mathematics. It did this by exposing the mathematical structure of geometry, and by providing the tools to analyse it. This is typical of the way algebra is applied; it is the best and purest form of application because it reveals the simplest and most universal mathematical structures. The present book aims to foster a proper appreciation of algebra by showing abstraction at work on concrete problems, the classical problems of construction by straightedge and compass. These problems originated in the time of Euclid, when geometry and number theory were paramount, and were not solved until th the 19 century, with the advent of abstract algebra. As we now know, alge bra brings about a unification of geometry, number theory and indeed most branches of mathematics. This is not really surprising when one has a historical understanding of the subject, which I also hope to impart.