evidence and evolution the logic behind the science

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Evidence And Evolution

Author : Elliott Sober
ISBN : 9781139470117
Genre : Science
File Size : 34. 96 MB
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How should the concept of evidence be understood? And how does the concept of evidence apply to the controversy about creationism as well as to work in evolutionary biology about natural selection and common ancestry? In this rich and wide-ranging book, Elliott Sober investigates general questions about probability and evidence and shows how the answers he develops to those questions apply to the specifics of evolutionary biology. Drawing on a set of fascinating examples, he analyzes whether claims about intelligent design are untestable; whether they are discredited by the fact that many adaptations are imperfect; how evidence bears on whether present species trace back to common ancestors; how hypotheses about natural selection can be tested, and many other issues. His book will interest all readers who want to understand philosophical questions about evidence and evolution, as they arise both in Darwin's work and in contemporary biological research.

Did Darwin Write The Origin Backwards

Author : Elliott Sober
ISBN : 9781616142780
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 25. 91 MB
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Is it accurate to label Darwin’s theory "the theory of evolution by natural selection," given that the concept of common ancestry is at least as central to Darwin’s theory? Did Darwin reject the idea that group selection causes characteristics to evolve that are good for the group though bad for the individual? How does Darwin’s discussion of God in The Origin of Species square with the common view that he is the champion of methodological naturalism? These are just some of the intriguing questions raised in this volume of interconnected philosophical essays on Darwin. The author's approach is informed by modern issues in evolutionary biology, but is sensitive to the ways in which Darwin’s outlook differed from that of many biologists today. The main topics that are the focus of the book—common ancestry, group selection, sex ratio, and naturalism—have rarely been discussed in their connection with Darwin in such penetrating detail. Author Professor Sober is the 2008 winner of the Prometheus Prize. This biennial award, established in 2006 through the American Philosophical Association, is designed "to honor a distinguished philosopher in recognition of his or her lifetime contribution to expanding the frontiers of research in philosophy and science." This insightful collection of essays will be of interest to philosophers, biologists, and laypersons seeking a deeper understanding of one of the most influential scientific theories ever propounded. From the Trade Paperback edition.

Ockham S Razors

Author : Elliott Sober
ISBN : 9781316368534
Genre : Science
File Size : 84. 65 MB
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Ockham's razor, the principle of parsimony, states that simpler theories are better than theories that are more complex. It has a history dating back to Aristotle and it plays an important role in current physics, biology, and psychology. The razor also gets used outside of science - in everyday life and in philosophy. This book evaluates the principle and discusses its many applications. Fascinating examples from different domains provide a rich basis for contemplating the principle's promises and perils. It is obvious that simpler theories are beautiful and easy to understand; the hard problem is to figure out why the simplicity of a theory should be relevant to saying what the world is like. In this book, the ABCs of probability theory are succinctly developed and put to work to describe two 'parsimony paradigms' within which this problem can be solved.

Core Questions In Philosophy

Author : Elliott Sober
ISBN : 0205206697
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 22. 46 MB
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ALERT: Before you purchase, check with your instructor or review your course syllabus to ensure that you select the correct ISBN. Several versions of Pearson's MyLab & Mastering products exist for each title, including customized versions for individual schools, and registrations are not transferable. In addition, you may need a CourseID, provided by your instructor, to register for and use Pearson's MyLab & Mastering products. Packages Access codes for Pearson's MyLab & Mastering products may not be included when purchasing or renting from companies other than Pearson; check with the seller before completing your purchase. Used or rental books If you rent or purchase a used book with an access code, the access code may have been redeemed previously and you may have to purchase a new access code. Access codes Access codes that are purchased from sellers other than Pearson carry a higher risk of being either the wrong ISBN or a previously redeemed code. Check with the seller prior to purchase. -- Applying philosophy to everyday life. Core Questions in Philosophy emphasizes the idea that philosophy is a subject de­voted to evaluating arguments and constructing theories. Presented in an engaging lecture-style format, this text/reader focuses on the basic issues and ideas in philosophy with lectures/discussions, supported by readings from historically important sources. Discussions emphasize the logic of philosophical arguments and how they relate to the content of modern physical and social sciences. Teaching & Learning Experience The teaching and learning experience with this program helps to: Personalize Learning -- MySearchLab delivers proven results in helping students succeed, provides engaging experiences that personalize learning, and comes from a trusted partner with educational expertise and a deep commitment to helping students and instructors achieve their goals. Improve Critical Thinking -- Review questions at the end of each chapter allow students to review what they've just learned and think critically about related problems. Engage Students -- Following a lecture format, the text portion is written in an engaging conversational tone. Explore Theory -- Emphasis on evaluating arguments and constructing theories. Support Instructors -- An instructor's manual, test bank, MyTest Test Bank, and PowerPoint presentation provide more teaching resources. MySearchLab w/ etext has topic-specific assessment, flashcards, and chapter exams offer and report directly to your grade book. 0205861156 / 9780205861156 Core Questions in Philosophy: A Text with Readings Plus MySearchLab with eText -- Access Card Package Package consists of: 0205206697 / 9780205206698 Core Questions in Philosophy: A Text with Readings 0205239927 / 9780205239924 MySearchLab with Pearson eText -- Access Card

Biology And Epistemology

Author : Richard Creath
ISBN : 0521597013
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 63. 84 MB
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This book, first published in 2000, explores a range of diverse issues in the intersection of biology and epistemology.

