equations of state for fluids and fluid mixtures experimental thermodynamics

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Equations Of State For Fluids And Fluid Mixtures

Author : J.V. Sengers
ISBN : 0080531180
Genre : Science
File Size : 45. 61 MB
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This book has been prepared under the auspices of Commission I.2 on Thermodynamics of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The authors of the 18 chapters are all recognized experts in the field. The book gives an up-to-date presentation of equations of state for fluids and fluid mixtures. All principal approaches for developing equations of state are covered. The theoretical basis and practical use of each type of equation is discussed and the strength and weaknesses of each is addressed. Topics addressed include the virial equation of state, cubic equations and generalized van der Waals equations, perturbation theory, integral equations, corresponding stated and mixing rules. Special attention is also devoted to associating fluids, polydisperse fluids, polymer systems, self-assembled systems, ionic fluids and fluids near critical points.

Applied Thermodynamics Of Fluids

Author : J. V. Sengers
ISBN : 9781847558060
Genre : Science
File Size : 81. 4 MB
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Published under the asspices of both IUPAC and its affiliated body, the International Association of Chemical Thermodynamics (IACT), this book will serve as a guide to scientists or technicians who use equations of state for fluids. Concentrating on the application of theory, the practical use of each type of equation is discussed and the strengths and weaknesses of each are addressed. It includes material on the equations of state for chemically reacting and non-equilibrium fluids which have undergone significant developments and brings up to date the equations of state for fluids and fluid mixtures. Applied Thermodynamics of Fluids addresses the need of practitioners within academia, government and industry by assembling an international team of distinguished experts to provide each chapter. The topics presented in the book are important to the energy business, particularly the hydroncarbon economy and the development of new power sources and are also significant for the application of liquid crystals and ionic liquids to commericial products. This reference will be useful for post graduate researchers in the fields of chemical engineering, mechanical engineering, chemistry and physics.

Hydrodynamic Fluctuations In Fluids And Fluid Mixtures

Author : Jose M. Ortiz de Zarate
ISBN : 0080459439
Genre : Science
File Size : 21. 10 MB
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This book deals with density, temperature, velocity and concentration fluctuations in fluids and fluid mixtures. The book first reviews thermal fluctuations in equilibrium fluids on the basis of fluctuating hydrodynamics. It then shows how the method of fluctuating hydrodynamics can be extended to deal with hydrodynamic fluctuations when the system is in a stationary nonequilibrium state. In contrast to equilibrium fluids where the fluctuations are generally short ranged unless the system is close to a critical point, fluctuations in nonequilibrium fluids are always long-ranged encompassing the entire system. The book provides the first comprehensive treatment of fluctuations in fluids and fluid mixtures brought out of equilibrium by the imposition of a temperature and concentration gradient but that are still in a macroscopically quiescent state. By incorporating appropriate boundary conditions in the case of fluid layers, it is shown how fluctuating hydrodynamics affects the fluctuations close to the onset of convection. Experimental techniques of light scattering and shadowgraphy for measuring nonequilibrium fluctuations are elucidated and the experimental results thus far reported in the literature are reviewed. · Systematic exposition of fluctuating hydrodynamics and its applications · First book on nonequilibrium fluctuations in fluids · Fluctuating Boussinesq equations and nonequilibrium fluids · Fluid layers and onset of convection · Rayleigh scattering and Brillouin scattering in fluids · Shadowgraph technique for measuring fluctuations · Fluctuations near hydrodynamic instabilities

