exposure science basic principles and applications

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Exposure Science

Author : Paul Lioy
ISBN : 9780124202382
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 67. 91 MB
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Exposure Science: Basic Principles and Applications provides a concise overview of the field of exposure science, from its origins in sanitation and occupational health, to its exciting involvement with emerging scientific concepts. Written by world-leading experts in the field of exposure science, this book provides all the basic understanding you need to employ the best tools and methods for measurement, analysis, and modeling of exposure. Exposure Science: Basic Principles and Applications is an invaluable introduction to exposure science for anyone working in the fields of environmental health, risk assessment, toxicology, or epidemiology. Focuses on and highlights the basic fundamentals, scientific goals, theories and tools of exposure science Examines the use of the exposome and eco-exposome concepts within the field of exposure science

Post Vietnam Dioxin Exposure In Agent Orange Contaminated C 123 Aircraft

Author : Institute of Medicine
ISBN : 9780309308939
Genre : Medical
File Size : 53. 29 MB
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From 1972 to 1982, approximately 1,500-2,100 US Air Force Reserve personnel trained and worked on C-123 aircraft that had formerly been used to spray herbicides in Vietnam as part of Operation Ranch Hand. After becoming aware that some of the aircraft on which they had worked had previously served this purpose, some of these AF Reservists applied to the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) for compensatory coverage under the Agent Orange Act of 1991. The Act provides health care and disability coverage for health conditions that have been deemed presumptively service-related for herbicide exposure during the Vietnam War. The VA denied the applications on the basis that these veterans were ineligible because as non-Vietnam-era veterans or as Vietnam-era veterans without "boots on the ground" service in Vietnam, they were not covered. However, with the knowledge that some air and wipe samples taken between 1979 and 2009 from some of the C-123s used in Operation Ranch Hand showed the presence of agent orange residues, representatives of the C-123 Veterans Association began a concerted effort to reverse VA's position and obtain coverage. At the request of the VA, Post-Vietnam Dioxin Exposure in Agent Orange-Contaminated C-123 Aircraft evaluates whether or not service in these C-123s could have plausibly resulted in exposures detrimental to the health of these Air Force Reservists. The Institute of Medicine assembled an expert committee to address this question qualitatively, but in a scientific and evidence-based fashion. This report evaluates the reliability of the available information for establishing exposure and addresses and places in context whether any documented residues represent potentially harmful exposure by characterizing the amounts available and the degree to which absorption might be expected. Post-Vietnam Dioxin Exposure rejects the idea that the dioxin residues detected on interior surfaces of the C-123s were immobile and effectively inaccessible to the Reservists as a source of exposure. Accordingly, this report states with confidence that the Air Force Reservists were exposed when working in the Operation Ranch Hand C-123s and so experienced some increase in their risk of a variety of adverse responses.

Exposure Science In The 21st Century

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 9780309264686
Genre : Nature
File Size : 30. 59 MB
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From the use of personal products to our consumption of food, water, and air, people are exposed to a wide array of agents each day--many with the potential to affect health. Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and A Strategy investigates the contact of humans or other organisms with those agents (that is, chemical, physical, and biologic stressors) and their fate in living systems. The concept of exposure science has been instrumental in helping us understand how stressors affect human and ecosystem health, and in efforts to prevent or reduce contact with harmful stressors. In this way exposure science has played an integral role in many areas of environmental health, and can help meet growing needs in environmental regulation, urban and ecosystem planning, and disaster management. Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and A Strategy explains that there are increasing demands for exposure science information, for example to meet needs for data on the thousands of chemicals introduced into the market each year, and to better understand the health effects of prolonged low-level exposure to stressors. Recent advances in tools and technologies--including sensor systems, analytic methods, molecular technologies, computational tools, and bioinformatics--have provided the potential for more accurate and comprehensive exposure science data than ever before. This report also provides a roadmap to take advantage of the technologic innovations and strategic collaborations to move exposure science into the future.

Human Exposure Assessment For Airborne Pollutants

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 9780309042840
Genre : Science
File Size : 71. 54 MB
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Most people in the United States spend far more time indoors than outdoors. Yet, many air pollution regulations and risk assessments focus on outdoor air. These often overlook contact with harmful contaminants that may be at their most dangerous concentrations indoors. A new book from the National Research Council explores the need for strategies to address indoor and outdoor exposures and examines the methods and tools available for finding out where and when significant exposures occur. The volume includes: A conceptual framework and common terminology that investigators from different disciplines can use to make more accurate assessments of human exposure to airborne contaminants. An update of important developments in assessing exposure to airborne contaminants: ambient air sampling and physical chemical measurements, biological markers, questionnaires, time-activity diaries, and modeling. A series of examples of how exposure assessments have been applied--properly and improperly--to public health issues and how the committee's suggested framework can be brought into practice. This volume will provide important insights to improve risk assessment, risk management, pollution control, and regulatory programs.

Environmental Standards

Author : Christian Streffer
ISBN : 9783662070628
Genre : Science
File Size : 27. 61 MB
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The rapid growth of the world population - nearly six-fold over the last hundred years - combined with the rising number of technical installations especially in the industrialized countries has lead to ever tighter and more strained living spaces on our planet. Because ofthe inevitable processes oflife, man was at first an exploiter rather than a careful preserver of the environment. Environmental awareness with the intention to conserve the environment has grown only in the last few decades. Environmental standards have been defined and limit values have been set largely guided, however, by scientific and medical data on single exposures, while public opinion, on the other hand, now increasingly calls for astronger consideration of the more complex situations following combined exposures. Furthermore, it turned out that environmental standards, while necessarily based on scientific data, must also take into account ethical, legal, economic, and sociological aspects. A task of such complexity can only be dealt with appropriately in the framework of an inter disciplinary group.

