encapsulation technologies for electronic applications materials and processes for electronic applications

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Encapsulation Technologies For Electronic Applications

Author : Haleh Ardebili
ISBN : 0815519702
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 25. 13 MB
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Electronics are used in a wide range of applications including computing, communication, biomedical, automotive, military and aerospace. They must operate in varying temperature and humidity environments including indoor controlled conditions and outdoor climate changes. Moisture, ionic contamination, heat, radiation and mechanical stresses are all highly detrimental to electronic devices and can lead to device failures. Therefore, it is essential that the electronic devices be packaged for protection from their intended environments, as well as to provide handling, assembly, electrical and thermal considerations. Currently, more than 99% of microelectronic devices are plastic encapsulated. Improvements in encapsulant materials, and cost incentives have stretched the application boundaries for plastic electronic packages. Many electronic applications that traditionally used hermetic packages such as military are now using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) plastic packages. Plastic encapsulation has the advantages of low cost, smaller form factors, and improved manufacturability. With recent trends in environmental awareness, new environmentally friendly or ' green' encapsulant materials (i.e. without brominated additives) have emerged. Plastic packages are also being considered for use in extreme high and low temperature electronics. 3-D packaging and wafer-level-packaging (WLP) require unique encapsulation techniques. Encapsulant materials are also being developed for micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), bio-MEMS, bio-electronics, and organic light-emitting diodes (O-LEDs). This book offers a comprehensive discussion of encapsulants in electronic applications. The main emphasis is on the encapsulation of microelectronic devices; however, the encapsulation of connectors and transformers is also addressed. This book discusses 2-D and 3-D packaging and encapsulation, encapsulation materials including environmentally friendly 'green' encapsulants, and the properties and characterization of encapsulants. Furthermore, this book provides an extensive discussion on defects and failures related to encapsulation, how to analyze such defects and failures, and how to apply quality assurance and qualification process for encapsulated packages. This book also provides information on the trends and challenges of encapsulation and microelectronic packages including application of nanotechnology. Guidance on the selection and use of encapsulants in the electronics industry, with a particular focus on microelectronics Coverage of environmentally friendly 'green encapsulants' Practical coverage of faults and defects: how to analyze them and how to avoid them

Printed Electronics

Author : Zheng Cui
ISBN : 9781118920930
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 38. 41 MB
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This book provides an overview of the newly emerged and highly interdisciplinary field of printed electronics • Provides an overview of the latest developments and research results in the field of printed electronics • Topics addressed include: organic printable electronic materials, inorganic printable electronic materials, printing processes and equipments for electronic manufacturing, printable transistors, printable photovoltaic devices, printable lighting and display, encapsulation and packaging of printed electronic devices, and applications of printed electronics • Discusses the principles of the above topics, with support of examples and graphic illustrations • Serves both as an advanced introductory to the topic and as an aid for professional development into the new field • Includes end of chapter references and links to further reading

Adhesives Technology For Electronic Applications

Author : James J. Licari
ISBN : 1437778909
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 45. 2 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Adhesives are widely used in the manufacture and assembly of electronic circuits and products. Generally, electronics design engineers and manufacturing engineers are not well versed in adhesives, while adhesion chemists have a limited knowledge of electronics. This book bridges these knowledge gaps and is useful to both groups. The book includes chapters covering types of adhesive, the chemistry on which they are based, and their properties, applications, processes, specifications, and reliability. Coverage of toxicity, environmental impacts and the regulatory framework make this book particularly important for engineers and managers alike. The third edition has been updated throughout and includes new sections on nanomaterials, environmental impacts and new environmentally friendly ‘green’ adhesives. Information about regulations and compliance has been brought fully up-to-date. As well as providing full coverage of standard adhesive types, Licari explores the most recent developments in fields such as: • Tamper-proof adhesives for electronic security devices. • Bio-compatible adhesives for implantable medical devices. • Electrically conductive adhesives to replace toxic tin-lead solders in printed circuit assembly – as required by regulatory regimes, e.g. the EU’s Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive or RoHS (compliance is required for all products placed on the European market). • Nano-fillers in adhesives, used to increase the thermal conductivity of current adhesives for cooling electronic devices. A complete guide for the electronics industry to adhesive types, their properties and applications – this book is an essential reference for a wide range of specialists including electrical engineers, adhesion chemists and other engineering professionals Provides specifications of adhesives for particular uses and outlines the processes for application and curing – coverage that is of particular benefit to design engineers, who are charged with creating the interface between the adhesive material and the microelectronic device Discusses the respective advantages and limitations of different adhesives for a varying applications, thereby addressing reliability issues before they occur and offering useful information to both design engineers and Quality Assurance personnel

