education social background and cognitive ability the decline of the social routledge research in education

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Education Social Background And Cognitive Ability

Author : Gary N. Marks
ISBN : 9781135017866
Genre : Education
File Size : 69. 10 MB
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Are socioeconomic inequalities in education declining? Is socioeconomic background becoming less important for people’s occupational class or status? How important is cognitive ability for education and later occupational outcomes? How do countries differ in the importance of socioeconomic background for education and work? Gary N. Marks argues that in western industrialized countries, pervasive views that socioeconomic background (or class background) has strong and unchanging relationships with education and later socioeconomic outcomes, resistant to policy and social change, are unfounded. Marks provides a large amount of evidence from many countries showing that the influence of socioeconomic background for education is moderate and most often declining, and socioeconomic background has only very weak impacts on adults’ occupation and earnings after taking into account education and cognitive ability. Furthermore, Marks shows that cognitive ability is a more powerful influence than socioeconomic background for educational outcomes, and that in addition to its indirect effects through education has a direct effect on occupation and earnings. Its effects cannot be dismissed as simply another aspect of socioeconomic background, nor do the usual criticisms of ‘cognitive ability’ apply. The declining effects for socioeconomic background and the importance of cognitive ability support several of the contentions of modernization theory. The book contributes to a variety of debates within sociology: quantitative and qualitative approaches, explanatory and non-explanatory theory, the relationship between theory and empirical research, the role of political ideology in research, sociology as a social science, and sociology’s contribution to knowledge about contemporary societies. It will appeal to professionals in the fields of education and sociology as well as postgraduate students and academics involved in the debate.

Mainstreams Margins And The Spaces In Between

Author : Karen Trimmer
ISBN : 9781317694595
Genre : Education
File Size : 56. 14 MB
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This book explores the complexities of investigating minorities, majorities, boundaries and borders, and the experiences of researchers who choose to work in these spaces. It engages with issues of ethics, disclosure and representation, and contends with and seeks to contribute to emerging debates around power and the positioning of researchers and participants. Chapters examine epistemologies that shape researchers’ beliefs about the forms of research that are valued in educational research and theory, and consider the importance of research that genuinely seeks to explore voice, culture, story, authenticity and identity. Resisting the backdrop of standardisation, performativity and accountability agendas pervading governments and organisations, the book attends to the stories of real people, to understand regional and rural landscapes, to examine culture and the human condition and to give voice to those at the fringes of society who remain largely neglected and unheard. Drawing largely on studies from Australia, the book provides an overview of the many types of research being engaged in, revealing the value of different kinds of research, and gaining insight into how meaning and findings are disseminated in research and educational sectors and back into the contexts where research takes place. Mainstreams, Margins and the Spaces In-between will be of key interest to early career researchers and academics internationally, as well as postgraduate students completing research methods courses in the field of education, and the wider social sciences.

Learning To Save The Future

Author : Alexander J. Means
ISBN : 9781315450193
Genre : Education
File Size : 84. 12 MB
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Mainstream economists and Silicon Valley entrepreneurs claim that unfettered capitalism and digital technology can unlock a future of unbounded prosperity, create endless high paying jobs, and solve the world’s vast social and ecological problems. Realizing this future of abundance purportedly rests in the transformation of human potential into innovative human capital through new 21st century forms of education. In this new book Alex Means challenges this view. Stagnating economic growth and runaway inequality have emerged as the ‘normal’ condition of advanced capitalism. Simultaneously, there has been a worldwide educational expansion and a growing surplus of college-educated workers relative to their demand in the world economy. This surplus is complicated by an emerging digital revolution driven by artificial intelligence and machine learning that generates worker displacing innovations and immaterial forms of labor and valorization. Learning to Save the Future argues that rather than fostering mass intellectuality, educational development is being constrained by a value structure subordinated to 21st century capitalism and technology. Human capabilities from creativity, design, engineering, to communication are conceived narrowly as human capital, valued in terms of economic productivity and growth. Similarly, global problems such as the erosion of employment and climate change are conceived as educational problems to be addressed through business solutions and the digitalization of education.?This thought-provoking account provides a cognitive map of this condition, offering alternatives through critical analyses of education and political economy, technology and labor, creativity and value, power and ecology.

