environmental risk assessment a toxicological approach

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Environmental Risk Assessment

Author : Ted Simon
ISBN : 9781466598294
Genre : Medical
File Size : 30. 78 MB
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The purpose of risk assessment is to support science-based decisions about how to solve complex societal problems. The problems we face in the twenty-first century have many social, political, and technical complexities. Environmental risk assessment in particular is of increasing importance as a means of seeking to address the potential effects of chemicals in the environment in both the developed and developing world. Environmental Risk Assessment: A Toxicological Approach examines various aspects of problem formulation, exposure, toxicity, and risk characterization that apply to both human health and ecological risk assessment. The book is aimed at the next generation of risk assessors and students who need to know more about developing, conducting, and interpreting risk assessments. It delivers a comprehensive view of the field, complete with sufficient background to enable readers to probe for themselves the science underlying the key issues in environmental risk. Written in an engaging and lively style by a highly experienced risk assessment practitioner, the text: Introduces the science of risk assessment—past, present, and future Covers problem formation and the development of exposure factors Explains how human epidemiology and animal testing data are used to determine toxicity criteria Provides environmental sampling data for conducting practice risk assessments Examines the use of in vitro and ‘omics methods for toxicity testing Describes the political and social aspects of science-based decisions in the twenty-first century Includes fully worked examples, case studies, discussion questions, and links to legislative hearings Readers of this volume will not only learn how to execute site-specific human health and ecological risk assessments but also gain a greater understanding of how science is used in deciding environmental regulations.

Handbook Of Environmental Risk Assessment And Management

Author : Peter P. Calow
ISBN : 9781444313192
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 72. 17 MB
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At the heart of environmental protection is risk assessment: the likelihood of pollution from accidents; the likelihood of problems from normal and abnormal operation of industrial processes; the likely impacts associated with new synthetic chemicals; and so on. Currently, risk assessment has been very much in the news--the risks from BSE and E. coli, and the public perception of risks from nuclear waste, etc. This new publication explains how scientific methodologies are used to assess risk from human activities and the resultant objects and wastes, on people and the environment. Understanding such risks supplies crucial information--to frame legislation, manage major habitats, businesses and industries, and create development programmes. Unique in combining the science of risk assessment with the development of management strategies. Covers science and social science (politics, economics, psychology) aspects. Very timely - risk assessment lies at the heart of decision making in various topical environmental questions (BSE, Brent Spar, nuclear waste).

History Of Risk Assessment In Toxicology

Author : Sol Bobst
ISBN : 9780128095430
Genre : Medical
File Size : 41. 30 MB
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History of Risk Assessment in Toxicology guides the reader through the historical narrative of the evolution of risk assessment thinking in human and environmental practices. Risk assessment concepts are used in many different professional practice areas. In the health and environmental practices of risk assessment, the critical issue is often what chemical concentration in air, water, food, or a solid substance is acceptable, or considered not to result in any adverse effect. The book reviews examples from early scientific and health studies to showcase the foundations of risk assessment. The book also explores the development of risk assessment as practiced by major regulatory bodies such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to reveal how risk assessment has evolved in the 20th and 21st centuries. Modern technology has created opportunities in silicon in vitro, computational modeling, omics, and big data techniques to assess the toxicity of chemicals, while traditional approaches to risk assessment are being challenged with new and innovative approaches. Finally, current issues being debated and tested in risk assessment are outlined with possible future avenues suggested. Presents the first dedicated history on the evolution of risk assessment in toxicology Reviews the development of major US and EU regulatory bodies Provides a context to current debates surrounding the future of risk assessment Reviews examples from early scientific and health studies to showcase the foundations of risk assessment

