dynamic of destruction culture and mass killing in the first world war making of the modern world

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Dynamic Of Destruction

Author : Alan Kramer
ISBN : 9780191580116
Genre : History
File Size : 62. 54 MB
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On 26 August 1914 the world-famous university library in the Belgian town of Louvain was looted and destroyed by German troops. The international community reacted in horror - 'Holocaust at Louvain' proclaimed the Daily Mail - and the behaviour of the Germans at Louvain came to be seen as the beginning of a different style of war, without the rules that had governed military conflict up to that point - a more total war, in which enemy civilians and their entire culture were now 'legitimate' targets. Yet the destruction at Louvain was simply one symbolic moment in a wider wave of cultural destruction and mass killing that swept Europe in the era of the First World War. Using a wide range of examples and eye-witness accounts from across Europe at this time, award-winning historian Alan Kramer paints a picture of an entire continent plunging into a chilling new world of mass mobilization, total warfare, and the celebration of nationalist or ethnic violence - often directed expressly at the enemy's civilian population.

The Great War And The Making Of The Modern World

Author : Jeremy Black
ISBN : 9781441134615
Genre : History
File Size : 80. 72 MB
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This new work demonstrates how the outcome of the First World War has formed the modern world we live in today. The First World War was the Great War for its leading participants. In revisiting the events of 1914-1918 a century on, Jeremy Black considers how we now look at the impact of the conflict across the globe and how it came to be World War I in our consciousness. For millions, both soldiers and civilians, the conflict proved fatal. The suffering and loss of the war provides much of its resonance and significance, but this book seeks to throw light beyond this, not least in asking how it ended in victory and defeat. Casting aside the conventional narrative, Jeremy Black returns to a vast range of original sources and investigates not only the key events of the war, but its consequences in restructuring the old order. As its significance has changed with time, and not only with the loss of first-hand testimony, Black considers the struggle not only in its historical context but through its memorialisation today.

World War I The Definitive Encyclopedia And Document Collection 5 Volumes

Author : Spencer C. Tucker
ISBN : 9781851099658
Genre : History
File Size : 58. 18 MB
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Offering exhaustive coverage, detailed analyses, and the latest historical interpretations of events, this expansive, five-volume encyclopedia is the most comprehensive and detailed reference source on the First World War available today. • Provides comprehensive coverage of the causes of the war that allows readers to fully understand the complex origins of such a monumental conflict • Supplies detailed analyses and explanations of the events before, during, and after World War I, such as how the results of the war set the stage for the global Great Depression of the 1930s, as well as detailed biographical data on key military and civilian individuals during World War I • Includes a chronologically organized document volume that enables students to examine the sources of historical information firsthand • Covers all key battles, land and sea, and their impacts, as well as the critical technological developments that affected the war's outcomes

Making And Unmaking Nations

Author : Scott Straus
ISBN : 9780801455674
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 43. 99 MB
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In Making and Unmaking Nations, Scott Straus seeks to explain why and how genocide takes place—and, perhaps more important, how it has been avoided in places where it may have seemed likely or even inevitable. To solve that puzzle, he examines postcolonial Africa, analyzing countries in which genocide occurred and where it could have but did not. Why have there not been other Rwandas? Straus finds that deep-rooted ideologies—how leaders make their nations—shape strategies of violence and are central to what leads to or away from genocide. Other critical factors include the dynamics of war, the role of restraint, and the interaction between national and local actors in the staging of campaigns of large-scale violence. Grounded in Straus's extensive fieldwork in contemporary Africa, the study of major twentieth-century cases of genocide, and the literature on genocide and political violence, Making and Unmaking Nations centers on cogent analyses of three nongenocide cases (Côte d’Ivoire, Mali, and Senegal) and two in which genocide took place (Rwanda and Sudan). Straus’s empirical analysis is based in part on an original database of presidential speeches from 1960 to 2005. The book also includes a broad-gauge analysis of all major cases of large-scale violence in Africa since decolonization. Straus’s insights into the causes of genocide will inform the study of political violence as well as giving policymakers and nongovernmental organizations valuable tools for the future.

A Companion To World War I

Author : John Horne
ISBN : 9781119968702
Genre : History
File Size : 78. 27 MB
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"A Companion to the First World War" brings together a team of distinguished historians from 10 countries who contribute 38 substantial and thought-provoking chapters. The volume opens with a section on the state of the world before 1914, as it prepared for war without anticipating its true nature, and concludes with an examination of the conflict's military, diplomatic, and cultural legacies. In addition to covering the military history of the war and the individual states involved, contributors explore major themes such as war crimes, occupations, film, and gender. Reflecting the latest historical research, this Companion enriches our understanding of the origins, nature, and impact of what remains one of the most devastating events in modern history.

