dynamic of destruction culture and mass killing in the first world war making of the modern world

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Dynamic Of Destruction

Author : Alan Kramer
ISBN : 9780191580116
Genre : History
File Size : 88. 52 MB
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On 26 August 1914 the world-famous university library in the Belgian town of Louvain was looted and destroyed by German troops. The international community reacted in horror - 'Holocaust at Louvain' proclaimed the Daily Mail - and the behaviour of the Germans at Louvain came to be seen as the beginning of a different style of war, without the rules that had governed military conflict up to that point - a more total war, in which enemy civilians and their entire culture were now 'legitimate' targets. Yet the destruction at Louvain was simply one symbolic moment in a wider wave of cultural destruction and mass killing that swept Europe in the era of the First World War. Using a wide range of examples and eye-witness accounts from across Europe at this time, award-winning historian Alan Kramer paints a picture of an entire continent plunging into a chilling new world of mass mobilization, total warfare, and the celebration of nationalist or ethnic violence - often directed expressly at the enemy's civilian population.

Absolute Destruction

Author : Isabel V. Hull
ISBN : 9780801467080
Genre : History
File Size : 64. 21 MB
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In a book that is at once a major contribution to modern European history and a cautionary tale for today, Isabel V. Hull argues that the routines and practices of the Imperial German Army, unchecked by effective civilian institutions, increasingly sought the absolute destruction of its enemies as the only guarantee of the nation's security. So deeply embedded were the assumptions and procedures of this distinctively German military culture that the Army, in its drive to annihilate the enemy military, did not shrink from the utter destruction of civilian property and lives. Carried to its extreme, the logic of "military necessity" found real security only in extremities of destruction, in the "silence of the graveyard." Hull begins with a dramatic account, based on fresh archival work, of the German Army's slide from administrative murder to genocide in German Southwest Africa (1904-7). The author then moves back to 1870 and the war that inaugurated the Imperial era in German history, and analyzes the genesis and nature of this specifically German military culture and its operations in colonial warfare. In the First World War the routines perfected in the colonies were visited upon European populations. Hull focuses on one set of cases (Belgium and northern France) in which the transition to total destruction was checked (if barely) and on another (Armenia) in which "military necessity" caused Germany to accept its ally's genocidal policies even after these became militarily counterproductive. She then turns to the Endkampf (1918), the German General Staff's plan to achieve victory in the Great War even if the homeland were destroyed in the process-a seemingly insane campaign that completes the logic of this deeply institutionalized set of military routines and practices. Hull concludes by speculating on the role of this distinctive military culture in National Socialism's military and racial policies. Absolute Destruction has serious implications for the nature of warmaking in any modern power. At its heart is a warning about the blindness of bureaucratic routines, especially when those bureaucracies command the instruments of mass death.

The Great War And The Making Of The Modern World

Author : Jeremy Black
ISBN : 9781441134615
Genre : History
File Size : 79. 3 MB
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This new work demonstrates how the outcome of the First World War has formed the modern world we live in today. The First World War was the Great War for its leading participants. In revisiting the events of 1914-1918 a century on, Jeremy Black considers how we now look at the impact of the conflict across the globe and how it came to be World War I in our consciousness. For millions, both soldiers and civilians, the conflict proved fatal. The suffering and loss of the war provides much of its resonance and significance, but this book seeks to throw light beyond this, not least in asking how it ended in victory and defeat. Casting aside the conventional narrative, Jeremy Black returns to a vast range of original sources and investigates not only the key events of the war, but its consequences in restructuring the old order. As its significance has changed with time, and not only with the loss of first-hand testimony, Black considers the struggle not only in its historical context but through its memorialisation today.

World War I The Definitive Encyclopedia And Document Collection 5 Volumes

Author : Spencer C. Tucker
ISBN : 9781851099658
Genre : History
File Size : 57. 62 MB
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Offering exhaustive coverage, detailed analyses, and the latest historical interpretations of events, this expansive, five-volume encyclopedia is the most comprehensive and detailed reference source on the First World War available today. • Provides comprehensive coverage of the causes of the war that allows readers to fully understand the complex origins of such a monumental conflict • Supplies detailed analyses and explanations of the events before, during, and after World War I, such as how the results of the war set the stage for the global Great Depression of the 1930s, as well as detailed biographical data on key military and civilian individuals during World War I • Includes a chronologically organized document volume that enables students to examine the sources of historical information firsthand • Covers all key battles, land and sea, and their impacts, as well as the critical technological developments that affected the war's outcomes