Toxicological Risk Assessment Of Chemicals

Author : Elsa Nielsen
ISBN : 1420006940
Genre : Medical
File Size : 32. 30 MB
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Unlike many existing books on toxicology that cover either toxicity of a particular substance or toxicity of chemicals on particular organ systems, Toxicological Risk Assessment of Chemicals: A Practical Guide lays out the principle activities of conducting a toxicological risk assessment, including international approaches and methods for the risk assessment of chemical substances. It illustrates each step in the process: hazard identification, a dose response assessment, and exposure assessment. The book also summarizes the basic concepts of interaction of chemicals in mixtures and discusses various approaches to testing such mixtures. Features: Addresses standards from all international regulatory agencies Presents the steps in risk assessment, including hazard identification, exposure assessment, and risk characterization Covers the assessment of multiple chemical exposures or chemical mixtures Contains data from both human and animal studies Explains the linearized multi-stage mathematical model widely used by the US EPA for characterizing

Toxicological Risk Assessment For Beginners

Author : Jose Torres
ISBN : 9783319127514
Genre : Medical
File Size : 72. 38 MB
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This book serves as a comprehensive introductory guide to the practical aspects of risk assessment. Chapters include clearly defined objectives and summaries. The book includes: hazard identification, dose-response, exposure assessment, risk characterization, chemical mixtures, epidemiology, emerging issues and global perspectives with accessible language. The book concludes with a set of hypothetical case studies. Toxicological Risk Assessment for Beginners aims not to create an expert, but rather to provide readers with their first understanding of the risk assessment topic. This book was designed with the student in mind. We simplify a complex process for beginners and balance theory with practical aspects, but remain fluid enough to increase difficulty with case studies. By incorporating an action based, step by step approach to learning the risk assessment process, this book provides its readers with an elementary understanding of how the risk assessment process is initiated, developed and finished, making it a valuable guide for graduate students, post-doctoral fellows and early career scientists in industry.

Risk Assessment For Human Metal Exposures

Author : Gunnar F. Nordberg
ISBN : 9780128042687
Genre : Medical
File Size : 53. 90 MB
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Risk Assessment for Human Metal Exposures: Mode of Action and Kinetic Approaches examines the current principles of risk assessment in human metal exposures, with a focus on Mode of Action(MOA), Toxicokinetic and Toxicodynamic (TKTD) considerations, and computer models. Derived from the highly respected Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals, Fourth Edition (2014), the book summarizes principles and methods and provides examples of how MOA –TKTD can be used. In addition, it presents tactics on how information generated by such methods can be confirmed by epidemiological data. Furthermore, it demonstrates how epidemiological data can be confirmed and evaluated by the examined models and considerations. This resource uniquely integrates several important topics, such as risk assessment, characterization, management and communication—the classic risk assessment paradigm—with mode of action, TKTD, and epidemiology, all topics related to human exposure. Written by pioneers in the field, this book is an essential reference for researchers, students and technicians in toxicology and risk assessment. Covers fundamental risk assessment concerns for the effects of metals on human health Provides an easy-to-use structure to quickly locate specific methods Uses case studies to illustrate the methods and theories described Written to be understood by students, researchers and industry workers who need to conduct risk assessment in metals and human health