1946

Author : Victor Sebestyen
ISBN : 9781101870433
Genre : History
File Size : 75. 31 MB
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From the author of Twelve Days: The Story of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution and Revolution 1989: The Fall of the Soviet Empire comes a powerful, revelatory book about the year that would signal the beginning of the Cold War, the end of the British Empire, and the beginning of the rivalry between the United States and the USSR. Victor Sebestyen reveals the events of 1946 by chronologically framing what was taking place in Europe, the Middle East, and Asia, with seminal decisions made by heads of state that would profoundly change the old order forever. Whether it was the July 22 bombing of the King David Hotel in Jerusalem, the July 25 Bikini Atoll underwater atomic bomb test, or the August 16 Great Calcutta Killings in India, 1946 was a year of seismic and dramatic events. Sebestyen begins with the Moscow Foreign Ministers’ Conference the week before Christmas 1945, when Stalin announced that the USSR would not withdraw its troops from Iran by March 1946, and ends with the morning of November 3, 1946, when Emperor Hirohito officially unveiled Japan’s new constitution before the National Diet. The year 1946 would see the map of Eastern Europe redrawn, Chinese communists gaining decisive victories in their fight for power, and the birth of Israel. Though Truman, Stalin, Churchill, MacArthur, Ben-Gurion, Hirohito, and Menachem Begin are part of the story, Sebestyen also writes about the enormous suffering and ongoing persecution of civilians in the aftermath of the war: the pillaging and rape; the ethnic cleansing of the German population from Czechoslovakia and Poland; the rise of a violent new anti-Semitism; the civil wars in China and Greece; the mass starvation in Japan, Eastern Europe, and Germany on a scale not seen since the Middle Ages; the spread of diseases such as tuberculosis and diphtheria; and such total desolation that schools, government, and transportation were nonexistent and currency was worthless. Drawing on personal testimonies and new archival research, Sebestyen has written a vivid and compelling narrative that brilliantly evokes the beginning of the Cold War set against a devastated landscape of dystopian horrors. (With 16 pages of black-and-white photographs.) From the Hardcover edition.

Bulletin

Author :
ISBN : UVA:X030298978
Genre : Germany
File Size : 79. 43 MB
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Mirrors Of Destruction

Author : Omer Bartov
ISBN : 9780190281946
Genre : History
File Size : 58. 65 MB
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Mirrors of Destruction examines the relationship between total war, state-organized genocide, and the emergence of modern identity. Here, Omer Bartov demonstrates that in the twentieth century there have been intimate links between military conflict, mass murder of civilian populations, and the definition and categorization of groups and individuals. These connections were most clearly manifested in the Holocaust, as the Nazis attempted to exterminate European Jewry under cover of a brutal war and with the stated goal of creating a racially pure Aryan population and Germanic empire. The Holocaust, however, can only be understood within the context of the century's predilection for applying massive and systematic methods of destruction to resolve conflicts over identity. To provide the context for the "Final Solution," Bartov examines the changing relationships between Jews and non-Jews in France and Germany from the outbreak of World War I to the present. Rather than presenting a comprehensive history, or a narrative from a single perspective, Bartov views the past century through four interrelated prisms. He begins with an analysis of the glorification of war and violence, from its modern birth in the trenches of World War I to its horrifying culmination in the presentation of genocide by the SS as a glorious undertaking. He then examines the pacifist reaction in interwar France to show how it contributed to a climate of collaboration with dictatorship and mass murder. The book goes on to argue that much of the discourse on identity throughout the century has had to do with identifying and eliminating society's "elusive enemies" or "enemies from within." Bartov concludes with an investigation of modern apocalyptic visions, showing how they have both encouraged mass destructions and opened a way for the reconstruction of individual and collective identifies after a catastrophe. Written with verve, Mirrors of Destruction is rich in interpretations and theoretical tools and provides a new framework for understanding a central trait of modern history.

Legacies Of Violence Eastern Europe S First World War

Author : Jochen Böhler
ISBN : 9783486990775
Genre : History
File Size : 87. 34 MB
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The First World War began in the Balkans, and subsequently, fighting in the East radically transformed the political and social European order. The specifics of the Eastern war such as mass deportations, ethnic cleansing, and the radicalization of military, paramilitary and revolutionary violence have only recently become the focus of historical research.

German Atrocities 1914

Author : John N. Horne
ISBN : 0300107919
Genre : History
File Size : 41. 53 MB
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Were thousands of unarmed Belgian civilians slaughtered by invading German troops in August, 1914, or are accounts of these deaths mere fabrications constructed by fanatically anti-German Allied propagandists? This pathbreaking book, based on meticulous research, uncovers the truth of the disputed atrocities and explains how the politics of propaganda and memory have shaped radically different versions of that truth. Horne and Kramer argue their points impeccably and, I think, irrefutably.-Istvan Deak, New Republic

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