environmental risk assessment a toxicological approach

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Environmental Risk Assessment

Author : Ted Simon
ISBN : 9781466598294
Genre : Medical
File Size : 32. 89 MB
Format : PDF
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The purpose of risk assessment is to support science-based decisions about how to solve complex societal problems. The problems we face in the twenty-first century have many social, political, and technical complexities. Environmental risk assessment in particular is of increasing importance as a means of seeking to address the potential effects of chemicals in the environment in both the developed and developing world. Environmental Risk Assessment: A Toxicological Approach examines various aspects of problem formulation, exposure, toxicity, and risk characterization that apply to both human health and ecological risk assessment. The book is aimed at the next generation of risk assessors and students who need to know more about developing, conducting, and interpreting risk assessments. It delivers a comprehensive view of the field, complete with sufficient background to enable readers to probe for themselves the science underlying the key issues in environmental risk. Written in an engaging and lively style by a highly experienced risk assessment practitioner, the text: Introduces the science of risk assessment—past, present, and future Covers problem formation and the development of exposure factors Explains how human epidemiology and animal testing data are used to determine toxicity criteria Provides environmental sampling data for conducting practice risk assessments Examines the use of in vitro and ‘omics methods for toxicity testing Describes the political and social aspects of science-based decisions in the twenty-first century Includes fully worked examples, case studies, discussion questions, and links to legislative hearings Readers of this volume will not only learn how to execute site-specific human health and ecological risk assessments but also gain a greater understanding of how science is used in deciding environmental regulations.

Environmental Toxicology And Risk Assessment

Author : Joseph W. Gorsuch
ISBN : 9780803114852
Genre : Medical
File Size : 78. 29 MB
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Environmental Engineering

Author : Vesna Tomašić
ISBN : 9783110468038
Genre : Science
File Size : 48. 95 MB
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Environmental Engineering provides a profound introduction to Ecology, Chemistry, Microbiology, Geology and Hydrology engineering. The authors explain transport phenomena, air pollution control, waste water management and soil treatment to address the issue of energy preservation, production asset and control of waste from human and animal activities. Modeling of environmental processes and risk assessment conclude the interdisciplinary approach.

In Silico Toxicology

Author : Mark T. D. Cronin
ISBN : 9781849730044
Genre : Medical
File Size : 24. 36 MB
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In silico methods to predict toxicity are becoming increasingly important, particularly in light of European legislation such as Reach and the Cosmetics Regulation. They are also being used extensively worldwide e.g. in the USA, Canada, Japan and Australia. The objective of In Silico Toxicology: Principles and Applications is to enable the reader to develop new, and use existing, in silico methods to predict the toxicity and fate of chemicals. It develops the theme in a logical sequence leading the use through the retrieval, and assessment of quality, of toxicological data and information; the calculation of descriptors and properties; the basis of statistical techniques for quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARS); the interpretation and validation of models for regulatory use; the mechanistic basis to modelling; as well as chemical grouping approaches and application of the models for risk assessment. The book also addresses other aspects of in silico toxicology including how to predict both external and internal exposure and the role of in silico approaches in integrated testing strategies. The contributions from recognised leaders in each of these areas include evidence of the use and applicability of approaches using real world case studies concerning both environmental and human health effects. The book is relevant to toxicologists and modellers using in silico toxicological approaches to perform risk assessment for regulatory purposes and product development. Series Editors: D Anderson, University of Bradford, Uk MD Waters, ILS, N Carolina, USA TC Marrs, Edentox Associates, Kent, UK The field of toxicological research is continually expanding and diversifying driven by the need to understand the human and ecological risks of exposure to chemicals and other toxicants. This series is devoted to coverage of modern toxicology and assessment of risk and is responding to the resurgence in interest in the of scientific investigation.

Toxicological Risk Assessment Of Chemicals

Author : Elsa Nielsen
ISBN : 1420006940
Genre : Medical
File Size : 68. 5 MB
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Unlike many existing books on toxicology that cover either toxicity of a particular substance or toxicity of chemicals on particular organ systems, Toxicological Risk Assessment of Chemicals: A Practical Guide lays out the principle activities of conducting a toxicological risk assessment, including international approaches and methods for the risk assessment of chemical substances. It illustrates each step in the process: hazard identification, a dose response assessment, and exposure assessment. The book also summarizes the basic concepts of interaction of chemicals in mixtures and discusses various approaches to testing such mixtures. Features: Addresses standards from all international regulatory agencies Presents the steps in risk assessment, including hazard identification, exposure assessment, and risk characterization Covers the assessment of multiple chemical exposures or chemical mixtures Contains data from both human and animal studies Explains the linearized multi-stage mathematical model widely used by the US EPA for characterizing

Fundamentals Of Aquatic Toxicology

Author : Gary M. Rand
ISBN : 1560320915
Genre : Science
File Size : 84. 37 MB
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This text is divided into three parts. The first part describes basic toxicological concepts and methodologies used in aquatic toxicity testing, including the philosophies underlying testing strategies now required to meet and support regulatory standards. The second part of the book discusses various factors that affect transport, transformation, ultimate distribution, and accumulation of chemicals in the aquatic environment, along with the use of modelling to predict fate.; The final section of the book reviews types of effects or endpoints evaluated in field studies and the use of structure-activity relationships in aquatic toxicology to predict biological activity and physio-chemical properties of a chemical. This section also contains an extensive background of environmental legislation in the USA and within the European Community, and an introduction to hazard/risk assessment with case studies.

