documenting individual identity the development of state practices in the modern world

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Documenting Individual Identity

Author : Jane Caplan
ISBN : 9780691186856
Genre : History
File Size : 39. 66 MB
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This book addresses one of the least studied yet most pervasive aspects of modern life--the techniques and mechanisms by which official agencies certify individual identity. From passports and identity cards to labor registration and alien documentation, from fingerprinting to much-debated contemporary issues such as DNA-typing, body surveillance, and the catastrophic results of colonial-era identity documentation in postcolonial Rwanda, Documenting Individual Identity offers the most comprehensive historical overview of this fascinating topic ever published. The nineteen essays in this volume represent the collaborative effort of historians, sociologists, historians of science, political scientists, economists, and specialists in international relations. Together they cover a period from the emergence of systematic practices of written identification in early modern Europe through to the present day, and a geographic range that includes Europe, the Soviet Union, North and South America, and Africa. While the book is attuned to the nefarious possibilities of states' increasing capacity to identify individuals, it recognizes that these same techniques also certify citizens' eligibility for significant positive rights, such as welfare benefits and voting. Unprecedented in subject and scope, Documenting Individual Identity promises to shape a whole new field of research that crosses disciplinary boundaries and is of broad public and academic significance. In addition to the editors, the contributors are Valentin Groebner, Gérard Noiriel, Charles Steinwedel, Marc Garcelon, Jon Agar, Martine Kaluszynski, Peter Becker, Anne Joseph, Kristin Ruggiero, Andrea Geselle, Andreas Fahrmeier, Leo Lucassen, Pamela Sankar, David Lyon, Gary Marx, Dita Vogel, and Timothy Longman.

Information In Der Fr Hen Neuzeit

Author : Arndt Brendecke
ISBN : 9783825816711
Genre : Associations, institutions, etc
File Size : 50. 39 MB
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In diesem Band wird rekonstruiert, wie sich der moderne Informationsbegriff aus den empirischen Verfahren der Vormoderne entwickelte. Gegen den Trend der Wissens- und der Kommunikationsgeschichte liegt der Fokus auf den Umgang mit Information in staatlichen, kirchlichen und gelehrten Organisationen der Frühen Neuzeit. Information wurde gesammelt, sie gewann einen neuen Status in Herrschaft und Verwaltung und fand ihren Platz in der Entscheidungsfindung und den Legitimationsdiskursen der Moderne.

Migration Control In The North Atlantic World

Author : Andreas Fahrmeir
ISBN : 1571813284
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 22. 94 MB
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The migration movements of the 20th century have led to an increased interest in similarly dramatic population changes in the preceding century. The contributors to this volume - legal scholars, sociologists, political scientist and historians - focus on migration control in the 19th century, concentrating on three areas in particular: the impact of the French Revolution on the development of modern citizenship laws and on the development of new forms of migration control in France and elsewhere; the theory and practice of migration control in various European states is examined, focusing on the control of paupers, emigrants and "ordinary" travelers as well as on the interrelationship between the different administrative levels - local, regional and national - at which migration control was exercised. Finally, on the development of migration control in two countries of immigration: the United States and France. Taken altogether, these essays demonstrate conclusively that the image of the 19th century as a liberal era during which migration was unaffected by state intervention is untenable and in serious need of revision.

Identifying The English

Author : Edward Higgs
ISBN : 9781441138019
Genre : History
File Size : 62. 19 MB
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Personal identification is very much a live political issue in Britain and this book looks at why this is the case, and why, paradoxically, the theft of identity has become ever more common as the means of identification have multiplied. Identifying the English looks not only at how criminals have been identified - branding, fingerprinting, DNA - but also at the identification of the individual with seals and signatures, of the citizen by means of passports and ID cards, and of the corpse. Beginning his history in the medieval period, Edward Higgs reveals how it was not the Industrial Revolution that brought the most radical changes in identification techniques, as many have assumed, but rather the changing nature of the State and commerce, and their relationship with citizens and customers. In the twentieth century the very different historical techniques have converged on the holding of information on databases, and increasingly on biometrics, and the multiplication of these external databases outside the control of individuals has continued to undermine personal identity security.

Our Biometric Future

Author : Kelly Gates
ISBN : 9780814732090
Genre : Computers
File Size : 37. 20 MB
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Since the 1960s, a significant effort has been underway to program computers to “see” the human face—to develop automated systems for identifying faces and distinguishing them from one another—commonly known as Facial Recognition Technology. While computer scientists are developing FRT in order to design more intelligent and interactive machines, businesses and states agencies view the technology as uniquely suited for “smart” surveillance—systems that automate the labor of monitoring in order to increase their efficacy and spread their reach. Tracking this technological pursuit, Our Biometric Future identifies FRT as a prime example of the failed technocratic approach to governance, where new technologies are pursued as shortsighted solutions to complex social problems. Culling news stories, press releases, policy statements, PR kits and other materials, Kelly Gates provides evidence that, instead of providing more security for more people, the pursuit of FRT is being driven by the priorities of corporations, law enforcement and state security agencies, all convinced of the technology’s necessity and unhindered by its complicated and potentially destructive social consequences. By focusing on the politics of developing and deploying these technologies, Our Biometric Future argues not for the inevitability of a particular technological future, but for its profound contingency and contestability.