Home Fires Burning

Author : Belinda J. Davis
ISBN : 9780807860618
Genre : History
File Size : 22. 15 MB
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Challenging assumptions about the separation of high politics and everyday life, Belinda Davis uncovers the important influence of the broad civilian populace--particularly poorer women--on German domestic and even military policy during World War I. As Britain's wartime blockade of goods to Central Europe increasingly squeezed the German food supply, public protests led by "women of little means" broke out in the streets of Berlin and other German cities. These "street scenes" riveted public attention and drew urban populations together across class lines to make formidable, apparently unified demands on the German state. Imperial authorities responded in unprecedented fashion in the interests of beleaguered consumers, interceding actively in food distribution and production. But officials' actions were far more effective in legitimating popular demands than in defending the state's right to rule. In the end, says Davis, this dynamic fundamentally reformulated relations between state and society and contributed to the state's downfall in 1918. Shedding new light on the Wilhelmine government, German subjects' role as political actors, and the influence of the war on the home front on the Weimar state and society, Home Fires Burning helps rewrite the political history of World War I Germany.

A Companion To World War I

Author : John Horne
ISBN : 9781119968702
Genre : History
File Size : 72. 79 MB
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"A Companion to the First World War" brings together a team of distinguished historians from 10 countries who contribute 38 substantial and thought-provoking chapters. The volume opens with a section on the state of the world before 1914, as it prepared for war without anticipating its true nature, and concludes with an examination of the conflict's military, diplomatic, and cultural legacies. In addition to covering the military history of the war and the individual states involved, contributors explore major themes such as war crimes, occupations, film, and gender. Reflecting the latest historical research, this Companion enriches our understanding of the origins, nature, and impact of what remains one of the most devastating events in modern history.

Making And Unmaking Nations

Author : Scott Straus
ISBN : 9780801455674
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 38. 61 MB
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In Making and Unmaking Nations, Scott Straus seeks to explain why and how genocide takes place—and, perhaps more important, how it has been avoided in places where it may have seemed likely or even inevitable. To solve that puzzle, he examines postcolonial Africa, analyzing countries in which genocide occurred and where it could have but did not. Why have there not been other Rwandas? Straus finds that deep-rooted ideologies—how leaders make their nations—shape strategies of violence and are central to what leads to or away from genocide. Other critical factors include the dynamics of war, the role of restraint, and the interaction between national and local actors in the staging of campaigns of large-scale violence. Grounded in Straus's extensive fieldwork in contemporary Africa, the study of major twentieth-century cases of genocide, and the literature on genocide and political violence, Making and Unmaking Nations centers on cogent analyses of three nongenocide cases (Côte d’Ivoire, Mali, and Senegal) and two in which genocide took place (Rwanda and Sudan). Straus’s empirical analysis is based in part on an original database of presidential speeches from 1960 to 2005. The book also includes a broad-gauge analysis of all major cases of large-scale violence in Africa since decolonization. Straus’s insights into the causes of genocide will inform the study of political violence as well as giving policymakers and nongovernmental organizations valuable tools for the future.

Legacies Of Violence Eastern Europe S First World War

Author : Jochen Böhler
ISBN : 9783486990775
Genre : History
File Size : 33. 11 MB
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The First World War began in the Balkans, and subsequently, fighting in the East radically transformed the political and social European order. The specifics of the Eastern war such as mass deportations, ethnic cleansing, and the radicalization of military, paramilitary and revolutionary violence have only recently become the focus of historical research.

Cultures Of War Pearl Harbor Hiroshima 9 11 Iraq

Author : John W. Dower
ISBN : 9780393340686
Genre : History
File Size : 61. 9 MB
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A Pulitzer Prize-winning historian presents a comparative analysis of September 11 and the subsequent War on Terror with Pearl Harbor and World War II, addressing institutional failures of intelligence and imagination and the driving forces behind Pan-Asian and Pan-Islam movements. Reprint. A National Book Award Finalist.

Silent Spring

Author : Rachel Carson
ISBN : 0618249060
Genre : Nature
File Size : 90. 97 MB
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Discusses the reckless annihilation of fish and birds by the use of pesticides and warns of the possible genetic effects on humans.

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