Mixture Toxicity

Author : Cornelis A. M. van Gestel
ISBN : 1439830096
Genre : Medical
File Size : 70. 65 MB
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In the last decade and a half, great progress has been made in the development of concepts and models for mixture toxicity, both in human and environmental toxicology. However, due to their different protection goals, developments have often progressed in parallel but with little integration. Arguably the first book to clearly link ecotoxicology and classic human toxicology, Mixture Toxicity: Linking Approaches from Ecological and Human Toxicology incorporates extensive reviews of exposure to toxicants, toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics, toxicity of mixtures, and risk assessment. The book examines developments in both fields, compares and contrasts their current state of the art, and identifies where one field can learn from the other. Each chapter provides an essential overview of the state of the art in both human and ecotoxicological mixture risk assessment, focusing on the work published in the last fifteen years. The coverage progresses from exposure to risk assessment, at each step identifying the special complications typically raised by mixtures. Based on in-depth discussions among specialists representing different disciplines and approaches, the chapters each address: Exposure — how to quantify the amounts of chemicals that may enter the living organism Kinetics, dynamics, and metabolism — how the chemicals enter an organism, travel within the organism, how they are metabolized and reach the target site, and explain development of toxicity with time Toxicity — what are the chemicals’ detrimental effects on the organism Test design and complex mixture characterization — how chemicals interact, how to measure effects of mixtures, and how to identify responsible chemicals Risk assessment — how to assess for risks in humans and the environment An unusual combination of different points of view on exposure to and risk assessment of chemical mixtures, this book summarizes current knowledge on combined effects of toxicant mixtures, information that is generally only available in a very fragmented form as individual journal papers. It identifies possible crosslinks and includes recommendations for mutual developments that can improve the state of knowledge on mixture toxicity and ultimately lead to better and more integrated risk assessment.

Computational Toxicology

Author : Bruce A. Fowler
ISBN : 9780123965080
Genre : Computers
File Size : 68. 95 MB
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Computational Toxicology: Methods and Applications for Risk Assessment is an essential reference on the translation of computational toxicology data into information that can be used for more informed risk assessment decision-making. This book is authored by leading international investigators who have real-world experience in relating computational toxicology methods to risk assessment. Key topics of interest include QSAR modeling, chemical mixtures, applications to metabolomic and metabonomic data sets, toxicogenomic analyses, applications to REACH informational strategies and much more. The examples provided in this book are based on cutting-edge technologies and set out to stimulate the further development of this promising field to offer rapid, better and more cost-effective answers to major public health concerns. Authored by leading international researchers engaged in cutting-edge applications of computational methods for translating complex toxicological data sets into useful risk assessment information Incorporates real-world examples of how computational toxicological methods have been applied to advance the science of risk assessment Provides the framework necessary for new technologies and fosters common vocabularies and principles upon which the effects of new chemical entities should be compared

Computational Toxicology

Author : Sean Ekins
ISBN : 9781119282587
Genre : Science
File Size : 32. 23 MB
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A key resource for toxicologists across a broad spectrum of fields, this book offers a comprehensive analysis of molecular modelling approaches and strategies applied to risk assessment for pharmaceutical and environmental chemicals. • Provides a perspective of what is currently achievable with computational toxicology and a view to future developments • Helps readers overcome questions of data sources, curation, treatment, and how to model / interpret critical endpoints that support 21st century hazard assessment • Assembles cutting-edge concepts and leading authors into a unique and powerful single-source reference • Includes in-depth looks at QSAR models, physicochemical drug properties, structure-based drug targeting, chemical mixture assessments, and environmental modeling • Features coverage about consumer product safety assessment and chemical defense along with chapters on open source toxicology and big data

Toxicology And Risk Assessment A Comprehensive Introduction

Author : Helmut Greim
ISBN : 9780470868942
Genre : Science
File Size : 34. 78 MB
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This new book, written by two outstanding scientists in the field, describes the basic principles of toxic mechanisms and organ toxicity, providing detailed information on specific mechanisms or chemicals for exemplification. The goal is to provide sufficient information that the reader becomes familiar with the basic concepts in toxicology to enable him or her to understand the basic principles in toxicology and to evaluate the risks at given exposures. With this basic understanding the reader also will be able to critically evaluate the available information on a chemical and to identify data gaps. In addition to the introductory chapters the book will offer the following systematic information, presented in six special sections: Principles in Toxicology Organ Toxicology Methods in Toxicology Risk Assessment Risk Management Toxicity of Chemicals Fulfilling a demand for such a book, this will be a welcomed introductory text for students and non-experts alike to focus on and understand the principles of hazard identification and risk assessment of toxicants. Relevant to all those studying toxicology, biochemistry, biology, medicine and chemistry, as well as toxicologists in hospitals, universities and in industry.

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