Synchrone Welten

Author : Dan Diner
ISBN : 3525350902
Genre : History
File Size : 69. 90 MB
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English summary: This first volume of a new series of essays on Jewish history and culture shows the broad focus of studies initiated by the Simon Dubnow Institute, Leipzig. Its first concern is to integrate Jewish history in terms of content and method into universal history. Jewish history - conceived as a plural history of the Jews in complex intercultural historical spaces - is as a matter of basic principle investigated in its transnational, European context. German description: Mit Synchrone Welten startet eine neue Reihe des Leipziger Simon-Dubnow-Instituts, die Essays zur judischen Geschichte und Kultur prasentiert. Der von Dan Diner, dem Direktor des Instituts, herausgegebene erste Band versammelt eine Reihe von Studien, die sich mit den Besonderheiten der ostmitteleuropaischen judischen Geschichtserfahrung beschaftigen. Hier, wie in allen weiteren Banden dieser Reihe, werden Fragen judischer Geschichte stets im Kontext der allgemeinen Geschichte prasentiert, als Erfahrungen einer nicht-territorialen Bevolkerungsgruppe im Zeitalter von Nationalstaat und Nationalismus. Dan Diners Uberlegungen zum sakral versiegelten Zeitempfinden, wie es in Toldot, dem hebraischen Begriff fur Geschichte enthalten ist, leiten den Band ein. Die weiteren Beitrage befassen sich mit mikrologisch gearbeiteten Epochenfragen judischer Geschichte in der Spannung zwischen vormoderner Institution und modernen Integrationserwartungen. Reflektiert werden diasporische Lebensformen, Phanomene von Mobilitat, Migration und Urbanitat, sowie Metaphern judischer Existenz in der Moderne. Die Reihe wird mit Essays zum Luftmenschentum (Nicolas Berg) und zur judischen Diplomatie (Markus Kirchhoff) fortgesetzt.

Mit Gott Handeln

Author : Francisca Loetz
ISBN : 3525351739
Genre : History
File Size : 79. 15 MB
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Worte können verletzen. Diesem Phänomen geht die Studie von Francisca Loetz am Beispiel der Gotteslästerung nach. In einer Langzeitstudie vom ausgehenden 15. bis zur Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts fragt sie danach, wie Blasphemiker mit ihren Flüchen, Schwüren und Schmähungen Gottes im damaligen Verständnis die Ehre Gottes angreifen konnten. Auf der Grundlage der Zürcher Justizakten und der theologischen Schriften Ulrich Zwinglis und Heinrich Bullingers wird gezeigt, dass die blasphemischen Provokationen als verbale Handlung über die eigentliche Schmähung hinaus immer auch auf spezifische, soziale und religiöse Kontexte verwiesen und entsprechende Reaktionen auslösten. Das Delikt der Gotteslästerung zu analysieren, heißt daher nach der Bedeutung religiöser Normen in frühneuzeitlichen Gesellschaften und damit nach den Möglichkeiten einer Kulturgeschichte des Religiösen zu fragen.

Fantasies Of Identification

Author : Ellen Samuels
ISBN : 9781479821372
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 78. 24 MB
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In the mid-nineteenth-century United States, as it became increasingly difficult to distinguish between bodies understood as black, white, or Indian; able-bodied or disabled; and male or female, intense efforts emerged to define these identities as biologically distinct and scientifically verifiable in a literally marked body. Combining literary analysis, legal history, and visual culture, Ellen Samuels traces the evolution of the “fantasy of identification”—the powerful belief that embodied social identities are fixed, verifiable, and visible through modern science. From birthmarks and fingerprints to blood quantum and DNA, she examines how this fantasy has circulated between cultural representations, law, science, and policy to become one of the most powerfully institutionalized ideologies of modern society. Yet, as Samuels demonstrates, in every case, the fantasy distorts its claimed scientific basis, substituting subjective language for claimed objective fact. From its early emergence in discourses about disability fakery and fugitive slaves in the nineteenth century to its most recent manifestation in the question of sex testing at the 2012 Olympic Games, Fantasies of Identification explores the roots of modern understandings of bodily identity.

Identification And Registration Practices In Transnational Perspective

Author : J. Brown
ISBN : 9781137367310
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 52. 98 MB
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This collection examines the subject of identification and surveillance from 16th C English parish registers to 21st C DNA databases. The contributors, who range from historians to legal specialists, provide an insight into the historical development behind such issues as biometric identification, immigration control and personal data use.

Journal Of The Civil War Era

Author : William A. Blair
ISBN : 9781469615998
Genre : History
File Size : 24. 75 MB
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The Journal of the Civil War Era Volume 4, Number 3, September 2014 TABLE OF CONTENTS Editor's Note, William Blair Articles Felicity Turner Rights and the Ambiguities of Law: Infanticide in the Nineteenth-Century U.S. South Paul Quigley Civil War Conscription and the International Boundaries of Citizenship Jay Sexton William H. Seward in the World Review Essay Patick J. Kelly the European Revolutions of 1848 and the Transnational turn in Civil War History Book Reviews Books Received Notes on Contributors

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