environmental health hazards and social justice geographical perspectives on race and class disparities

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Environmental Health Hazards And Social Justice

Author : Florence Margai
ISBN : 9781136537813
Genre : Medical
File Size : 73. 54 MB
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This book provides geographic perspectives and approaches for use in assessing the distribution of environmental health hazards and disease outcomes among disadvantaged population groups. Estimates suggest that about 40 per cent of the global burden of disease is attributable to exposures to biological and chemical pathogens in the physical environment. And with today's rapid rate of globalization, and these hazardous health effects are likely to increase, with low income and underrepresented communities facing even greater risks. In many places around the world, marginalized communities unwillingly serve as hosts of noxious facilities such as chemical industrial plants, extractive facilities (oil and mining) and other destructive land use activities. Others are being used as illegal dumping grounds for hazardous materials and electronic wastes resulting in air, soil and groundwater contamination. The book informs readers about the geography and emergent health risks that accompany the location of these hazards, with emphasis on vulnerable population groups. The approach is applications-oriented, illustrating the use of health data and geographic approaches to uncover the root causes, contextual factors and processes that produce contaminated environments. Case studies are drawn from the author's research in the United States and Africa, along with a literature review of related studies completed in Europe, Asia and South America. This comparative approach allows readers to better understand the manifestation of environmental hazards and inequities at different spatial scales with localized disparities evident in both developed and developing countries.

The Routledge Handbook Of Environmental Justice

Author : Ryan Holifield
ISBN : 9781317392811
Genre : Science
File Size : 63. 95 MB
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The Routledge Handbook of Environmental Justice presents an extensive and cutting-edge introduction to the diverse, rapidly growing body of research on pressing issues of environmental justice and injustice. With wide-ranging discussion of current debates, controversies, and questions in the history, theory, and methods of environmental justice research, contributed by over 90 leading social scientists, natural scientists, humanists, and scholars from professional disciplines from six continents, it is an essential resource both for newcomers to this research and for experienced scholars and practitioners. The chapters of this volume examine the roots of environmental justice activism, lay out and assess key theories and approaches, and consider the many different substantive issues that have been the subject of activism, empirical research, and policy development throughout the world. The Handbook features critical reviews of quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methodological approaches and explicitly addresses interdisciplinarity, transdisciplinarity, and engaged research. Instead of adopting a narrow regional focus, it tackles substantive issues and presents perspectives from political and cultural systems across the world, as well as addressing activism for environmental justice at the global scale. Its chapters do not simply review the state of the art, but also propose new conceptual frameworks and directions for research, policy, and practice. Providing detailed but accessible overviews of the complex, varied dimensions of environmental justice and injustice, the Handbook is an essential guide and reference not only for researchers engaged with environmental justice, but also for undergraduate and graduate teaching and for policymakers and activists.

Environmental Leadership

Author : Deborah Rigling Gallagher
ISBN : 9781412981507
Genre : Education
File Size : 82. 88 MB
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This reference handbook tackles issues relevant to leadership in the realm of the environment and sustainability.

Shipbreaking In Developing Countries

Author : Md Saiful Karim
ISBN : 9781317595076
Genre : Law
File Size : 64. 43 MB
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This book explores the process of shipbreaking in developing countries, with a particular focus on Bangladesh. In the past, shipbreaking (the disposal of obsolete ships) was a very common industrial activity in many developed countries. However, due to stringent domestic environmental and labour laws it is almost impossible for the increasing number of vessels to be disposed of domestically, and now developing nations including Bangladesh, China, India, Turkey and Pakistan regularly participate in this activity. The shipbreaking yards in these countries are not only detrimental to the marine and coastal environment but also represent significant health hazards to local people and workers. Given the global importance of the issue, an effective legal and institutional framework for a sustainable operation of the shipbreaking industry is desperately needed. Sitting at the intersection of three distinct fields – environmental justice, international environmental law and international maritime law – this book offers an innovative take on the issues surrounding the shipbreaking process. Drawing on the case study of Bangladesh due to its prominence in the shipbreaking industry, the author implements an environmental justice framework to examine the issues of sustainability surrounding shipbreaking, and analyses the relationship between social development, economic development and environmental protection. Maritime perspectives of environmental justice will also be highlighted through a discussion of the International Maritime Organization’s role in the implementation of the Hong Kong Convention in developing countries. This book will be of great interest to scholars of environmental justice, international maritime law and international environmental law.