Principles And Applications Of Radiological Physics E Book

Author : Martin Vosper
ISBN : 9780702046148
Genre : Medical
File Size : 90. 13 MB
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Principles and Application of Radiological Physics 6E provides comprehensive and easy-to-follow coverage of the principles and application of physics for both diagnostic and therapeutic radiography students. Regardless of changes in technology and clinical grading, the most important role of the radiographer remains unchanged - ensuring the production of high quality images and optimal treatment. These should be performed with the minimum of radiation hazard to patients, staff and others. An understanding of physics and the basics of radiographic technology is essential to do this effectively. The book covers all the physics and mathematics required by undergraduate diagnostic and therapeutic radiography students, catering for those who do not have a mathematics qualification as well as for those who do. NEW TO THIS EDITION: A focus upon application of physics to reflect current teaching approaches Completely revised structure, leading from science principles to applications New chapters on CT, MRI, ultrasound, PET, RNI, mammography and digital imaging Electronic learning resources for students, hosted on EVOLVE *Strong links between theory and practice throughout *Clear and concise text Focus on application of physics, as well as principles New, updated 2-colour design New Sections - Equipment for X-ray production, The Radiographic Image and Diagnostic Imaging Technologies Electronic learning resources for students support the text

Cognitive Behavior Therapy

Author : William T. O'Donohue
ISBN : 9781118228876
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 39. 48 MB
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Learn and apply the 14 core principles of cognitive behaviortherapy In this invaluable guide, clinicians will find—identifiedand summarized by leading researchers and clinicians—fourteencore principles that subsume the more than 400 cognitive behavioraltherapy (CBT) treatment protocols currently in use, so they mayapply them to their everyday practice. This unique contribution tothe field provides practitioners with a balance of history, theory,and evidence-based applications. Edited by renowned experts in the field, Cognitive BehaviorTherapy explores the core principles behind all CBT protocolsincluding: Clinical functional analysis Skills training Exposure Relaxation Cognitive restructuring Problem solving Self-regulation A straightforward introduction to CBT principles with guidancefor all mental health professionals seeking to improve the lives ofclients spanning a range of psychological problems, CognitiveBehavior Therapy is designed for both new and experiencedclinicians alike who want to deepen and broaden their understandingof CBT principles.

Cosmogenic Nuclides

Author : Tibor J. Dunai
ISBN : 9781139487184
Genre : Science
File Size : 29. 80 MB
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This is the first book to provide a comprehensive and state-of-the-art introduction to the novel and fast-evolving topic of in-situ produced cosmogenic nuclides. It presents an accessible introduction to the theoretical foundations, with explanations of relevant concepts starting at a basic level and building in sophistication. It incorporates, and draws on, methodological discussions and advances achieved within the international CRONUS (Cosmic-Ray Produced Nuclide Systematics) networks. Practical aspects such as sampling, analytical methods and data-interpretation are discussed in detail and an essential sampling checklist is provided. The full range of cosmogenic isotopes is covered and a wide spectrum of in-situ applications are described and illustrated with specific and generic examples of exposure dating, burial dating, erosion and uplift rates and process model verification. Graduate students and experienced practitioners will find this book a vital source of information on the background concepts and practical applications in geomorphology, geography, soil-science, and geology.

In Silico Toxicology

Author : Mark T. D. Cronin
ISBN : 9781849730044
Genre : Medical
File Size : 58. 14 MB
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In silico methods to predict toxicity are becoming increasingly important, particularly in light of European legislation such as Reach and the Cosmetics Regulation. They are also being used extensively worldwide e.g. in the USA, Canada, Japan and Australia. The objective of In Silico Toxicology: Principles and Applications is to enable the reader to develop new, and use existing, in silico methods to predict the toxicity and fate of chemicals. It develops the theme in a logical sequence leading the use through the retrieval, and assessment of quality, of toxicological data and information; the calculation of descriptors and properties; the basis of statistical techniques for quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARS); the interpretation and validation of models for regulatory use; the mechanistic basis to modelling; as well as chemical grouping approaches and application of the models for risk assessment. The book also addresses other aspects of in silico toxicology including how to predict both external and internal exposure and the role of in silico approaches in integrated testing strategies. The contributions from recognised leaders in each of these areas include evidence of the use and applicability of approaches using real world case studies concerning both environmental and human health effects. The book is relevant to toxicologists and modellers using in silico toxicological approaches to perform risk assessment for regulatory purposes and product development. Series Editors: D Anderson, University of Bradford, Uk MD Waters, ILS, N Carolina, USA TC Marrs, Edentox Associates, Kent, UK The field of toxicological research is continually expanding and diversifying driven by the need to understand the human and ecological risks of exposure to chemicals and other toxicants. This series is devoted to coverage of modern toxicology and assessment of risk and is responding to the resurgence in interest in the of scientific investigation.

Mass Spectrometry In Drug Metabolism And Disposition

Author : Mike S. Lee
ISBN : 0470934697
Genre : Science
File Size : 72. 72 MB
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This book examines the background, industrial context, process, analytical methodology, and technology of metabolite identification. It emphasizes the applications of metabolite identification in drug research. While primarily a textbook, the book also functions as a comprehensive reference to those in the industry. The authors have worked closely together and combine complementary backgrounds to bring technical and cultural awareness to this very important endeavor while serving to address needs within academia and industry It also contains a variety of problem sets following specific sections in the text.

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