Tower Of Babel

Author : Robert T. Pennock
ISBN : 0262264056
Genre : Science
File Size : 51. 37 MB
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Creationists have acquired a more sophisticated intellectual arsenal. This book reveals the insubstantiality of their arguments. Creationism is no longer the simple notion it once was taken to be. Its new advocates have become more sophisticated in how they present their views, speaking of "intelligent design" rather than "creation science" and aiming their arguments against the naturalistic philosophical method that underlies science, proposing to replace it with a "theistic science." The creationism controversy is not just about the status of Darwinian evolution—it is a clash of religious and philosophical worldviews, for a common underlying fear among Creationists is that evolution undermines both the basis of morality as they understand it and the possibility of purpose in life. In Tower of Babel, philosopher Robert T. Pennock compares the views of the new creationists with those of the old and reveals the insubstantiality of their arguments. One of Pennock's major innovations is to turn from biological evolution to the less charged subject of linguistic evolution, which has strong theoretical parallels with biological evolution, both in content and in the sort of evidence scientists use to draw conclusions about origins. Of course, an evolutionary view of language does conflict with the Bible, which says that God created the variety of languages at one time as punishment for the Tower of Babel. Several chapters deal with the work of Phillip Johnson, a highly influential leader of the new Creationists. Against his and other views, Pennock explains how science uses naturalism and discusses the relationship between factual and moral issues in the creationism-evolution controversy. The book also includes a discussion of Darwin's own shift from creationist to evolutionist and an extended argument for keeping private religious beliefs separate from public scientific knowledge.

The Three Failures Of Creationism

Author : Walter M. Fitch
ISBN : 9780520270534
Genre : Religion
File Size : 44. 72 MB
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“This thoughtful book is a sophisticated baloney detector for digesting the offal that creationists try to pass off as steak. The late Walter Fitch demonstrates that the logic and language of science depart from the delusions of creationism.”--Tim M. Berra, author of /i/Charles Darwin: The Concise Story of an Extraordinary Man //i/and /i/Evolution and the Myth of Creationism//i/ "Half a century ago, the structure and logic of science was taught in science departments, but these tasks are now relegated to departments of history and philosophy of science, where scientists seldom tread. This book shows us why scientists need to learn logic from scientists, and how they can. Walter Fitch's examples range from astronomy to DNA, and he manages to show at every turn how the assumptions of anti-evolutionists and other foes of science defeat themselves. This book should be part of every science curriculum, read by all students--and their professors. Fitch has left us a masterpiece."—Kevin Padian, University of California, Berkeley “Walter Fitch makes a strong case: Creationism violates the evidence from scientific investigations, misrepresents the interpretation of primary religious documents, utterly fails as a logical presentation, and does so in blasts of unjustified rhetoric."—Richard E. Dickerson, University of California, Los Angeles “Into this concise book late Walter Fitch poured his commitment to explaining evolution and his conviction that an understanding of logic and of scientific methods would lead the reader to see the strengths of evolutionary biology and the deficiencies of creationism.”—Joe Felsenstein, University of Washington

Mind And Cosmos

Author : Thomas Nagel
ISBN : 9780199977192
Genre : Science
File Size : 51. 85 MB
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The modern materialist approach to life has conspicuously failed to explain such central mind-related features of our world as consciousness, intentionality, meaning, and value. This failure to account for something so integral to nature as mind, argues philosopher Thomas Nagel, is a major problem, threatening to unravel the entire naturalistic world picture, extending to biology, evolutionary theory, and cosmology. Since minds are features of biological systems that have developed through evolution, the standard materialist version of evolutionary biology is fundamentally incomplete. And the cosmological history that led to the origin of life and the coming into existence of the conditions for evolution cannot be a merely materialist history, either. An adequate conception of nature would have to explain the appearance in the universe of materially irreducible conscious minds, as such. Nagel's skepticism is not based on religious belief or on a belief in any definite alternative. In Mind and Cosmos, he does suggest that if the materialist account is wrong, then principles of a different kind may also be at work in the history of nature, principles of the growth of order that are in their logical form teleological rather than mechanistic. In spite of the great achievements of the physical sciences, reductive materialism is a world view ripe for displacement. Nagel shows that to recognize its limits is the first step in looking for alternatives, or at least in being open to their possibility.

How Science Works Evolution

Author : John Ellis
ISBN : 9048131839
Genre : Medical
File Size : 60. 41 MB
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Evolution is just a theory, isn’t it? What is a scientific theory anyway? Don’t scientists prove things? What is the difference between a fact, a hypothesis and a theory in science? How does scientific thinking differ from religious thinking? Why are most leading scientists atheists? Are science and religion compatible? Why are there so many different religious beliefs but only one science? What is the evidence for evolution? Why does evolution occur? If you are interested in any of these questions and have some knowledge of biology, this book is for you.

Evolutionary Biomechanics

Author : Graham Taylor
ISBN : 9780191009280
Genre : Science
File Size : 46. 28 MB
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Evolutionary biomechanics is the study of evolution through the analysis of biomechanical systems. Its unique advantage is the precision with which physical constraints and performance can be predicted from first principles. Instead of reviewing the entire breadth of the biomechanical literature, a few key examples are explored in depth as vehicles for discussing fundamental concepts, analytical techniques, and evolutionary theory. Each chapter develops a conceptual theme, developing the underlying theory and techniques required for analyses in evolutionary biomechanics. Examples from terrestrial biomechanics, metabolic scaling, and bird flight are used to analyse how physics constrains the design space that natural selection is free to explore, and how adaptive evolution finds solutions to the trade-offs between multiple complex conflicting performance objectives. Evolutionary Biomechanics is suitable for graduate level students and professional researchers in the fields of biomechanics, physiology, evolutionary biology and palaeontology. It will also be of relevance and use to researchers in the physical sciences and engineering.

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