environmental policy analysis for decision making

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Environmental Policy Analysis For Decision Making

Author : J. Loomis
ISBN : 9780306480232
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 79. 13 MB
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1. ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ANALYSIS: WHAT AND WHY? Why environmental policy analysis? Environmental issues are growing in visibility in local, national, and world arenas, as a myriad of human activities leads to increased impacts on the natural world. Issues such as climate change, endangered species, wilderness protection, and energy use are regularly on the front pages of newspapers. Governments at all levels are struggling with how to address these issues. Environmental policy analysis is intended to present the environmental and social impacts of policies, in the hope that better decisions will result when people have better information on which to base those decisions. Conducting environmental policy analysis requires people who understand what it is and how to do it. Interpreting it also requires those skills. We hope that this book will increase the abilities, both of analysts and of decision-makers, to understand and interpret the impacts of environmental policies. Policy analysis books almost invariably begin by pointing out that policy analysis can take many forms. This book is no different. As you will see in Chapter 1, we consider policy analysis to be information provided for the policy process. That information can take many forms, from sophisticated empirical analysis to general theoretical results, from summary statistics to game theoretic strategies.

Environmental Policy Analysis And Practice

Author : Michael R Greenberg
ISBN : 9780813544731
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 67. 79 MB
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Pressing environmental challenges are frequently surrounded with stakeholders on all sides of the issues. Opinions expressed by government agencies, the private sector, special interests, nonprofit communities, and the media, among others can quickly cloud the dialogue, leaving one to wonder how policy decisions actually come about. In Environmental Policy Analysis and Practice, Michael R. Greenberg cuts through the complicated layers of bureaucracy, science, and the public interest to show how all policy considerations can be broken down according to six specific factors: 1) the reaction of elected government officials, 2) the reactions of the public and special interests, 3) knowledge developed by scientists and engineers, 4) economics, 5) ethical imperatives, and 6) time pressure to make a decision. The book is organized into two parts, with the first part defining and illustrating each one of these criteria. Greenberg draws on examples such as nuclear power, pesticides, brownfield redevelopment, gasoline additives, and environmental cancer, but focuses on how these subjects can be analyzed rather than exclusively on the issues themselves. Part two goes on to describe a set of over twenty tools that are used widely in policy analysis, including risk assessment, environmental impact analysis, public opinion surveys, cost-benefit analysis, and others. These tools are described and then illustrated with examples from part one. Weaving together an impressive combination of practical advice and engaging first person accounts from government officials, administrators, and leaders in the fields of public health and medicine, this clearly written volume is poised to become a leading text in environmental policy.

Environmental Politics And Foreign Policy Decision Making In Latin America

Author : Amy Below
ISBN : 9781134474974
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 77. 70 MB
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Although the Kyoto Protocol, an international agreement to address global climate change, has been regarded by many as an unsuccessful treaty both politically and environmentally, it stands as one of the world’s few truly global agreements. Why did such a diverse group of countries decide to sign and/or ratify the treaty? Why did they choose to do so at different times and in different ways? What explains their foreign policy behavior? Amy Below’s book builds off the increasing significance of climate change and uses the Kyoto Protocol as a case study to analyze foreign policy decision making in Latin America. Below’s study takes a regional perspective in order to examine why countries in Latin America made disparate foreign policy choices when they were faced with the same decision. The book looks at the decisions in Argentina, Mexico, and Venezuela via a process-tracing method. Below uses information obtained from primary and secondary documents and elite interviews to help reconstruct the processes, and augments her reconstruction with a content analysis of Conference of the Parties speeches by presidents and country delegates. The book complies with convention in the field by arguing that systemic, national and individual-level factors simultaneously impact foreign policy decisions, but makes the additional claim that role theory most accurately accounts for relationships between variables. Environmental Politics and Foreign Policy Decision Making in Latin America considers a variety of factors on individual, national, and international levels of analysis, and show that the foreign policy decisions are best viewed through the prism of role theory. The book also draws conclusions about the value of role theory in general and about environmental foreign policy decisions in developing countries, which will be of value to both policy-makers and academics.

Multi Criteria Decision Analysis

Author : Igor Linkov
ISBN : 9781439853184
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 72. 83 MB
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Environmental management is often complicated and multidisciplinary and the issues that arise can be difficult to solve analytically. Often, decision makers take ad hoc approaches, which may result in the ignoring of important stakeholder opinions or decision criteria. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) provides a framework by which these types of decisions can be made but, despite being used effectively in many fields, it is not often used in environmental management. Given the novelty and inherent applicability of this decision making framework to the environmental field, there is a need for more teaching tools for MCDA. In particular, there is a need for a case study based approach to help readers navigate the many MCDA methods and decide how to apply them to a specific case. Through a collection of case studies, Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis: Environmental Applications and Case Studies gives readers the tools to apply cutting-edge MCDA methods to their own environmental projects. It offers an overview of the types of MCDA available and a conceptual framework of how it is applied, with the focus on its applicability for environmental science. Taking an in-depth look at the case of sediment management, the book introduces different steps of MCDA processes—from problem formulation and model development to criteria weighing and alternative scoring. The authors then explore the case using various MCDA methods, which allows readers to see clearly how the methodologies differ and gain a better understanding of the mechanistic operation of the analysis. A series of case studies in nanotechnology collectively demonstrate the application of MCDA in situations of high variability and uncertainty that require the integration of technical information and expert judgment—an area where MCDA clearly shines. The authors describe multiple decisions—from risk classification to value of information analysis to the assessment of potential research and funding investments—that readers may face in dealing with emerging environmental threats. Demonstrating the broad applicability of MCDA methods for different types of cases, the book presents a series of case studies ranging from oyster restoration to oil spill response. In conjunction with these cases, the book also provides corresponding decision models that are implemented by the DECERNS software and allow users to examine the same case using multiple MCDA tools. The DECERNS software and models are available for download at www.crcpress.com. Intended both as a research and teaching tool, this book inspires creative thinking when applying MCDA to complicated environmental issues.