Applied Toxicology Approaches Through Basic Science

Author : Jürg P. Seiler
ISBN : 9783642606823
Genre : Medical
File Size : 28. 30 MB
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Ultraviolet radiation, a component of sunlight, has been recognized by photobiologists, dermatologists, and oculists as a potential hazard for human health because of its genotoxic, carcinogenic and immunotoxic properties. Its effects on human health include the induction of skin cancers, ocular damage and impairment of immunity to certain infections. A few decennia ago it was demonstrated that UV photons can affect the activity of the immune system through interactions with the skin. This means that UV not only changes normal cells into cancer cells but also permits the outgrowth of the UV -transformed cells by depressing the immune system. An intriguing question is what interactions between UV radiation and the skin initiates alterations in immune function in the exposed skin and systemically, i. e. in other places than the exposed skin. During the last 20 years many studies have been performed in order to investigate the immunosuppressive activities of UVB in laboratory animals and in human volunteers. In particular effects of UVB radiation on resistance to tumours and skin associated infections have been examined. In addition, effects of UVB radiation on immune parameters such as contact hypersensitivity and delayed-type hypersensitivity (both type IV hypersensitivity reactions), mixed lymphocyte reactions, mixed skin lymphocyte reactions, antigen presentation and numbers and function of Langerhans cells have been studied intensively. The antigenicity of murine tumours which are caused by UVB radiation was one of the first items to be investigated (Kripke, 1974).

Computational Toxicology

Author : Sean Ekins
ISBN : 0470145889
Genre : Science
File Size : 41. 24 MB
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A comprehensive analysis of state-of-the-art molecular modeling approaches and strategies applied to risk assessment for pharmaceutical and environmental chemicals This unique volume describes how the interaction of molecules with toxicologically relevant targets can be predicted using computer-based tools utilizing X-ray crystal structures or homology, receptor, pharmacophore, and quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models of human proteins. It covers the in vitro models used, newer technologies, and regulatory aspects. The book offers a complete systems perspective to risk assessment prediction, discussing experimental and computational approaches in detail, with: * An introduction to toxicology methods and an explanation of computational methods * In-depth reviews of QSAR methods applied to enzymes, transporters, nuclear receptors, and ion channels * Sections on applying computers to toxicology assessment in the pharmaceutical industry and in the environmental arena * Chapters written by leading international experts * Figures that illustrate computational models and references for further information This is a key resource for toxicologists and scientists in the pharmaceutical industry and environmental sciences as well as researchers involved in ADMET, drug discovery, and technology and software development.

Comparative Risk Assessment And Environmental Decision Making

Author : Igor Linkov
ISBN : 9781402022432
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 74. 62 MB
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Decision making in environmental projects is typically a complex and confusing process characterized by trade-offs between socio-political, environmental, and economic impacts. Comparative Risk Assessment (CRA) is a methodology applied to facilitate decision making when various activities compete for limited resources. CRA has become an increasingly accepted research tool and has helped to characterize environmental profiles and priorities on the regional and national level. CRA may be considered as part of the more general but as yet quite academic field of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). Considerable research in the area of MCDA has made available methods for applying scientific decision theoretical approaches to multi-criteria problems, but its applications, especially in environmental areas, are still limited. The papers show that the use of comparative risk assessment can provide the scientific basis for environmentally sound and cost-efficient policies, strategies, and solutions to our environmental challenges.

Toxicological Risk Assessment For Beginners

Author : José A. Torres
ISBN : 9783319127514
Genre : Medical
File Size : 50. 30 MB
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This book serves as a comprehensive introductory guide to the practical aspects of risk assessment. Chapters include clearly defined objectives and summaries. The book includes: hazard identification, dose-response, exposure assessment, risk characterization, chemical mixtures, epidemiology, emerging issues and global perspectives with accessible language. The book concludes with a set of hypothetical case studies. Toxicological Risk Assessment for Beginners aims not to create an expert, but rather to provide readers with their first understanding of the risk assessment topic. This book was designed with the student in mind. We simplify a complex process for beginners and balance theory with practical aspects, but remain fluid enough to increase difficulty with case studies. By incorporating an action based, step by step approach to learning the risk assessment process, this book provides its readers with an elementary understanding of how the risk assessment process is initiated, developed and finished, making it a valuable guide for graduate students, post-doctoral fellows and early career scientists in industry.

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