education social background and cognitive ability the decline of the social routledge research in education

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Education Social Background And Cognitive Ability

Author : Gary N. Marks
ISBN : 9781135017866
Genre : Education
File Size : 34. 56 MB
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Are socioeconomic inequalities in education declining? Is socioeconomic background becoming less important for people’s occupational class or status? How important is cognitive ability for education and later occupational outcomes? How do countries differ in the importance of socioeconomic background for education and work? Gary N. Marks argues that in western industrialized countries, pervasive views that socioeconomic background (or class background) has strong and unchanging relationships with education and later socioeconomic outcomes, resistant to policy and social change, are unfounded. Marks provides a large amount of evidence from many countries showing that the influence of socioeconomic background for education is moderate and most often declining, and socioeconomic background has only very weak impacts on adults’ occupation and earnings after taking into account education and cognitive ability. Furthermore, Marks shows that cognitive ability is a more powerful influence than socioeconomic background for educational outcomes, and that in addition to its indirect effects through education has a direct effect on occupation and earnings. Its effects cannot be dismissed as simply another aspect of socioeconomic background, nor do the usual criticisms of ‘cognitive ability’ apply. The declining effects for socioeconomic background and the importance of cognitive ability support several of the contentions of modernization theory. The book contributes to a variety of debates within sociology: quantitative and qualitative approaches, explanatory and non-explanatory theory, the relationship between theory and empirical research, the role of political ideology in research, sociology as a social science, and sociology’s contribution to knowledge about contemporary societies. It will appeal to professionals in the fields of education and sociology as well as postgraduate students and academics involved in the debate.

Mainstreams Margins And The Spaces In Between

Author : Karen Trimmer
ISBN : 9781317694595
Genre : Education
File Size : 68. 4 MB
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This book explores the complexities of investigating minorities, majorities, boundaries and borders, and the experiences of researchers who choose to work in these spaces. It engages with issues of ethics, disclosure and representation, and contends with and seeks to contribute to emerging debates around power and the positioning of researchers and participants. Chapters examine epistemologies that shape researchers’ beliefs about the forms of research that are valued in educational research and theory, and consider the importance of research that genuinely seeks to explore voice, culture, story, authenticity and identity. Resisting the backdrop of standardisation, performativity and accountability agendas pervading governments and organisations, the book attends to the stories of real people, to understand regional and rural landscapes, to examine culture and the human condition and to give voice to those at the fringes of society who remain largely neglected and unheard. Drawing largely on studies from Australia, the book provides an overview of the many types of research being engaged in, revealing the value of different kinds of research, and gaining insight into how meaning and findings are disseminated in research and educational sectors and back into the contexts where research takes place. Mainstreams, Margins and the Spaces In-between will be of key interest to early career researchers and academics internationally, as well as postgraduate students completing research methods courses in the field of education, and the wider social sciences.

Education Occupation And Social Origin

Author : Fabrizio Bernardi
ISBN : 9781785360459
Genre : Education
File Size : 35. 23 MB
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Questioning the assumption that education is the ‘great social equalizer’, this book takes a comparative approach to the social origin–education–destination triangle by examining advantage in 14 different countries, including case studies from Europe, Israel, the USA, Russia and Japan. Contributions from leading experts examine the relation between family background, education and occupational achievement over time and across educational levels, focusing on the relationship between individuals’ social origins and their income and occupational outcomes. Providing new theoretical insights, this book eloquently analyzes a variety of barriers to social mobility. Using concepts of compensatory and boosting advantage to explain the intergenerational transmission of social inequality, it refutes the notion of contemporary societies as education-based and meritocratic, showing that in most of the countries studied there is no sign of decreasing intergenerational association, despite the expansion of education. With its multitude of pertinent case studies, Education, Occupation and Social Origin will be of interest to academics and students of social policy as well as those interested in social inequalities and their evolution over time. It will also be a useful reference for governmental policymakers in the wake of the current economic crisis.

Models Of Secondary Education And Social Inequality

Author : Hans-Peter Blossfeld
ISBN : 9781785367267
Genre :
File Size : 90. 33 MB
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From an international comparative perspective, this third book in the prestigious eduLIFE Lifelong Learning series provides a thorough investigation into how social inequalities arise during individuals’ secondary schooling careers. Paying particular attention to the role of social origin and prior performance, it focuses on tracking and differentiation in secondary schooling examining the short- and long-term effects on inequality of opportunities. It looks at ways in which differentiation in secondary education might produce and reproduce social inequalities in educational opportunities and educational attainment. The international perspective allows illuminating comparison in light of the different models, rules and procedures that regulate admission selection and learning in different countries.

Aging And Development

Author : Ann O'Hanlon
ISBN : 9781134655274
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 27. 48 MB
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With increasing numbers of the population living into old age, we need a better understanding of the nature and experience of ageing in all its aspects. Up to now, very few texts have considered this in any depth, but 'Ageing and Development', a new volume in the Texts in Developmental Psychology series, provides a detailed and comprehensive overview of the theories and research in adult development into old age. The classic early accounts of theorists such as Jung and Erikson are considered, as well as their present day successors. Particular attention is given to theories of adjustment to loss, and to the threat of loss, which dominate current gerontological research. A notable feature of the book is the separate section devoted to the psychology of advanced old age, to life in states of physical and/or mental frailty, and to the survival of the self in these circumstances. There is a strong emphasis throughout on up-to-date empirical research and illustrative case examples. The reader is constantly encouraged to take a critical perspective, to understand the strengths and limitations of different studies, and to think about the issues raised in terms of their own lives.