Controversies In Environmental Policy

Author : Sheldon Kamieniecki
ISBN : 0887061117
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 50. 53 MB
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Controversies in Environmental Policy presents comprehensive analyses of the politics surrounding decision-making on such environmental issues as land use, toxic waste management, new federalism, and economic incentive. It recognizes that environmental policy-making is a blend of politics, technology, and economics, and provides a sophisticated understanding of the interrelationship of the three. The contributors to this volume examine the underlying value systems of the proponents of government-dominated solutions and private-enterprise-dominated solutions to the questions of environmental policy. This book is unique in that it exposes the biases inherent in both sides of the debate, analyzing the differing views on the effectiveness of such policy evaluation strategies as cost benefit analysis and regulatory agency control. It provides conservative and liberal opinions on the social and economic impact of the Reagan administration's effort to shape environmental policy. Controversies in Environmental Policy recognizes the fundamental differences in values, strategies, and desired outcomes among those involved in the debates on environmental policy. Disguised by a fragile consensus throughout the 1970s, these divisions emerged with the election of the Reagan administration. The basic divisions are not new and are consistent with the differences in other policy areas.

The Moral Austerity Of Environmental Decision Making

Author : John Martin Gillroy
ISBN : 9780822383468
Genre : Science
File Size : 37. 34 MB
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In The Moral Austerity of Environmental Decision Making a group of prominent environmental ethicists, policy analysts, political theorists, and legal experts challenges the dominating influence of market principles and assumptions on the formulation of environmental policy. Emphasizing the concept of sustainability and the centrality of moral deliberation to democracy, they examine the possibilities for a wider variety of moral principles to play an active role in defining “good” environmental decisions. If environmental policy is to be responsible to humanity and to nature in the twenty-first century, they argue, it is imperative that the discourse acknowledge and integrate additional normative assumptions and principles other than those endorsed by the market paradigm. The contributors search for these assumptions and principles in short arguments and debates over the role of science, social justice, instrumental value, and intrinsic value in contemporary environmental policy. In their discussion of moral alternatives to enrich environmental decision making and in their search for a less austere and more robust role for normative discourse in practical policy making, they analyze a series of original case studies that deal with environmental sustainability and natural resources policy including pollution, land use, environmental law, globalism, and public lands. The unique structure of the book—which features the core contributors responding in a discourse format to the central chapters’ essays and debates—helps to highlight the role personal and public values play in democratic decision making generally and in the field of environmental politics specifically. Contributors. Joe Bowersox, David Brower, Susan Buck, Celia Campbell-Mohn, John Martin Gillroy, Joel Kassiola, Jan Laitos, William Lowry, Bryan Norton, Robert Paehlke, Barry G. Rabe, Mark Sagoff, Anna K. Schwab, Bob Pepperman Taylor, Jonathan Wiener

Environmental Networks

Author :
ISBN : STANFORD:36105024342888
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 43. 5 MB
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This original book presents a new basis for environmental policy-making: environmental networks. This framework graphically simplifies the analysis of environmental problems and emphasises the spatial nature of economic activity and pollution dispersion. This book will be of interest to students, researchers, practitioners and policy-makers in environmental and transport economics.