Plastic Encapsulated Microelectronics

Author : Michael Pecht
ISBN : UOM:39015032280102
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 31. 57 MB
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The past twenty years have seen many important advances in plastic encapsulated microelectronics (PEM) technology. Thanks to new packaging materials, improved design, increased reliability testing, and other important developments, PEMs are now perceived as a dependable and, in many cases, more cost-effective option for a wide range of electronic systems applications. Nevertheless, there continues to be a surprising dearth of authoritative references on the subject. Until now, professionals in search of detailed information about the latest developments in PEM design and production have had to waste valuable time browsing through countless professional journals, monographs, and databases. For the first time between two covers, here is a comprehensive, critical review of the state of the art in PEMs and assemblies that incorporate them. The most timely book on the subject, it provides professionals with a systematic, scientific exploration of crucial technical and reliability issues concerning the manufacture and use of PEMs-with special attention focusing on environment-specific applications. Among the important topics covered in detail: Encapsulating materials-composition, shapes, and sizes Fabrication technology-with an in depth look at potential defects that can occur during each phase of production Electronic system manufacturing using PEMs-with extensive coverage of thermomechanical stress induced failures that can occur during assembly Failure mechanisms, sites, and modes Failure analysis techniques-the relative strengths and weaknesses of each type The pros and cons of current screening techniques for reliability conformance and quality improvement and the defects they can induce Current qualification and life-testing techniques and their effectiveness in simulating use conditions Plastic-Encapsulated Microelectronics is an indispensable resource for researchers and practicing mechanical and electrical engineers working in the electronics, aerospace, and automotive industries, in space agencies, or in the defense industry. The most timely and authoritative reference on the subject, Plastic- Encapsulated Microelectronics provides professionals with a systematic, scientific exploration of crucial technical and reliability issues concerning the manufacture and use of PEMs. Comprehensive in scope, it offers detailed coverage of important topics in encapsulating materials; fabrication technology; electronic system manufacturing using PEMs; failure mechanisms, sites, and modes; failure analysis techniques; current screening techniques for reliability conformance and quality; current qualification and life-testing techniques; and more: Offers a systematic critical review of the state of the art in PEM design, manufacture, reliability testing, and more Covers a wide range of issues in PEM applications with special attention given to environment-specific PEM applications Features science-based explanations of manufacturing failures-especially thermo-mechanical, stress-induced failures that can occur during assembly of PEM devices on circuit cards Explores current screening techniques and introduces a philosophy of screening based on the "physics of failure"

Adhesives Technology For Electronic Applications

Author : James J. Licari
ISBN : 1437778909
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 27. 95 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download : 531
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Adhesives are widely used in the manufacture and assembly of electronic circuits and products. Generally, electronics design engineers and manufacturing engineers are not well versed in adhesives, while adhesion chemists have a limited knowledge of electronics. This book bridges these knowledge gaps and is useful to both groups. The book includes chapters covering types of adhesive, the chemistry on which they are based, and their properties, applications, processes, specifications, and reliability. Coverage of toxicity, environmental impacts and the regulatory framework make this book particularly important for engineers and managers alike. The third edition has been updated throughout and includes new sections on nanomaterials, environmental impacts and new environmentally friendly ‘green’ adhesives. Information about regulations and compliance has been brought fully up-to-date. As well as providing full coverage of standard adhesive types, Licari explores the most recent developments in fields such as: • Tamper-proof adhesives for electronic security devices. • Bio-compatible adhesives for implantable medical devices. • Electrically conductive adhesives to replace toxic tin-lead solders in printed circuit assembly – as required by regulatory regimes, e.g. the EU’s Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive or RoHS (compliance is required for all products placed on the European market). • Nano-fillers in adhesives, used to increase the thermal conductivity of current adhesives for cooling electronic devices. A complete guide for the electronics industry to adhesive types, their properties and applications – this book is an essential reference for a wide range of specialists including electrical engineers, adhesion chemists and other engineering professionals Provides specifications of adhesives for particular uses and outlines the processes for application and curing – coverage that is of particular benefit to design engineers, who are charged with creating the interface between the adhesive material and the microelectronic device Discusses the respective advantages and limitations of different adhesives for a varying applications, thereby addressing reliability issues before they occur and offering useful information to both design engineers and Quality Assurance personnel

Adhesives In Manufacturing

Author : Schneberger
ISBN : 0824718941
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 54. 89 MB
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Reliability Technology

