evolution of vulnerability implications for sex differences in health and development

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Evolution Of Vulnerability

Author : David C. Geary
ISBN : 9780128017470
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 87. 14 MB
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Biologists have known for decades that many traits involved in competition for mates or other resources and that influence mate choice are exaggerated, and their expression is influenced by the individuals’ ability to tolerate a variety of environmental and social stressors. Evolution of Vulnerability applies this concept of heightened sensitivity to humans for a host of physical, social, psychological, cognitive, and brain traits. By reframing the issue entirely, renowned evolutionary psychologist David C. Geary demonstrates this principle can be used to identify children, adolescents, or populations at risk for poor long-term outcomes and identify specific traits in each sex and at different points in development that are most easily disrupted by exposure to stressors. Evolution of Vulnerability begins by reviewing the expansive literature on traits predicted to show sex-specific sensitivity to environmental and social stressors, and details the implications for better assessing and understanding the consequences of exposure to these stressors. Next, the book reviews sexual selection—mate competition and choice—and the mechanisms involved in the evolution of condition dependent traits and the stressors that can undermine their development and expression, such as poor early nutrition and health, parasites, social stress, and exposure to man-made toxins. Then it reviews condition dependent traits (physical, behavioral, cognitive, and brain) in birds, fish, insects, and mammals to demonstrate the ubiquity of these traits in nature. The focus then turns to humans and covers sex-specific vulnerabilities in children and adults for physical traits, social behavior, psychological wellbeing, and brain and cognitive traits. The sensitivity of these traits is related to exposure to parasites, poor nutrition, social maltreatment, environmental toxins, chemotherapy, and Alzheimer’s disease, among others. The book concludes with an implications chapter that outlines how to better assess vulnerabilities in children and adults and how to more fully understand how, why, and when in development some types of environmental and social stressors are particularly harmful to humans. Describes evolved sex differences, providing predictions on the traits that will show sex-specific vulnerabilities Presents an extensive review of condition-dependent traits in non-human species, greatly expanding existing reviews published in scientific journals, and more critically, extending these to humans Applies condition-dependent traits to humans to identify children, adolescents, or populations at risk for poor long-term outcomes

Evolutionary Psychopathology

Author : Marco Del Giudice
ISBN : 9780190246853
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 68. 34 MB
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Mental disorders arise from neural and psychological mechanisms that have been built and shaped by natural selection across our evolutionary history. Looking at psychopathology through the lens of evolution is the only way to understand the deeper nature of mental disorders and turn a mass of behavioral, genetic, and neurobiological findings into a coherent, theoretically grounded discipline. The rise of evolutionary psychopathology is part of an exciting scientific movement in psychology and medicine -- a movement that is fundamentally transforming the way we think about health and disease. Evolutionary Psychopathology takes steps toward a unified approach to psychopathology, using the concepts of life history theory -- a biological account of how individual differences in development, physiology and behavior arise from tradeoffs in survival and reproduction -- to build an integrative framework for mental disorders. This book reviews existing evolutionary models of specific conditions and connects them in a broader perspective, with the goal of explaining the large-scale patterns of risk and comorbidity that characterize psychopathology. Using the life history framework allows for a seamless integration of mental disorders with normative individual differences in personality and cognition, and offers new conceptual tools for the analysis of developmental, genetic, and neurobiological data. The concepts presented in Evolutionary Psychopathology are used to derive a new taxonomy of mental disorders, the Fast-Slow-Defense (FSD) model. The FSD model is the first classification system explicitly based on evolutionary concepts, a biologically grounded alternative to transdiagnostic models. The book reviews a wide range of common mental disorders, discusses their classification in the FSD model, and identifies functional subtypes within existing diagnostic categories.