Models Of Secondary Education And Social Inequality

Author : Hans-Peter Blossfeld
ISBN : 9781785367267
Genre :
File Size : 33. 64 MB
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From an international comparative perspective, this third book in the prestigious eduLIFE Lifelong Learning series provides a thorough investigation into how social inequalities arise during individuals’ secondary schooling careers. Paying particular attention to the role of social origin and prior performance, it focuses on tracking and differentiation in secondary schooling examining the short- and long-term effects on inequality of opportunities. It looks at ways in which differentiation in secondary education might produce and reproduce social inequalities in educational opportunities and educational attainment. The international perspective allows illuminating comparison in light of the different models, rules and procedures that regulate admission selection and learning in different countries.

Education Occupation And Social Origin

Author : Fabrizio Bernardi
ISBN : 9781785360459
Genre : Education
File Size : 85. 52 MB
Format : PDF
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Questioning the assumption that education is the ‘great social equalizer’, this book takes a comparative approach to the social origin–education–destination triangle by examining advantage in 14 different countries, including case studies from Europe, Israel, the USA, Russia and Japan. Contributions from leading experts examine the relation between family background, education and occupational achievement over time and across educational levels, focusing on the relationship between individuals’ social origins and their income and occupational outcomes. Providing new theoretical insights, this book eloquently analyzes a variety of barriers to social mobility. Using concepts of compensatory and boosting advantage to explain the intergenerational transmission of social inequality, it refutes the notion of contemporary societies as education-based and meritocratic, showing that in most of the countries studied there is no sign of decreasing intergenerational association, despite the expansion of education. With its multitude of pertinent case studies, Education, Occupation and Social Origin will be of interest to academics and students of social policy as well as those interested in social inequalities and their evolution over time. It will also be a useful reference for governmental policymakers in the wake of the current economic crisis.

Aging And Development

Author : Ann O'Hanlon
ISBN : 9781134655274
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 25. 13 MB
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With increasing numbers of the population living into old age, we need a better understanding of the nature and experience of ageing in all its aspects. Up to now, very few texts have considered this in any depth, but 'Ageing and Development', a new volume in the Texts in Developmental Psychology series, provides a detailed and comprehensive overview of the theories and research in adult development into old age. The classic early accounts of theorists such as Jung and Erikson are considered, as well as their present day successors. Particular attention is given to theories of adjustment to loss, and to the threat of loss, which dominate current gerontological research. A notable feature of the book is the separate section devoted to the psychology of advanced old age, to life in states of physical and/or mental frailty, and to the survival of the self in these circumstances. There is a strong emphasis throughout on up-to-date empirical research and illustrative case examples. The reader is constantly encouraged to take a critical perspective, to understand the strengths and limitations of different studies, and to think about the issues raised in terms of their own lives.

Coming Up Short

Author : Jennifer M. Silva
ISBN : 9780199931477
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 23. 6 MB
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What does it mean to grow up today as working-class young adults? How does the economic and social instability left in the wake of neoliberalism shape their identities, their understandings of the American Dream, and their futures? Coming Up Short illuminates the transition to adulthood for working-class men and women. Moving away from easy labels such as the "Peter Pan generation," Jennifer Silva reveals the far bleaker picture of how the erosion of traditional markers of adulthood-marriage, a steady job, a house of one's own-has changed what it means to grow up as part of the post-industrial working class. Based on one hundred interviews with working-class people in two towns-Lowell, Massachusetts, and Richmond, Virginia-Silva sheds light on their experience of heightened economic insecurity, deepening inequality, and uncertainty about marriage and family. Silva argues that, for these men and women, coming of age means coming to terms with the absence of choice. As possibilities and hope contract, moving into adulthood has been re-defined as a process of personal struggle-an adult is no longer someone with a small home and a reliable car, but someone who has faced and overcome personal demons to reconstruct a transformed self. Indeed, rather than turn to politics to restore the traditional working class, this generation builds meaning and dignity through the struggle to exorcise the demons of familial abuse, mental health problems, addiction, or betrayal in past relationships. This dramatic and largely unnoticed shift reduces becoming an adult to solitary suffering, self-blame, and an endless seeking for signs of progress. This powerfully written book focuses on those who are most vulnerable-young, working-class people, including African-Americans, women, and single parents-and reveals what, in very real terms, the demise of the social safety net means to their fragile hold on the American Dream.