High Pressure Phase Behaviour Of Multicomponent Fluid Mixtures

Author : R.J. Sadus
ISBN : 9780444596666
Genre : Science
File Size : 79. 78 MB
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The high pressure phase behaviour of binary fluid mixtures has been extensively studied during the last three decades. There is ample experimental data for a wide variety of binary mixtures and extensive methods for prediction have been developed. In contrast, the investigation of ternary and other multicomponent fluids is in its infancy. Experimental ternary mixture critical data are very rare and theoretical studies have been limited to data correlation rather than genuine prediction. The phase behaviour of ternary and other multicomponent fluid mixtures has many novel aspects which are not manifested in binary mixtures. The properties of ternary mixtures are also likely to be more difficult to characterize experimentally. It is in this context that calculated phase diagrams have an important role in leading the discovery of new phenomena and guiding experimental work. The criteria for phase equilibria of multicomponent fluids with particular emphasis on the critical state are examined in this book, and models for predicting fluid equilibria (e.g., different equations of state) are compared. Particular attention is paid to the critical state of ternary mixtures which has hitherto been largely neglected. The problems associated with predicting ternary equilibria are discussed, and some novel aspects of ternary critical phenomena are illustrated. The books also describes a novel type of critical transition which appears to be a common feature of the equilibria of ternary mixtures. Extensive phase diagrams of a wide range of ternary mixtures including systems containing carbon dioxide, water, nitrogen and tetrafluoromethane as one or more component are presented. The theoretical treatment is detailed in the appendix and a computation of known experimental critical points is also included.

High Pressure Fluid Phase Equilibria

Author : Ulrich K Deiters
ISBN : 9780444563545
Genre : Science
File Size : 67. 18 MB
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The book begins with an overview of the phase diagrams of fluid mixtures (fluid = liquid, gas, or supercritical state), which can show an astonishing variety when elevated pressures are taken into account; phenomena like retrograde condensation (single and double) and azeotropy (normal and double) are discussed. It then gives an introduction into the relevant thermodynamic equations for fluid mixtures, including some that are rarely found in modern textbooks, and shows how they can they be used to compute phase diagrams and related properties. This chapter gives a consistent and axiomatic approach to fluid thermodynamics; it avoids using activity coefficients. Further chapters are dedicated to solid-fluid phase equilibria and global phase diagrams (systematic search for phase diagram classes). The appendix contains numerical algorithms needed for the computations. The book thus enables the reader to create or improve computer programs for the calculation of fluid phase diagrams. introduces phase diagram classes, how to recognize them and identify their characteristic features presents rational nomenclature of binary fluid phase diagrams includes problems and solutions for self-testing, exercises or seminars

Measurement Of The Thermodynamic Properties Of Multiple Phases

Author : Ron D. Weir
ISBN : 0444519777
Genre : Science
File Size : 72. 23 MB
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This volume is another in the series of IUPAC sponsored monographs that summarize the state of knowledge with respect to experimental techniques in thermochemistry and thermodynamics. Following volume VI, Measurement of Thermodynamic Properties of Single Phases, VI, this book contains descriptions of recent developments in the techniques for measurement of thermodynamic quantities for multiple phases of pure fluids as well mixtures over a wide range of conditions. The precision and accuracy of results obtained from each method was regarded as an essential element in each description. Throughout the text, the quantities, units and symbols are those defined by IUPAC for use in the international community. Measurement of Thermodynamic Properties of Multiple Phases, Volume VII is an invaluable reference source to researchers and graduate students. Describes the latest techniques for studying multiple phases of pure component systems, using quantities, units and symbols as defined by IUPAC for use in the international community Illustrates the measurement techniques to obtain activity coefficients, interfacial tension and critical parameters An invaluable reference source to researchers and graduate students

Frontiers In Geofluids

Author : Bruce W. D. Yardley
ISBN : 9781444394894
Genre : Science
File Size : 35. 43 MB
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Frontiers in Geofluids is a collection of invited papers chosen to highlight recent developments in our understanding of geological fluids in different parts of the Earth, and published to mark the first ten years of publication of the journal Geofluids. The scope of the volume ranges from the fundamental properties of fluids and the phase relationships of fluids encountered in nature, to case studies of the role of fluids in natural processes. New developments in analytical and theoretical approaches to understanding fluid compositions, fluid properties, and geological fluid dynamics across a wide range of environments are included. A recurrent theme of research published in Geofluids is the way in which similar approaches can be applied to geological fluids in very different settings and this is reflected in the diverse range of applications of fluid studies that are included here. They include deep groundwater flow, hydrocarbons in faulted sedimentary basins, hydrothermal ores, and multiphase flow in mid-ocean ridge systems. Other topics covered are geothermal waters, crustal metamorphism, and fluids in magmatic systems. The book will be of great interest to researchers and students interested in crustal and mantle fluids of all sorts.