Author : Norman Pascoe
ISBN : 1119991366
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 86. 10 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
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A unique book that describes the practical processes necessary to achieve failure free equipment performance, for quality and reliability engineers, design, manufacturing process and environmental test engineers. This book studies the essential requirements for successful product life cycle management. It identifies key contributors to failure in product life cycle management and particular emphasis is placed upon the importance of thorough Manufacturing Process Capability reviews for both in-house and outsourced manufacturing strategies. The readers? attention is also drawn to the many hazards to which a new product is exposed from the commencement of manufacture through to end of life disposal. Revolutionary in focus, as it describes how to achieve failure free performance rather than how to predict an acceptable performance failure rate (reliability technology rather than reliability engineering) Author has over 40 years experience in the field, and the text is based on classroom tested notes from the reliability technology course he taught at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), USA Contains graphical interpretations of mathematical models together with diagrams, tables of physical constants, case studies and unique worked examples

Advanced Adhesives In Electronics

Author : M O Alam
ISBN : 9780857092892
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 28. 18 MB
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Adhesives for electronic applications serve important functional and structural purposes in electronic components and packaging, and have developed significantly over the last few decades. Advanced adhesives in electronics reviews recent developments in adhesive joining technology, processing and properties. The book opens with an introduction to adhesive joining technology for electronics. Part one goes on to cover different types of adhesive used in electronic systems, including thermally conductive adhesives, isotropic and anisotropic conductive adhesives and underfill adhesives for flip-chip applications. Part two focuses on the properties and processing of electronic adhesives, with chapters covering the structural integrity of metal-polymer adhesive interfaces, modelling techniques used to assess adhesive properties and adhesive technology for photonics. With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, Advanced adhesives in electronics is a standard reference for materials scientists, engineers and chemists using adhesives in electronics, as well as those with an academic research interest in the field. Reviews recent developments in adhesive joining technology, processing and properties featuring flip-chip applications Provides a comprehensive overview of adhesive joining technology for electronics including different types of adhesives used in electronic systems Focuses on the properties and processing of electronic adhesives, with chapters covering the structural integrity of metal-polymer adhesive interfaces and modelling techniques

Microencapsulation In The Food Industry

Author : Anilkumar G. Gaonkar
ISBN : 9780124047358
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 58. 77 MB
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Microencapsulation is being used to deliver everything from improved nutrition to unique consumer sensory experiences. It’s rapidly becoming one of the most important opportunities for expanding brand potential. Microencapsulation in the Food Industry: A Practical Implementation Guide is written for those who see the potential benefit of using microencapsulation but need practical insight into using the technology. With coverage of the process technologies, materials, testing, regulatory and even economic insights, this book presents the key considerations for putting microencapsulation to work. Application examples as well as online access to published and issued patents provide information on freedom to operate, building an intellectual property portfolio, and leveraging ability into potential in licensing patents to create produce pipeline. This book bridges the gap between fundamental research and application by combining the knowledge of new and novel processing techniques, materials and selection, regulatory concerns, testing and evaluation of materials, and application-specific uses of microencapsulation. Practical applications based on the authors’ more than 50 years combined industry experience Focuses on application, rather than theory Includes the latest in processes and methodologies Provides multiple "starting point" options to jump-start encapsulation use

Nitride Semiconductor Light Emitting Diodes Leds

Author : Jian-Jang Huang
ISBN : 9780857099303
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 33. 9 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The development of nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has led to advancements in high-brightness LED technology for solid-state lighting, handheld electronics, and advanced bioengineering applications. Nitride Semiconductor Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) reviews the fabrication, performance, and applications of this technology that encompass the state-of-the-art material and device development, and practical nitride-based LED design considerations. Part one reviews the fabrication of nitride semiconductor LEDs. Chapters cover molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of nitride semiconductors, modern metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) techniques and the growth of nitride-based materials, and gallium nitride (GaN)-on-sapphire and GaN-on-silicon technologies for LEDs. Nanostructured, non-polar and semi-polar nitride-based LEDs, as well as phosphor-coated nitride LEDs, are also discussed. Part two covers the performance of nitride LEDs, including photonic crystal LEDs, surface plasmon enhanced LEDs, color tuneable LEDs, and LEDs based on quantum wells and quantum dots. Further chapters discuss the development of LED encapsulation technology and the fundamental efficiency droop issues in gallium indium nitride (GaInN) LEDs. Finally, part three highlights applications of nitride LEDs, including liquid crystal display (LCD) backlighting, infrared emitters, and automotive lighting. Nitride Semiconductor Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) is a technical resource for academics, physicists, materials scientists, electrical engineers, and those working in the lighting, consumer electronics, automotive, aviation, and communications sectors. Reviews fabrication, performance, and applications of this technology that encompass the state-of-the-art material and device development, and practical nitride-based LED design considerations Covers the performance of nitride LEDs, including photonic crystal LEDs, surface plasmon enhanced LEDs, color tuneable LEDs, and LEDs based on quantum wells and quantum dots Highlights applications of nitride LEDs, including liquid crystal display (LCD) backlighting, infra-red emitters, and automotive lighting

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