Routledge International Handbook Of Golf Science

Author : Martin Toms
ISBN : 9781317281047
Genre : Sports & Recreation
File Size : 77. 33 MB
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Golf is one of the world’s major sports and consequently the focus of world-class scientific research. This landmark publication is the most comprehensive book ever published on the science of golf, covering every sub-discipline from physiology, biomechanics and psychology to strength and conditioning, youth development and equipment design. Showcasing original research from leading golf scientists across the globe, it examines the fundamental science underpinning the game and demonstrates how it can be applied in practice to improve and develop players. Each chapter provides a definitive account of the current state of knowledge in a particular area of golf science, addressing the limitations of existing research, presenting new areas for development and discussing the implications for coaches, players, scientists and the wider golfing public. Truly international in scope, the variety of topics explored include: biomechanics and equipment skill learning and technology performance development psychological techniques for success the golfing body. This is an essential reference for any student or researcher with an interest in the game, or any coach or professional looking to improve their knowledge.

Social Linguistics And Literacies

Author : James Gee
ISBN : 9781317525189
Genre : Education
File Size : 39. 73 MB
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In its first edition, Social Linguistics and Literacies was a major contribution to the emerging interdisciplinary field of sociocultural approaches to language and literacy, and was one of the founding texts of the ‘New Literacy Studies’. This book serves as a classic introduction to the study of language, learning and literacy in their social, cultural and political contexts. It shows how contemporary sociocultural approaches to language and literacy emerged and: Engages with topics such as orality and literacy, the history of literacy, the nature of discourse analysis and social theories of mind and meaning Explores how language functions in a society Surveys the notion of ‘discourse’ with specific reference to cross-cultural issues in communities and schools. This fifth edition offers an overview of the sociocultural approaches to language and literacy that coalesced into the New Literacy Studies. It also introduces readers to a particular style of analyzing language-in-use-in-society and develops a distinctive specific perspective on language and literacy centered on the notion of "Discourses". It will be of interest to researchers, lecturers and students in education, linguistics, or any field that deals with language, especially in social or cultural terms.

The Science Of Reading

Author : Margaret J. Snowling
ISBN : 9781118712306
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 38. 95 MB
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The Science of Reading: A Handbook brings together state-of-the-art reviews of reading research from leading names in the field, to create a highly authoritative, multidisciplinary overview of contemporary knowledge about reading and related skills. Provides comprehensive coverage of the subject, including theoretical approaches, reading processes, stage models of reading, cross-linguistic studies of reading, reading difficulties, the biology of reading, and reading instruction Divided into seven sections:Word Recognition Processes in Reading; Learning to Read and Spell; Reading Comprehension; Reading in Different Languages; Disorders of Reading and Spelling; Biological Bases of Reading; Teaching Reading Edited by well-respected senior figures in the field

The Routledge Handbook Of Heritage Language Education

Author : Olga E. Kagan
ISBN : 9781317541530
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 62. 87 MB
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The Routledge Handbook of Heritage Language Education provides the rapidly growing and globalizing field of heritage language (HL) education with a cohesive overview of HL programs and practices relating to language maintenance and development, setting the stage for future work in the field. Driving this effort is the belief that if research and pedagogical advances in the HL field are to have the greatest impact, HL programs need to become firmly rooted in educational systems. Against a background of cultural and linguistic diversity that characterizes the twenty-first century, the volume outlines key issues in the design and implementation of HL programs across a range of educational sectors, institutional settings, sociolinguistic conditions, and geographical locations, specifically: North and Latin America, Europe, Israel, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, and Cambodia. All levels of schooling are included as the teaching of the following languages are discussed: Albanian, Arabic, Armenian (Eastern and Western), Bengali, Brazilian Portuguese, Chinese, Czech, French, Hindi-Urdu, Japanese, Khmer, Korean, Pasifika languages, Persian, Russian, Spanish, Turkish, Vietnamese, and Yiddish. These discussions contribute to the development and establishment of HL instructional paradigms through the experiences of “actors on the ground” as they respond to local conditions, instantiate current research and pedagogical findings, and seek solutions that are workable from an organizational standpoint. The Routledge Handbook of Heritage Language Education is an ideal resource for researchers and graduate students interested in heritage language education at home or abroad.

Leading Beyond The Ego

Author : John Knights
ISBN : 9781351714440
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 54. 16 MB
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The traditional leadership styles of the past are underperforming in a world of continuous transformation. Those that recognise this and learn how to lead beyond their ego will become emotionally intelligent and ethical leaders who are able to build strong, collaborative relationships, and create a caring, sustainable and performance enhancing environment. This new book is rooted in the experience of senior managers and the latest discoveries in neuroscience. It gives you the tools to overcome the challenges faced by new organisational and commercial structures, technological developments, increased diversity and rapid globalisation and succeed. An essential read for current and aspiring organisational leaders, HR professionals, executive coaches and mentors, Leading Beyond the Ego is a vital point of reference for anyone in a leadership position and who wants to embrace this new world and Transpersonal Leadership.

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