Mammal Societies

Author : Tim Clutton-Brock
ISBN : 9781119095347
Genre : Science
File Size : 41. 88 MB
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The book aims to integrate our understanding of mammalian societies into a novel synthesis that is relevant to behavioural ecologists, ecologists, and anthropologists. It adopts a coherent structure that deals initially with the characteristics and strategies of females, before covering those of males, cooperative societies and hominid societies. It reviews our current understanding both of the structure of societies and of the strategies of individuals; it combines coverage of relevant areas of theory with coverage of interspecific comparisons, intraspecific comparisons and experiments; it explores both evolutionary causes of different traits and their ecological consequences; and it integrates research on different groups of mammals with research on primates and humans and attempts to put research on human societies into a broader perspective.

Male Female

Author : David C. Geary
ISBN : 1557985278
Genre : Science
File Size : 40. 32 MB
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Geary (psychology and anthropology, U. of Missouri-Columbia) thinks culturally constructed gender roles alone cannot account for the differences in the social behavior of men and women. He turns to Darwin's theory of sexual selection as the best avenue for understanding. His main focus is how th etwo elements of competition between males and of females selecting mates has influenced human behavior over the centuries and across cultures.

Principles Of Gender Specific Medicine

Author : Marianne J. Legato
ISBN : 9780128035429
Genre : Medical
File Size : 55. 6 MB
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The announcement that we had decoded the human genome in 2000 ushered in a new and unique era in biomedical research and clinical medicine. This Third Edition of Principles of Gender-Specific Medicine focuses, as in the past two editions, on the essentials of sexual dimorphism in human physiology and pathophysiology, but emphasizes the latest information about molecular biology and genomic science in a variety of disciplines. Thus, this edition is a departure from the previous two; the editor solicited individual manuscripts from innovative scientists in a variety of fields rather than the traditional arrangement of sections devoted to the various subspecialties of medicine edited by section chiefs. Wherever it was available, these authors incorporated the latest information about the impact of the genome and the elements that modify its expression on human physiology and illness. All chapters progress translationally from basic science to the clinical applications of gender-specific therapy and suggest the most important topics for future investigation. This book is essential reading for all biomedical investigators and medical educators involved in gender-specific medicine. It will also be useful for primary care practitioners who need information about the importance of sex and gender in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of illness. Outlines sex-specific differences in normal human function and explains the impact of age, hormones, and environment on the incidence and outcome of illness Reflects the latest information about the molecular basis of the sexual dimorphism in human physiology and the experience of disease Reviews the implications of our ever-improving ability to describe the genetic basis of vulnerability to disease and our capacity to alter the genome itself Illustrates the importance of new NIH guidelines that urge the inclusion of sex as a variable in research protocols

Sex Differences In The Central Nervous System

Author : Rebecca M. Shansky
ISBN : 9780128021989
Genre : Science
File Size : 22. 97 MB
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Sex Differences in the Central Nervous System offers a comprehensive examination of the current state of sex differences research, from both the basic science and clinical research perspectives. Given the current NIH directive that funded preclinical research must consider both females and males, this topic is of interest to an increasing percentage of the neuroscience research population. The volume serves as an invaluable resource, offering coverage of a wide range of topics: sex differences in cognition, learning, and memory, sex hormone signaling mechanisms, neuroimmune interactions, epigenetics, social behavior, neurologic disease, psychological disorders, and stress. Discussions of research in both animal models and human patient populations are included. Details how sex hormones have widespread effects on the nervous system and influence the way males and females function Assists readers in determining how sex impacts their research and practice, and assists in determining how to adjust research programs to incorporate sex influences Includes discussions of research in both animal models and human patient populations, and at various developmental stages Features revised and updated chapters by leaders in the field around the globe—the broadest, most expert coverage available

Evolutionary Origins And Early Development Of Number Processing

Author : David C. Geary
ISBN : 9780128008881
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 36. 17 MB
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The first volume in this ground-breaking series focuses on the origins and early development of numerical cognition in non-human primates, lower vertebrates, human infants, and preschool children. The text will help readers understand the nature and complexity of these foundational quantitative concepts and skills along with evolutionary precursors and early developmental trajectories. Brings together and focuses the efforts and research of multiple disciplines working in math cognition. The contributors bring vast knowledge and experience to bear on resolving extant substantive and methodological challenges to help advance the field of basic number processing. Introductory sections and summaries will be included to provide background for non-specialist readers.