Environmental Governance In Europe

Author : Rüdiger K.W. Wurzel
ISBN : 9781849804721
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 75. 66 MB
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ÔThis path-breaking book, written by three well known experts, makes an extremely valuable contribution to the study of ÒnewÓ environmental policy instruments as well as to much wider theoretical debates about governance, policy innovation, learning and transfer. Drawing on an unrivalled comparative empirical study of five different jurisdictions, it manages to make many new points about issues that many of us thought had already been settled.Õ Ð Martin JŠnicke, Free University of Berlin, and former deputy chair, German Advisory Council on the Environment, Germany ÔMuch more than a study of environmental policy instruments, this book ranges widely and authoritatively over the Ògovernment to governanceÓ debate, theories of policy change, regulation, policy transfer, and policy learning. Its lessons and conclusions are relevant and timely well beyond the European context of its case studies and it will be essential reading for public policy scholars everywhere for some time to come.Õ Ð Jeremy Rayner, University of Saskatchewan, Canada ÔThis book represents a very rare achievement in that it combines detailed and up-to-the-minute empirical analysis of environmental policy over the past four decades, with a sophisticated discussion and critique of current theoretical issues in comparative and policy studies generally. It unfolds with a keen eye towards understanding the temporal dimensions of policy dynamics both in the specific policy field examined but also in terms of testing key analytical concepts. Taken as a whole it provides the most detailed empirical assessment to date of the general Ògovernment to governanceÓ hypothesis, with significant implications for policy and governance studies in general.Õ Ð Michael Howlett, Simon Fraser University, Canada and National University of Singapore ÔThis book fills an important gap in the environmental governance literature, addressing governance at a lower level of abstraction than other texts and examining how it plays out in relation to specific modes and instruments of governing. It also contributes towards governance theory-building efforts through the development of an empirically relevant analytical framework. In so doing it provides a firm underpinning for assessing whether, to what extent and in what ways there has been a transition from government towards governance in environmental policy.Õ Ð Neil Gunningham, Australian National University ÔTheoretically sophisticated and empirically rich, this book provides an overview of the introduction, development, and use of new policy instruments and new modes of environmental governance in the European context, taking into account both national and European Union experiences. This is a welcome addition to the field!Õ Ð Miranda Schreurs, Environmental Policy Research Centre and Free University of Berlin, Germany European governance has witnessed dramatic changes in recent decades. By assessing the use of ÔnewÕ environmental policy instruments in European Union countries including the United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands and Austria, this timely book analyses whether traditional forms of top-down government have given way to less hierarchical governance instruments, which rely strongly on societal self-steering and/or market forces. The authors provide important new theoretical insights as well as fresh empirical detail on why, and in what form, these instruments are being adopted within and across different levels of governance, along with analysis of the often-overlooked interactions between the instrument types. Providing important new theoretical insights into the governance debate by combining institutionalist and policy learning/transfer approaches, this book will be invaluable for both undergraduate and postgraduate students. The analytical insights as well as a thorough empirical assessment of the use of environmental policy instruments in practice will prove essential for environmental policy specialists/practitioners.

Analysing Strategic Environmental Assessment

Author : Pietro Caratti
ISBN : 9781845421533
Genre : Science
File Size : 88. 5 MB
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The book is useful, easy to read and a good addition to the references list of practitioners who use strategic environmental assessment as a day-to-day tool. Eagle Bulletin The European Directive on strategic environmental assessment requires implementing legislation and guidance in each of the European member states. Other countries worldwide are also establishing procedures for strategic environmental assessment. This very timely book on analytical strategic environmental assessment (ANSEA) deals head-on with the decision-making systems that these regulations and guidance documents are supposed to influence. ANSEA focuses on the quality of the decision-making process rather than on the impacts of the decision; on describing the decision process rather than the output of the decisions, and on ensuring full integration of environmental values in decision-making. From the foreword by Riki Therivel Analytical Strategic Environmental Assessment (ANSEA) is an insightful new approach to environmental evaluation, based on decision theory, policy analysis and environmental considerations. These concepts, though not new in their own fields of application, are combined and integrated in an innovative fashion. This book presents recent research on the implementation of the ANSEA approach which aims to ensure environmental values are properly integrated into the decision-making process. ANSEA was developed to contribute to the systematic integration of environmental protection objectives in strategic decision-making which, in turn, will contribute to the promotion of sustainable development. The method can be applied to analyse how environmental and sustainability issues are addressed in decision-making processes at both the national and local level for a variety of different policies. Importantly, the focus is on evaluating the decision-making process itself, rather than the quantitative output of an assessment. With explicatory examples and practical case studies, the distinguished, interdisciplinary authors clearly illustrate how a decision-centred approach to environmental assessment can be successfully achieved. At a time when a new European directive requires the implementation of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) into all relevant decision-making processes, this timely book will be required reading for environmental policymakers in all EU member states. It will also be a valuable source of information and reference for researchers, academics and consultants in the fields of planning, environmental evaluation and environmental management.

Rationality And The Environment

Author : Bo Elling
ISBN : 9781136559167
Genre : Architecture
File Size : 58. 18 MB
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Environmental assessment and management involve the production of scientific knowledge and its use in decision-making processes. The result is that within these essentially rational, political assessment frameworks, experts are creating and applying scientific knowledge for decision and management purposes that actually have strong ethical and aesthetic dimensions. Yet these rational political frameworks lack the tools to provide guidance on ethical and aesthetic issues that affect the wider public. This revolutionary work argues that ethical and aesthetic dimensions can only be brought into environmental politics and policies by citizens actively taking a stand on the specific matters in question. The author draws on Habermas trisection of rationality as cognitive-instrumental, moral-practical and aesthetic-expressive, to suggest that truly effective environmental policy needs to activate all three approaches and not favour only the rational. To achieve this objective, the author argues that public participation in environmental policy and assessment is necessary to counteract the dictatorship of technical and economic instrumentality in environmental policy - the failure to take ethical and aesthetic rationalities into account - and, more importantly, how such policy is applied on the ground to shape our natural and material world.

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