education social background and cognitive ability the decline of the social routledge research in education

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Education Social Background And Cognitive Ability

Author : Gary N. Marks
ISBN : 9781135017866
Genre : Education
File Size : 58. 93 MB
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Are socioeconomic inequalities in education declining? Is socioeconomic background becoming less important for people’s occupational class or status? How important is cognitive ability for education and later occupational outcomes? How do countries differ in the importance of socioeconomic background for education and work? Gary N. Marks argues that in western industrialized countries, pervasive views that socioeconomic background (or class background) has strong and unchanging relationships with education and later socioeconomic outcomes, resistant to policy and social change, are unfounded. Marks provides a large amount of evidence from many countries showing that the influence of socioeconomic background for education is moderate and most often declining, and socioeconomic background has only very weak impacts on adults’ occupation and earnings after taking into account education and cognitive ability. Furthermore, Marks shows that cognitive ability is a more powerful influence than socioeconomic background for educational outcomes, and that in addition to its indirect effects through education has a direct effect on occupation and earnings. Its effects cannot be dismissed as simply another aspect of socioeconomic background, nor do the usual criticisms of ‘cognitive ability’ apply. The declining effects for socioeconomic background and the importance of cognitive ability support several of the contentions of modernization theory. The book contributes to a variety of debates within sociology: quantitative and qualitative approaches, explanatory and non-explanatory theory, the relationship between theory and empirical research, the role of political ideology in research, sociology as a social science, and sociology’s contribution to knowledge about contemporary societies. It will appeal to professionals in the fields of education and sociology as well as postgraduate students and academics involved in the debate.

Ethnische Ungleichheiten Im Bildungsverlauf

Author : Claudia Diehl
ISBN : 9783658043223
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 89. 93 MB
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Die Bildungsforschung hat in den letzten Jahren – teilweise bedingt durch die öffentliche Diskussion der Ergebnisse der Schulleistungsstudien – einen regelrechten Boom erfahren. Auch die Migrationsforschung erhielt im Zuge des offiziellen Bekenntnisses Deutschlands zur Zuwanderung („Deutschland ist ein Einwanderungsland“) einen enormen Auftrieb. Die Forschung zu ethnischen Ungleichheiten im deutschen Bildungssystem verbindet diese beiden Themen und behandelt gleichzeitig einen gesellschaftlichen Bereich, der für die späteren Lebenschancen besonders folgenreich ist. Der vorliegende Band soll einen Überblick über die Ergebnisse der empirischen Forschung in Bezug auf ethnische Bildungsungleichheiten geben. Die Autorinnen und Autoren identifizieren die wichtigsten und stabilsten Ergebnisse zu den behandelten Fragen, vergleichen diese überblicksartig, weisen auf Forschungslücken hin und diskutieren offene bzw. strittige Fragen.

Mainstreams Margins And The Spaces In Between

Author : Karen Trimmer
ISBN : 9781317694595
Genre : Education
File Size : 50. 95 MB
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This book explores the complexities of investigating minorities, majorities, boundaries and borders, and the experiences of researchers who choose to work in these spaces. It engages with issues of ethics, disclosure and representation, and contends with and seeks to contribute to emerging debates around power and the positioning of researchers and participants. Chapters examine epistemologies that shape researchers’ beliefs about the forms of research that are valued in educational research and theory, and consider the importance of research that genuinely seeks to explore voice, culture, story, authenticity and identity. Resisting the backdrop of standardisation, performativity and accountability agendas pervading governments and organisations, the book attends to the stories of real people, to understand regional and rural landscapes, to examine culture and the human condition and to give voice to those at the fringes of society who remain largely neglected and unheard. Drawing largely on studies from Australia, the book provides an overview of the many types of research being engaged in, revealing the value of different kinds of research, and gaining insight into how meaning and findings are disseminated in research and educational sectors and back into the contexts where research takes place. Mainstreams, Margins and the Spaces In-between will be of key interest to early career researchers and academics internationally, as well as postgraduate students completing research methods courses in the field of education, and the wider social sciences.

Education Occupation And Social Origin

Author : Fabrizio Bernardi
ISBN : 9781785360459
Genre : Education
File Size : 20. 85 MB
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Questioning the assumption that education is the ‘great social equalizer’, this book takes a comparative approach to the social origin–education–destination triangle by examining advantage in 14 different countries, including case studies from Europe, Israel, the USA, Russia and Japan. Contributions from leading experts examine the relation between family background, education and occupational achievement over time and across educational levels, focusing on the relationship between individuals’ social origins and their income and occupational outcomes. Providing new theoretical insights, this book eloquently analyzes a variety of barriers to social mobility. Using concepts of compensatory and boosting advantage to explain the intergenerational transmission of social inequality, it refutes the notion of contemporary societies as education-based and meritocratic, showing that in most of the countries studied there is no sign of decreasing intergenerational association, despite the expansion of education. With its multitude of pertinent case studies, Education, Occupation and Social Origin will be of interest to academics and students of social policy as well as those interested in social inequalities and their evolution over time. It will also be a useful reference for governmental policymakers in the wake of the current economic crisis.