Health And Social Justice

Author : Richard Hofrichter
ISBN : 0787967335
Genre : Medical
File Size : 58. 75 MB
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Health and Social Justice draws on the growing body of recent literature to offer a comprehensive collection of articles written by a panel of expert contributors who represent a broad range of fields?sociology, epidemiology, public health, ecology, politics, organizing, and advocacy. Each article explores a particular aspect of health inequalities and demonstrates how the sources of health inequalities are rooted in injustices associated with racism, sex discrimination, and social class. This important book examines the political implications of various perspectives used to explain health inequities and explores alternative strategies for eliminating them. Health and Social Justice covers a broad spectrum of topics and Analyzes the politics of health inequities Shows how market values often dominate over collective needs for well-being Examines the politics of methodology and its implications for research and public policy Critiques the ideological implications of contemporary health promotion as a model for public health Reviews approaches that influence the social determinants of health Evaluates strategies drawn from the European experience, and others, aimed at eliminating health inequities Proposes principles for action and research Analyzes the role of the mass media in influencing the conceptualization of public health issues

U S Health In International Perspective

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 9780309264143
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 44. 41 MB
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The United States is among the wealthiest nations in the world, but it is far from the healthiest. Although life expectancy and survival rates in the United States have improved dramatically over the past century, Americans live shorter lives and experience more injuries and illnesses than people in other high-income countries. The U.S. health disadvantage cannot be attributed solely to the adverse health status of racial or ethnic minorities or poor people: even highly advantaged Americans are in worse health than their counterparts in other, "peer" countries. In light of the new and growing evidence about the U.S. health disadvantage, the National Institutes of Health asked the National Research Council (NRC) and the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to convene a panel of experts to study the issue. The Panel on Understanding Cross-National Health Differences Among High-Income Countries examined whether the U.S. health disadvantage exists across the life span, considered potential explanations, and assessed the larger implications of the findings. U.S. Health in International Perspective presents detailed evidence on the issue, explores the possible explanations for the shorter and less healthy lives of Americans than those of people in comparable countries, and recommends actions by both government and nongovernment agencies and organizations to address the U.S. health disadvantage.

Multicultural Geographies

Author : John W. Frazier
ISBN : 9781438436838
Genre : SOCIAL SCIENCE
File Size : 20. 65 MB
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Geographical perspectives on the changing patterns of race and ethnicity in the United States. In an approach that differs from other publications on U.S. multiculturalism, Multicultural Geographies examines the changing patterns of race and ethnicity in the United States from geographical perspectives. It reflects the significant contributions made by geographers in recent years to our understanding of the day-to-day experiences of American minorities and the historical and current processes that account for living spaces, persistent patterns of segregation and group inequalities, and the complex geographies that continue to evolve at local and regional levels across the country. One of the book’s underlying themes is the dynamic and complex nature of U.S. multiculturalism and the academic difficulty in evaluating it from a single viewpoint or theoretical stance. As such, Multicultural Geographies is derived from the joint efforts of selected scholars to bring together diverse perspectives and approaches in documenting the experiences of American minorities and the issues that affect them.

Communities In Action

Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
ISBN : 9780309452960
Genre : Medical
File Size : 79. 74 MB
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In the United States, some populations suffer from far greater disparities in health than others. Those disparities are caused not only by fundamental differences in health status across segments of the population, but also because of inequities in factors that impact health status, so-called determinants of health. Only part of an individual’s health status depends on his or her behavior and choice; community-wide problems like poverty, unemployment, poor education, inadequate housing, poor public transportation, interpersonal violence, and decaying neighborhoods also contribute to health inequities, as well as the historic and ongoing interplay of structures, policies, and norms that shape lives. When these factors are not optimal in a community, it does not mean they are intractable: such inequities can be mitigated by social policies that can shape health in powerful ways. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity seeks to delineate the causes of and the solutions to health inequities in the United States. This report focuses on what communities can do to promote health equity, what actions are needed by the many and varied stakeholders that are part of communities or support them, as well as the root causes and structural barriers that need to be overcome.

Environmental Inequalities Beyond Borders

Author : JoAnn Carmin
ISBN : 9780262294577
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 85. 59 MB
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Multinational corporations often exploit natural resources or locate factories in poor countries far from the demand for the products and profits that result. Developed countries also routinely dump hazardous materials and produce greenhouse gas emissions that have a disproportionate impact on developing countries. This book investigates how these and other globalized practices exact high social and environmental costs as poor, local communities are forced to cope with depleted resources, pollution, health problems, and social and cultural disruption. Case studies drawn from Africa, Asia, the Pacific Rim, and Latin America critically assess how diverse types of global inequalities play out on local terrains. These range from an assessment of the pros and cons of foreign investment in Fiji to an account of the work of transnational activists combating toxic waste disposal in Mozambique. Taken together, the chapters demonstrate the spatial disconnect between global consumption and production on the one hand and local environmental quality and human rights on the other. The result is a rich perspective not only on the ways industries, governments, and consumption patterns may further entrench existing inequalities but also on how emerging networks and movements can foster institutional change and promote social equality and environmental justice.

Tackling Health Inequities Through Public Health Practice

Author : Richard Hofrichter
ISBN : 9780195343144
Genre : Medical
File Size : 66. 44 MB
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Social justice has always been a core value driving public health. Today, much of the etiology of avoidable disease is rooted in inequitable social conditions brought on by disparities in wealth and power and reproduced through ongoing forms of oppression, exploitation, and marginalization. Tackling Health Inequities Through Public Practice raises questions and provides a starting point for health practitioners ready to reorient public health practice to address the fundamental causes of health inequities. This reorientation involves restructuring the organization, culture and daily work of public health. Tackling Health Inequities is meant to inspire readers to imagine or envision public health practice and their role in ways that question contemporary thinking and assumptions, as emerging trends, social conditions, and policies generate increasing inequities in health.

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