Routledge International Handbook Of Golf Science

Author : Martin Toms
ISBN : 9781317281047
Genre : Sports & Recreation
File Size : 76. 12 MB
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Golf is one of the world’s major sports and consequently the focus of world-class scientific research. This landmark publication is the most comprehensive book ever published on the science of golf, covering every sub-discipline from physiology, biomechanics and psychology to strength and conditioning, youth development and equipment design. Showcasing original research from leading golf scientists across the globe, it examines the fundamental science underpinning the game and demonstrates how it can be applied in practice to improve and develop players. Each chapter provides a definitive account of the current state of knowledge in a particular area of golf science, addressing the limitations of existing research, presenting new areas for development and discussing the implications for coaches, players, scientists and the wider golfing public. Truly international in scope, the variety of topics explored include: biomechanics and equipment skill learning and technology performance development psychological techniques for success the golfing body. This is an essential reference for any student or researcher with an interest in the game, or any coach or professional looking to improve their knowledge.

Social Movements

Author : Vincenzo Ruggiero
ISBN : 0415445825
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 86. 5 MB
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This timely Reader plays an important role in the field of social movements. It fills a significant gap by covering a number of connected areas within social studies. Responding to growing demand for interpretation and analysis of re-emerging social conflicts in the developed, as well as the developing world, this timely collection is the outcome of the recent boost received by social movement studies since the spread of contention and collective action at international level and the growth of the 'anti-globalization' movement. Intended not only as a comprehensive introduction for undergraduates and postgraduates studying social movements, this volume also provides a truly global perspective, combining classic sociological thought and contemporary concerns. This book provides an essential guide to 'who is who' in the field of social movement studies and includes reflective and documentary material on contemporary conflicts. This volume is also an incredibly valuable resource for more general modules on sociological theory, global sociology, the history of sociological thought, contemporary social theory, and international and globalization studies.

Education For Life And Work

Author : Committee on Defining Deeper Learning and 21st Century Skills
ISBN : 9780309256506
Genre : Education
File Size : 21. 86 MB
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Americans have long recognized that investments in public education contribute to the common good, enhancing national prosperity and supporting stable families, neighborhoods, and communities. Education is even more critical today, in the face of economic, environmental, and social challenges. Today's children can meet future challenges if their schooling and informal learning activities prepare them for adult roles as citizens, employees, managers, parents, volunteers, and entrepreneurs. To achieve their full potential as adults, young people need to develop a range of skills and knowledge that facilitate mastery and application of English, mathematics, and other school subjects. At the same time, business and political leaders are increasingly asking schools to develop skills such as problem solving, critical thinking, communication, collaboration, and self-management - often referred to as "21st century skills." Education for Life and Work: Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21st Century describes this important set of key skills that increase deeper learning, college and career readiness, student-centered learning, and higher order thinking. These labels include both cognitive and non-cognitive skills- such as critical thinking, problem solving, collaboration, effective communication, motivation, persistence, and learning to learn. 21st century skills also include creativity, innovation, and ethics that are important to later success and may be developed in formal or informal learning environments. This report also describes how these skills relate to each other and to more traditional academic skills and content in the key disciplines of reading, mathematics, and science. Education for Life and Work: Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21st Century summarizes the findings of the research that investigates the importance of such skills to success in education, work, and other areas of adult responsibility and that demonstrates the importance of developing these skills in K-16 education. In this report, features related to learning these skills are identified, which include teacher professional development, curriculum, assessment, after-school and out-of-school programs, and informal learning centers such as exhibits and museums.

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