# euler s gem the polyhedron formula and the birth of topology

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## Euler S Gem

**Author :**David S. Richeson

**ISBN :**1400838568

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**56. 80 MB

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Leonhard Euler's polyhedron formula describes the structure of many objects--from soccer balls and gemstones to Buckminster Fuller's buildings and giant all-carbon molecules. Yet Euler's formula is so simple it can be explained to a child. Euler's Gem tells the illuminating story of this indispensable mathematical idea. From ancient Greek geometry to today's cutting-edge research, Euler's Gem celebrates the discovery of Euler's beloved polyhedron formula and its far-reaching impact on topology, the study of shapes. In 1750, Euler observed that any polyhedron composed of V vertices, E edges, and F faces satisfies the equation V-E+F=2. David Richeson tells how the Greeks missed the formula entirely; how Descartes almost discovered it but fell short; how nineteenth-century mathematicians widened the formula's scope in ways that Euler never envisioned by adapting it for use with doughnut shapes, smooth surfaces, and higher dimensional shapes; and how twentieth-century mathematicians discovered that every shape has its own Euler's formula. Using wonderful examples and numerous illustrations, Richeson presents the formula's many elegant and unexpected applications, such as showing why there is always some windless spot on earth, how to measure the acreage of a tree farm by counting trees, and how many crayons are needed to color any map. Filled with a who's who of brilliant mathematicians who questioned, refined, and contributed to a remarkable theorem's development, Euler's Gem will fascinate every mathematics enthusiast.

## Euler S Gem

**Author :**David S. Richeson

**ISBN :**0691126771

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**57. 53 MB

**Format :**PDF

**Download :**427

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Leonhard Euler's polyhedron formula describes the structure of many objects--from soccer balls and gemstones to giant all-carbon molecules. "Euler's Gem" tells the illuminating story of this indispensable mathematical idea. Line drawings and tables throughout.

## Euler S Gem

**Author :**David S. Richeson

**ISBN :**9780691154572

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**59. 81 MB

**Format :**PDF, ePub, Docs

**Download :**247

**Read :**790

Leonhard Euler's polyhedron formula describes the structure of many objects--from soccer balls and gemstones to Buckminster Fuller's buildings and giant all-carbon molecules. Yet Euler's formula is so simple it can be explained to a child. Euler's Gem tells the illuminating story of this indispensable mathematical idea. From ancient Greek geometry to today's cutting-edge research, Euler's Gem celebrates the discovery of Euler's beloved polyhedron formula and its far-reaching impact on topology, the study of shapes. In 1750, Euler observed that any polyhedron composed of V vertices, E edges, and F faces satisfies the equation V-E+F=2. David Richeson tells how the Greeks missed the formula entirely; how Descartes almost discovered it but fell short; how nineteenth-century mathematicians widened the formula's scope in ways that Euler never envisioned by adapting it for use with doughnut shapes, smooth surfaces, and higher dimensional shapes; and how twentieth-century mathematicians discovered that every shape has its own Euler's formula. Using wonderful examples and numerous illustrations, Richeson presents the formula's many elegant and unexpected applications, such as showing why there is always some windless spot on earth, how to measure the acreage of a tree farm by counting trees, and how many crayons are needed to color any map. Filled with a who's who of brilliant mathematicians who questioned, refined, and contributed to a remarkable theorem's development, Euler's Gem will fascinate every mathematics enthusiast.

## A Mathematical Tapestry

**Author :**Peter Hilton

**ISBN :**9781139489072

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**23. 4 MB

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This easy-to-read 2010 book demonstrates how a simple geometric idea reveals fascinating connections and results in number theory, the mathematics of polyhedra, combinatorial geometry, and group theory. Using a systematic paper-folding procedure it is possible to construct a regular polygon with any number of sides. This remarkable algorithm has led to interesting proofs of certain results in number theory, has been used to answer combinatorial questions involving partitions of space, and has enabled the authors to obtain the formula for the volume of a regular tetrahedron in around three steps, using nothing more complicated than basic arithmetic and the most elementary plane geometry. All of these ideas, and more, reveal the beauty of mathematics and the interconnectedness of its various branches. Detailed instructions, including clear illustrations, enable the reader to gain hands-on experience constructing these models and to discover for themselves the patterns and relationships they unearth.

## The Universe In Zero Words

**Author :**Dana Mackenzie

**ISBN :**9781400841684

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**79. 52 MB

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Most popular books about science, and even about mathematics, tiptoe around equations as if they were something to be hidden from the reader's tender eyes. Dana Mackenzie starts from the opposite premise: He celebrates equations. No history of art would be complete without pictures. Why, then, should a history of mathematics--the universal language of science--keep the masterpieces of the subject hidden behind a veil? The Universe in Zero Words tells the history of twenty-four great and beautiful equations that have shaped mathematics, science, and society--from the elementary (1+1=2) to the sophisticated (the Black-Scholes formula for financial derivatives), and from the famous (E=mc2) to the arcane (Hamilton's quaternion equations). Mackenzie, who has been called "a popular-science ace" by Booklist magazine, lucidly explains what each equation means, who discovered it (and how), and how it has affected our lives. Illustrated in color throughout, the book tells the human and often-surprising stories behind the invention or discovery of the equations, from how a bad cigar changed the course of quantum mechanics to why whales (if they could communicate with us) would teach us a totally different concept of geometry. At the same time, the book shows why these equations have something timeless to say about the universe, and how they do it with an economy (zero words) that no other form of human expression can match. The Universe in Zero Words is the ultimate introduction and guide to equations that have changed the world.