The Challenge For The Comprehensive School

Author : David Hargreaves
ISBN : 9780415675444
Genre : Education
File Size : 45. 87 MB
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By 1982 the ambitious claims made for newly established comprehensive schools were being put to the test. How effectively does the comprehensive meet the needs of all young people? Do urban, working-class students enjoy more success than in the secondary modern schools? Are they more engaged in their learning with higher self-esteem? This volume discusses these questions and examines issues of social mobility and cohesion, curriculum, the balance between academic and vocational education, the place of exams in the educational system and the influence of independent schools. The author asks whether a more decentralised system of self-governing schools improve the education service – a timely question which along with the other issues examined is as relevant and challenging today as when the book was originally published in 1982.

Educational Inequalities

Author : Kalwant Bhopal
ISBN : 9781134612178
Genre : Education
File Size : 81. 14 MB
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While there is considerable literature on social inequality and education, there is little recent work which explores notions of difference and diversity in relation to "race," class and gender. This edited text aims to bring together researchers in the field of education located across many international contexts such as the UK, Australia, USA, New Zealand and Europe. Contributors investigate the ways in which dominant perspectives on "difference," intersectionality and institutional structures underpin and reinforce educational inequality in schools and higher education. They emphasize the importance of international perspectives and innovative methodological approaches to examining these areas, and seek to locate the dimensions of difference within recent theoretical discourses, with an emphasis on "race," class and gender as key categories of analysis.

The International Encyclopedia Of Education

Author : Torsten Husén
ISBN : UOM:39015032880646
Genre : Education
File Size : 25. 72 MB
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Soziologische Bildungsforschung

Author : Rolf Becker
ISBN : 9783658001209
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 53. 40 MB
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Bildung gehört zu den drängenden sozialen Fragen des 21. Jahrhunderts. Folgerichtig hat die soziologische Bildungsforschung in den letzten beiden Jahrzehnten einen enormen Aufschwung erfahren. Derzeit gehört sie zu einem der innovativsten Bereiche in der sozialwissenschaftlichen Theorie- und Modellbildung, Methodenentwicklung, Datenerhebung und bei den empirischen Erkenntnissen. Gleichwohl gibt es zahlreiche Leerstellen und Verengungen der soziologischen Bildungsforschung. Die Beiträge des Bandes geben daher nicht nur einen Überblick über die aktuelle soziologische Bildungsforschung, sondern widmen sich auch bislang vernachlässigten Themen, Debatten und theoretischen Ansätzen. Zahlreiche Beiträge weisen methodische Innovationen auf, wie z. B. einen Methodenmix aus qualitativen und quantitativen Analyseteilen, Inter- und Intragruppenvergleichen sowie Analysen mit bisher wenig beachteten Datensätzen in der Bildungsforschung. Der Band umfasst ein breites Themenspektrum, das von der Grundschule bis zur Ausbildung und Hochschule in Deutschland und im internationalen Vergleich reicht. Er beinhaltet neuere Studien zur sozialen Herkunft wie auch zu Behinderung und Intersektionalität oder zu Bildungsmodellen im Zeitalter von Bologna und Kopenhagen. Unter den Autorinnen und Autoren finden sich neben renommierten Forscherinnen und Forschern auch zahlreiche Nachwuchswissenschaftlerinnen und ‐wissenschaftler.

The School Community Journal

Author :
ISBN : UVA:X006019024
Genre : Community and school
File Size : 49. 55 MB
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Cognitive Remediation Therapy For Schizophrenia

Author : Professor Til Wykes
ISBN : 9781135444099
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 72. 12 MB
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Could CRT provide the first structured method of alleviating cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia? Cognitive Remediation Therapy for Schizophrenia describes the background and development of this new psychological therapy and demonstrates how it provides the first structured help to overcome the thinking problems associated with schizophrenia. In three sections, the book covers the theoretical and empirical underpinning of cognitive remediation therapy and explores its application. Part I, 'The Development of Therapy', provides the historical context and theoretical background to the therapy and emphasizes the value of rehabilitating cognitive deficits. In Part II, 'Improving Cognitive Processes', the process and effects of changing cognition are examined. Finally, in Part III, 'The Process of Therapy', the authors provide a clinical guide to the delivery of cognitive remediation therapy and use case examples to support its efficacy. This book is the first to describe an individual cognitive remediation therapy programme based on a clear model of the relationship between thinking and behaviour. It will be of both academic and clinical value to all those health professionals and clinical academics who want not only to understand the relationships between thought and action but also to intervene to improve therapy.

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