The Epigenome And Developmental Origins Of Health And Disease

Author : Cheryl S Rosenfeld
ISBN : 9780128016725
Genre : Science
File Size : 86. 78 MB
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The Epigenome and Developmental Origins of Health and Disease synthesizes the existing knowledge on how the in utero environment could be the most important environment in shaping later risk for various diseases or to conversely promote the health of the offspring. The book mines the existing literature from a variety of disciplines from toxicology to nutrition to epigenetics to reveal how contrasting maternal in utero environmental changes might be leading to epigenetic convergence and the resulting deleterious phenotypic and physiological effects in our offspring. It is increasingly becoming apparent that even subtle changes in the mother’s diet, stress, and exposure to low concentrations of toxic chemicals at levels deemed safe by the EPA and FDA, such as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC), can dramatically impact the health of our children, possibly leading to metabolic, cardiovascular, immunological, neurobehavioral disorders, and increased risk for cancer to list but a few examples. Informs how everyday choices pregnant women make can impact child development Ties together how in utero environmental changes may be inducing epigenetic changes in the offspring leading to overlapping phenotypes regardless of the initial insult (toxic, nutrition, or stress) Includes a boxed-in area in each chapter for further references and resources to keep up with the field Features video interviews with the authors and other key leaders in the field

The Female Brain

Author : Louann Brizendine, M.D.
ISBN : 0767928415
Genre : Science
File Size : 55. 33 MB
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Since Dr. Brizendine wrote The Female Brain ten years ago, the response has been overwhelming. This New York Times bestseller has been translated into more than thirty languages, has sold nearly a million copies between editions, and has most recently inspired a romantic comedy starring Whitney Cummings and Sofia Vergara. And its profound scientific understanding of the nature and experience of the female brain continues to guide women as they pass through life stages, to help men better understand the girls and women in their lives, and to illuminate the delicate emotional machinery of a love relationship. Every brain begins as a female brain. It only becomes male eight weeks after conception, when excess testosterone shrinks the communications center, reduces the hearing cortex, and makes the part of the brain that processes sex twice as large. Louann Brizendine, M.D. is a pioneering neuropsychiatrist who brings together the latest findings to show how the unique structure of the female brain determines how women think, what they value, how they communicate, and whom they’ll love. Brizendine reveals the neurological explanations behind why • A woman remembers fights that a man insists never happened • A teen girl is so obsessed with her looks and talking on the phone • Thoughts about sex enter a woman’s brain once every couple of days but enter a man’s brain about once every minute • A woman knows what people are feeling, while a man can’t spot an emotion unless somebody cries or threatens bodily harm • A woman over 50 is more likely to initiate divorce than a man Women will come away from this book knowing that they have a lean, mean communicating machine. Men will develop a serious case of brain envy.

Language And Culture In Mathematical Cognition

Author : Daniel B. Berch
ISBN : 9780128125755
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 43. 36 MB
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Language and Culture in Mathematical Cognition, Fourth Edition focuses on the role of linguistic and cultural factors in math cognition and development. It covers a wide range of topics, including analogical mapping in numerical development, arithmetic fact retrieval in the bilingual brain, cross-cultural comparisons of mathematics achievement, the shaping of numerical processing by number word construction, the influence of Head Start programs, the mathematical skills of children with specific language impairments, the role of culture and language in creating associations between number and space, and electrophysiological studies of linguistic traces in core knowledge at the neural level. Includes cutting-edge findings, innovative measures, recent methodological advances and groundbreaking theoretical developments Synthesizes research from various subdomains of math cognition research Covers the full complement of research in mathematical thinking and learning Informs researchers, scholars, educators, students and policymakers

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