Supercritical Fluids As Solvents And Reaction Media

Author : Gerd H. Brunner
ISBN : 0080542107
Genre : Science
File Size : 78. 5 MB
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Supercritical fluids behave either like a gas or a liquid, depending on the values of thermodynamic properties. This tuning of properties, and other advantageous properties of supercritical fluids led to innovative technologies. More than 100 plants of production size are now in operation worldwide in the areas of process and production technology, environmental applications, and particle engineering. New processes are under research and development in various fields. This book provides an overview of the research activities in the field of Supercritical Fluids in Germany. It is based on the research program "Supercritical fluids as solvents and reaction media" on the initiative of the "GVC-Fachausschuß Hochdruckverfahrenstechnik" (i.e. the German working party on High Pressure Chemical Engineering of the Society of Chemical Engineers). This research program provided an immensely valuable platform for exchange of knowledge and experience. More than 50 young researchers were involved contributing with their expertise, their new ideas, and the motivation of youth. The results of this innovative research are described in this book. - This book provides an overview of the research activities in the field of Supercritical Fluids in Germany - Contains results of projects within the research program on "Supercritical fluids as solvents and reaction media" on the initiative of the German working party on High Pressure Chemical Engineering of the Society of Chemical Engineers. - More than 50 young researchers were involved in contributing with their expertise, their new ideas, and the motivation of youth.

The Corresponding States Principle And Its Practice

Author : Hong Wei Xiang
ISBN : 0080459048
Genre : Science
File Size : 35. 13 MB
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The corresponding-states principle helps the understanding and calculating of thermodynamic, transport, and surface properties of substances in various states, required by our modern lifestyle. The Corresponding-States Principle and its Practice: Thermodynamic, Transport and Surface Properties of Fluids describes the origins and applications of the principle from a universal point of view with comparisons to experimental data where possible. It uses the universal theory to explain present theories. Emphasis is on the properties of pure systems, and the corresponding-states theory can also be extended to mixtures, which are treated as pure systems. Furthermore, the author discusses current progress, and shows technicians how to derive practical equations from molecular modeling. The Corresponding-States Principle and its Practice: Thermodynamic, Transport and Surface Properties of Fluids is the ideal handbook for those in chemical science and engineering related to energy, environment, natural gas, and petroleum. * Describes the origins and applications from a universal viewpoint * Includes experimental data for comparisons * Suitable for researchers, applied engineers, and those interested in the corresponding states theory

Measurement Of The Thermodynamic Properties Of Single Phases

Author : Anthony Goodwin
ISBN : 008053144X
Genre : Science
File Size : 36. 5 MB
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This title is a revision of Experimental Thermodynamics Volume II, published in 1975, reflecting the significant technological developments and new methods introduced into the study of measurement of thermodynamic quantities. The editors of this volume were assigned the task of assembling an international team of distinguished experimentalists, to describe the current state of development of the techniques of measurement of the thermodynamic quantities of single phases. The resulting volume admirably fulfils this brief and contains a valuable summary of a large variety of experimental techniques applicable over a wide range of thermodynamic states with an emphasis on the precision and accuracy of the results obtained. Those interested in the art of measurements, and in particular engaged in the measurement of thermodynamic properties, will find this material invaluable for the guidance it provides towards the development of new and more accurate techniques. · Provides detailed descriptions of experimental chemical thermodynamic methods · Strong practical bias and includes both detailed working equations and figures for the experimental methods · Most comprehensive text in this field since the publication of Experimental Thermodynamics II

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