english infinitive the english language series

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The English Infinitive

Author : Patrick Joseph Duffley
ISBN : 9781315504643
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 62. 17 MB
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This is a series which aims to meet the need for books on modern English that are both up-to-date and authoritative. The texts are ideal for the scholar, the teacher, and the student, but especially for English speaking students in overseas universities where English is the language of instruction, or advanced specialist students of English in foreign universities. Although English is probably the most studied language in the world, this is one of the first systematic comparisons of infinitives with and without the use of "to". Patrick Duffley examines these uses adopting the semantic approach, which shows that the two infinitive forms each have a basic meaning which is capable of explaining all of their particular uses. The author has carried out detailed research for this book, examining over 24,000 occurences of the infinitive, as well as taking into account the observations of previous grammarians. The book challenges old assumptions that grammar is independent of meaning and should be dealt with in purely formal terms. It also fulfils a need for literature on an area of English grammar which has sometimes been presumed to be chaotic and unsystematic. The text is aimed specialists in linguistics and advanced students of English as a second language.

The English Gerund Participle

Author : Patrick J. Duffley
ISBN : 082046399X
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 51. 50 MB
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Original Scholarly Monograph

A Grammar Of The English Language In A Series Of Letters

Author : William Cobbett
ISBN : PSU:000061786783
Genre : English language
File Size : 31. 83 MB
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The Grammaticalization Of The English To Infinitive

Author : Kristina Schmelzer
ISBN : 9783656559733
Genre : Literary Collections
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Seminar paper from the year 2012 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: 1,7, RWTH Aachen University (Anglistische Sprachwissenschaft), course: Grammaticalization, language: English, abstract: Grammaticalization means the transition of a lexical, autonomous form to a grammatical, dependent form. It is a process in which syntactic structures develop out of free discourse structures and that extends over long time periods (cf. Diewald 1997: 11). Hardly any phenomenon of linguistics has raised as many questions as the grammaticalization of the infinitive. The English language differentiates between two infinitive types: The bare infinitive, which is only left in certain constructions, is sometimes described as “a sort of grammatical fossil” (Curme 1931: 456, quoted in Duffley 1992: 12) and the to-infinitive, on the other hand, demonstrates the widely-used form of the infinitive. Haspelmath (1989: 287) gives a glimpse into the prevalent view, that “the [to-] infinitive is the basic and unmarked form of the verb”, which “carries no meaning of its own”. The influential linguist Roman Jakobson states the definition as follows: Among all verbal forms, it is the infinitive which carries the minimal grammatical infor-mation. It says nothing either about the participants of the narrated event or about the relation of this event to other narrated events and to the speech event. (Jakobson 1957: 142; quoted in Haspelmath 1989: 287) Chomsky (1957:100) hypothesizes even more radically by saying that to is a morpheme that “can hardly be said to have a meaning in any independent sense” at all. However, there are different approaches and opinions about the grammaticalization of the to-infinitive and its status within linguistics. In his article “From purposive to infinitive – a universal path of grammaticization”, published in 1989 via Folia Linguistica Historica, Martin Haspelmath questions the traditional definition of the infinitive. Using the German infinitive development as an example, he demonstrates the infinitival evolution ranging from the Old English/Old German periods to the current use of language. He states that the infinitives occurring in most languages actu-ally “do have a meaning and also a form of their own” (Haspelmath 1989: 288), and that the grammaticalization process, which the infinitives underwent, follows a universal path. As a reaction to this, Olga Fischer published her article “The grammaticalisation of infinitival to in English compared with German and Dutch” in 1997. Functioning as an annotation to Haspelmath’s theses, she illustrates her view of the infinitival grammaticalization, [...]

A Grammar Of The English Language In A Series Of Letters To Which Are Added Six Lessons

Author : William Cobbett
ISBN : OXFORD:590242714
Genre :
File Size : 21. 90 MB
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A Grammar Of The English Language In A Series Of Letters With An Additional Chapter By J P Cobbett

Author : William Cobbett
ISBN : OXFORD:590242718
Genre :
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A Grammar Of The English Language In A Series Of Letters

Author : W. Cobbett
ISBN : KBNL:KBNL03000103451
Genre :
File Size : 57. 83 MB
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Origins Of The Specious

Author : Patricia T. O'Conner
ISBN : 9780812978100
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 82. 52 MB
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Do you cringe when a talking head pronounces “niche” as NITCH? Do you get bent out of shape when your teenager begins a sentence with “and”? Do you think British spellings are more “civilised” than the American versions? If you answered yes to any of those questions, you're myth-informed. In Origins of the Specious, word mavens Patricia T. O'Conner and Stewart Kellerman reveal why some of grammar's best-known “rules” aren't—and never were—rules at all. This playfully witty, rigorously researched book sets the record straight about bogus word origins, politically correct fictions, phony français, fake acronyms, and more. Here are some shockers: “They” was once commonly used for both singular and plural, much the way “you” is today. And an eighteenth-century female grammarian, of all people, is largely responsible for the all-purpose “he.” From the Queen's English to street slang, this eye-opening romp will be the toast of grammarphiles and the salvation of grammarphobes. Take our word for it.

The Rise Of The To Infinitive

Author : Bettelou Los
ISBN : 9780199274765
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 52. 25 MB
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This book describes the historical emergence and spread of the to-infinitive in English. It shows that to + infinitive emerged from a reanalysis of the preposition to plus a deverbal nominalization, which spread first to purpose clauses, then to other nonfinite environments. The book challenges the traditional reasoning that infinitives must have been nouns in Old English because they inflected for dative case and can follow prepositions. Dr Los shows that as earlyas Old English the to-infinitive was established in most of the environments in which it is found today. She argues that its spread was largely due to competition with subjunctive that-clauses, which it gradually replaced.Later chapters consider Middle English developments. The author provides a measured evaluation of the evidence that to undergoes a period of degrammaticalization. She concludes that the extent to which to gains syntactic freedom in Middle English is due to the fact that speakers began to equate it with the modal verbs and therefore to treat it syntactically as a modal verb.The exposition is clear and does not assume an up-to-date knowledge of generative theory. The book will appeal to the wide spectrum of scholars interested in the transformation of Old to Middle English as well as those studying the processes and causes of syntactic change more generally.

A Grammar Containing The Etymology And Syntax Of The English Language

Author : William Swinton
ISBN : WISC:89056424682
Genre : English language
File Size : 44. 16 MB
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