## Dr Euler S Fabulous Formula

**Author :**Paul J. Nahin

**ISBN :**1400838479

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**32. 56 MB

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In the mid-eighteenth century, Swiss-born mathematician Leonhard Euler developed a formula so innovative and complex that it continues to inspire research, discussion, and even the occasional limerick. Dr. Euler's Fabulous Formula shares the fascinating story of this groundbreaking formula—long regarded as the gold standard for mathematical beauty—and shows why it still lies at the heart of complex number theory. In some ways a sequel to Nahin's An Imaginary Tale, this book examines the many applications of complex numbers alongside intriguing stories from the history of mathematics. Dr. Euler's Fabulous Formula is accessible to any reader familiar with calculus and differential equations, and promises to inspire mathematicians for years to come.

## Group Theory In The Bedroom And Other Mathematical Diversions

**Author :**Brian Hayes

**ISBN :**1429938579

**Genre :**Science

**File Size :**86. 61 MB

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An Award-Winning Essayist Plies His Craft Brian Hayes is one of the most accomplished essayists active today—a claim supported not only by his prolific and continuing high-quality output but also by such honors as the National Magazine Award for his commemorative Y2K essay titled "Clock of Ages," published in the November/December 1999 issue of The Sciences magazine. (The also-rans that year included Tom Wolfe, Verlyn Klinkenborg, and Oliver Sacks.) Hayes's work in this genre has also appeared in such anthologies as The Best American Magazine Writing, The Best American Science and Nature Writing, and The Norton Reader. Here he offers us a selection of his most memorable and accessible pieces—including "Clock of Ages"—embellishing them with an overall, scene-setting preface, reconfigured illustrations, and a refreshingly self-critical "Afterthoughts" section appended to each essay.

## The Legacy Of Leonhard Euler

**Author :**Lokenath Debnath

**ISBN :**9781848165267

**Genre :**Electronic books

**File Size :**75. 10 MB

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This book primarily serves as a historical research monograph on the biographical sketch and career of Leonhard Euler and his major contributions to numerous areas in the mathematical and physical sciences. It contains fourteen chapters describing Euler''s works on number theory, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, differential and integral calculus, analysis, infinite series and infinite products, ordinary and elliptic integrals and special functions, ordinary and partial differential equations, calculus of variations, graph theory and topology, mechanics and ballistic research, elasticity and fluid mechanics, physics and astronomy, probability and statistics. The book is written to provide a definitive impression of Euler''s personal and professional life as well as of the range, power, and depth of his unique contributions. This tricentennial tribute commemorates Euler the great man and Euler the universal mathematician of all time. Based on the author''s historically motivated method of teaching, special attention is given to demonstrate that Euler''s work had served as the basis of research and developments of mathematical and physical sciences for the last 300 years. An attempt is also made to examine his research and its relation to current mathematics and science. Based on a series of Euler''s extraordinary contributions, the historical development of many different subjects of mathematical sciences is traced with a linking commentary so that it puts the reader at the forefront of current research. Erratum. Sample Chapter(s). Chapter 1: Mathematics Before Leonhard Euler (434 KB). Contents: Mathematics Before Leonhard Euler; Brief Biographical Sketch and Career of Leonhard Euler; Euler''s Contributions to Number Theory and Algebra; Euler''s Contributions to Geometry and Spherical Trigonometry; Euler''s Formula for Polyhedra, Topology and Graph Theory; Euler''s Contributions to Calculus and Analysis; Euler''s Contributions to the Infinite Series and the Zeta Function; Euler''s Beta and Gamma Functions and Infinite Products; Euler and Differential Equations; The Euler Equations of Motion in Fluid Mechanics; Euler''s Contributions to Mechanics and Elasticity; Euler''s Work on the Probability Theory; Euler''s Contributions to Ballistics; Euler and His Work on Astronomy and Physics. Readership: Undergraduate and graduate students of mathematics, mathematics education, physics, engineering and science. As well as professionals and prospective mathematical scientists.

## The Irrationals

**Author :**Julian Havil

**ISBN :**9781400841707

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**29. 31 MB

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The ancient Greeks discovered them, but it wasn't until the nineteenth century that irrational numbers were properly understood and rigorously defined, and even today not all their mysteries have been revealed. In The Irrationals, the first popular and comprehensive book on the subject, Julian Havil tells the story of irrational numbers and the mathematicians who have tackled their challenges, from antiquity to the twenty-first century. Along the way, he explains why irrational numbers are surprisingly difficult to define—and why so many questions still surround them. Fascinating and illuminating, this is a book for everyone who loves math and the history behind it.

## The Great Equations Breakthroughs In Science From Pythagoras To Heisenberg

**Author :**Robert P. Crease

**ISBN :**9780393337938

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**72. 42 MB

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Shares behind-the-scenes stories for ten of the most significant equations in human history, covering a range of topics, from Feynman's statement about Maxwell's pivotal electromagnetic equations and the influence of Newton's law of gravitation to the reason Euler's formula has been called "God's equation" and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. 20,000 first printing.